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KAKASI(1)		    General Commands Manual		     KAKASI(1)

NAME
       KAKASI  -  Kanji	kana simple inverter (between Kanji, both Kana and Ro-
       maji)

SYNOPSIS
       kakasi [options]	[jisyo1	[jisyo2	[jisyo1,,]]]

DESCRIPTION
       KAKASI In Japanese sentences are	often made up  a  mixture  of  Chinese
       characters (Kanji), Kana	(Hiragana and Katakana)	and Romaji (Latin pho-
       netical pronunciation).	This program converts between these four  dif-
       ferent ways of writing Japanese.

       This  program  is  useful  for those whose terminal or desktop does not
       support the native display of Japanese.	Also this is a great tool  for
       those  who  are	learning Japanese (international students and children
       etc).

       A word can be passed into the standard input (stdin), then it is	trans-
       lated  and  output  to standard out (stdout).  In the following example
       the "bunchu" Kanji is converted into Hiragana.

		 kakasi	-JH < document

       Since version 2.3.0 text	with spaces in-between	words  has  been  sup-
       ported.	In the following example the output has	spaces in-between each
       word.

		 kakasi	-w < document

       Since version 2.3.5 level conversion mode has been supported.   In  the
       following  example, simple Kanjis are left them unconverted, and	diffi-
       cult Kanjis are translated into Hiragana.

		 kakasi	-l4 < document

       KAKASI It is possible to	convert	letters	 to  alphabetical  characters.
       Also  Katakana  letters in the JIS x0201	character set and the Hiragana
       in the JIS x0208	character set can be converted between each other.

       KAKASI The following character set in brackets which is displayed.

       ASCII (a) Known as "ascii" character set.

       JISROMAN	(j)
		 Known as "jis roman" character	set.

       GRAPHIC (g)
		 It is the DEC graphic character set.

       Katakana	(k)
		 JIS x0201, defined as part of the GR character	set.

		 As a matter of	convinience, JIS x0208 is  divided  as	stated
		 below.

       Kanji (J)
		 JIS x0208 characters included between 16 and 94 sections.

       Hiragana	(H)
		 JIS x0208 characters included in section 4 (Hiragana)

       Katakana	(K)
		 JIS x0208 characters included in section 5 (Katakana)

       Sign (E)
		 JIS  x0208  characters	 included in section 1,2,3,6,7,	and 8.
		 (Note that section 9-15 are undefined in JIS x0208.)

       Translation between the following character sets	are available.

       ASCII	    -> JISROMAN, Sign

       JISROMAN	    -> ASCII, Sign

       GRAPHIC	    -> ASCII, JISROMAN,	Sign

       JISx0201	Katakana
		    -> ASCII, JISROMAN,	Kana, Hiragana

       Sign	    -> ASCII, JISROMAN

       Katakana	    -> ASCII, JISROMAN,	JISx0201 Katakana, Hiragana

       Hiragana	    -> ASCII, JISROMAN,	JISx0201 Katakana, Kana

       Kanji	    -> ASCII, JISROMAN,	JISx0201 Katakana, Kana, Hiragana

       With conversion of ASCII	and the	JISROMAN  the  alphabetical  character
       conversion  is  done  from  JISx0201  Katakana,	Katakana, Hiragana and
       Kanji.

       Example:

	   1. All kanji	characters are converted to Hiragana.

	       kakasi -JH

	   2. All JIS x0208 characters are converted to	JIS X 0201.

	       kakasi -Hk -Kk -Jk -Ea

	   3. All characters are converted to JIS X 0208.

	       kakasi -aE -jE -gE -kK

	   4. All characters are converted to ascii and	words are separated.

	       kakasi -Ha -Ka -Ja -Ea -ka

	   5. Exchange between Katakana	and Hiragana characters.

	       kakasi -HK -KH

CONVERSION DESIGNATED CHARACTER	SET
       Some character sets are categorized by kakasi and indicated by  follow-
       ing mnemonics: a, j, g, k, E, H,	K, J.

	     a --- ASCII characters
	     j --- JIS ROMAN ( nearly equal to ASCII, "~" and "
		   different ) defined by JIS x0201
	     g --- DEC Graphic Characters
	     k --- KATAKANA defined by JIS x0201

       E, H, K,	and J are included in JIS x0208	character set.

	     J --- KANJI characters of JIS x0208.
	     H --- HIRAGANA characters of JIS x0208.
	     K --- KATAKANA characters of JIS x0208.
	     E --- Rest	of above characters of JIS x0208 which includes
		   alphabets, numbers, symbols and so on.

