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JOIN(1)                          User Commands                         JOIN(1)

       join - join lines of two files on a common field

       join [OPTION]... FILE1 FILE2

       For each pair of input lines with identical join fields, write a line
       to standard output.  The default join field is the first, delimited by
       whitespace.  When FILE1 or FILE2 (not both) is -, read standard input.

       -a FILENUM
              print unpairable lines coming from file FILENUM, where FILENUM
              is 1 or 2, corresponding to FILE1 or FILE2

       -e EMPTY
              replace missing input fields with EMPTY

       -i, --ignore-case
              ignore differences in case when comparing fields

       -j FIELD
              equivalent to `-1 FIELD -2 FIELD'

       -o FORMAT
              obey FORMAT while constructing output line

       -t CHAR
              use CHAR as input and output field separator

       -v FILENUM
              like -a FILENUM, but suppress joined output lines

       -1 FIELD
              join on this FIELD of file 1

       -2 FIELD
              join on this FIELD of file 2

              check that the input is correctly sorted, even if all input
              lines are pairable

              do not check that the input is correctly sorted

       --help display this help and exit

              output version information and exit

       Unless -t CHAR is given, leading blanks separate fields and are
       ignored, else fields are separated by CHAR.  Any FIELD is a field
       number counted from 1.  FORMAT is one or more comma or blank separated
       specifications, each being `FILENUM.FIELD' or `0'.  Default FORMAT
       outputs the join field, the remaining fields from FILE1, the remaining
       fields from FILE2, all separated by CHAR.

       Important: FILE1 and FILE2 must be sorted on the join fields.  E.g.,
       use `sort -k 1b,1' if `join' has no options.  If the input is not
       sorted and some lines cannot be joined, a warning message will be

       Written by Mike Haertel.

       Report join bugs to
       GNU coreutils home page: <>
       General help using GNU software: <>

       Copyright (C) 2009 Free Software Foundation, Inc.  License GPLv3+: GNU
       GPL version 3 or later <>.
       This is free software: you are free to change and redistribute it.
       There is NO WARRANTY, to the extent permitted by law.

       The full documentation for join is maintained as a Texinfo manual.  If
       the info and join programs are properly installed at your site, the

              info coreutils 'join invocation'

       should give you access to the complete manual.

GNU coreutils 7.1                  July 2010                           JOIN(1)


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