       -(from)(to)  means  conversion  from character set (from) to (to).  For
       example,	-JK option causes KANJI	characters are converted to  HIRAGANA.
       Combinations  in	 the following table are available.  (You must not re-
       member it, because the -h shows same information)

	     toom|    a	   j	k    E	  H	K    J	  g
	     -------+--------------------------------------------
		a   |	 -    o	   o1	o    o1	   o1	o12  o
		j   |	 o    -	   o1	o    o1	   o1	o12  o
		k   |		   -	     o	   o	o2
		E   |	 o    o		-		     o
		H   |		   o	     -	   o	o2
		K   |		   o	     o	   -

	     o	-- converted.
	     1	-- converted to	Romaji.
	     2	-- Kanji -> Kana conversion.

KANJI CODING CONVERSION
       Unfortunately, several coding systems are used in Japan and  JIS	 x0208
       standard	 are changed at	1983. Therefore, KAKASI	can automatically dis-
       tinguish	the coding system and coding revision and then	use  the  same
       output  coding  system  if  the	document  does	not  include JIS x0201
       KATAKANA.  If JIS x0201 KATAKANA	is included  or	 you  wish  to	change
       kanji coding system, you	may use	the next options.

	     -i	: input	coding
	     -o	: output coding

	     jis -- Widely used	on the internet. (Ex: fj, jp, .. newsgroups)
		    Derived from ISO-2022 coding manner.
		    newjis: JISx0208 (1983) invoked by ESC-$-B.
		    oldjis: JISx0208 (1978) invoked by ESC-$-@.
	     euc,dec --	Often used in UNIX like	computers. JISx0208 is
		    assigned to	GR ( MSB is 1 ). The major difference between
		    euc	and dec	is assignment of JISx0201 KATAKANA and
		    the	DEC graphic character.
	     sjis -- Defined by	Microsoft Corp.	Widely used on the personal
		    computers (	MSDOS, Mac, .. )

ROMAJI CONVERSION
       Kanji kana conversion options. Used with	-J? option.  There are 2 types
       of Romaji writing.  The first is	the Kunrei method defined by  Japanese
       government,  and	 the  second  is  the Hepburn method.  I think Hepburn
       method sounds naturally to foreigners.

	     -rhepburn : Hepburn Method	(default)
	     -rkunrei  : Kunrei	Method

OTHER OPTIONS
	     -p: List all possible readings. If	there exist two	or more
		 possible readings, KAKASI shows them in braces	{aaa,bbb}.
	     -s: Insert	a separate character between words.
	     -f: Furigana mode.	Shows the original kanji word with reading.
	     -c: Skip characters within	word. (	default	TAB CR LF BLANK	)
	     -C: Capitalize Romaji word	(with -Ja or -Jj option)
	     -U: Upcase	romaji word (with -Ja or -Jj option)
	     -u: Call fflush().
	     -w: wakatigaki mode. 'wakatigaki' is word segmentation for
		 Japanese sentences.

DICTIONARIES
       KAKASI can accept additional dictionary to the system dictionary.   The
       acceptable  format of additional	dictionary is SKK format, and Wnn for-
       mat, and	so on.	Namely,	each record is one line	with two fields,  Yomi
       (reading) and Jukugo(idiom).  Fields are	separated with commas (or TAB,
       or blank).  The kanji code is restricted	to JIS or  EUC.	  See  another
       document	named JISYO for	more details.

ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
       The behavior is affected	by the following environment variables.

       KANWADICTPATH
	      Specifies	 a  path  of kanwadict (full-path including filename).
	      Default value is $prefix/share/kakasi/kanwadict.

       ITAIJIDICTPATH
	      Specifies	a path of itaijidict (full-path	 including  filename).
	      Default value is $prefix/share/kakasi/itaijidict.

AUTHOR
       Hironobu	Takahasi <takahasi@tiny.or.jp>

FILES
       $prefix/share/kakasi/kanwadict
	      It  is  a	binary dictionary of KAKASI.  It is automatically con-
	      verted from kakasidict by	mkkanwa	when the package is installed.

SEE ALSO
       mkkanwa(1)

DIAGNOSTICS
       Return status except 0 when there is any	trouble.

BUGS
       Report bugs to KAKASI Project <kakasi-dev@namazu.org>.  Please  DO  NOT
       CONTACT to the originator (Takahasi-san).

NOTE ABOUT ENGLISH MANUAL
       The  content  of	English	manual is not exactly same as that of Japanese
       manual.

4.3 Berkeley Distribution	     LOCAL			     KAKASI(1)

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | CONVERSION DESIGNATED CHARACTER SET | KANJI CODING CONVERSION | ROMAJI CONVERSION | OTHER OPTIONS | DICTIONARIES | ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES | AUTHOR | FILES | SEE ALSO | DIAGNOSTICS | BUGS | NOTE ABOUT ENGLISH MANUAL

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