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introduction(9)						       introduction(9)

       Introduction  -	an  introduction to the	HP-UX operating	system and the
       HP-UX Reference

       HP-UX is	the Hewlett-Packard Company's implementation of	 an  operating
       system that is compatible with various industry standards.  It is based
       on the UNIX(R) System V Release 4 operating system and includes	impor-
       tant features from the Fourth Berkeley Software Distribution.

       Improvements  include  enhanced capabilities and	other features,	devel-
       oped by HP to make HP-UX	a very powerful, useful, and reliable  operat-
       ing  system, capable of supporting a wide range of applications ranging
       from simple text	processing to sophisticated engineering	 graphics  and
       design.	 It  can  readily  be  used  to	 control instruments and other
       peripheral devices.  Real-time capabilities further expand  the	flexi-
       bility  of  HP-UX  as  a	 powerful  tool	 for solving tough problems in
       design, manufacturing, business,	and other areas	 where	responsiveness
       and performance are important.

       Extensive international language	support	enables	HP-UX to interact with
       users in	any of dozens of human	languages.   HP-UX  interfaces	easily
       with  local  area  networks  and	resource-sharing facilities.  By using
       industry-standard protocols, HP-UX provides flexible  interaction  with
       other  computers	 and  operating	 systems.   Optional software products
       extend HP-UX capabilities into a	broad range of specialized needs.

       The is not a learning tool for beginners.  It is	primarily a  reference
       tool  that  is  most  useful for	experienced users of UNIX or UNIX-like
       systems.	 If you	are not	already	familiar with UNIX or HP-UX, refer  to
       the  series  of Beginner's Guides, tutorial manuals, and	other learning
       documents supplied with your system or  available  separately.	System
       implementation and maintenance details are explained in the manual.

       The  contents  of the and its on-line counterpart are a number of inde-
       pendent entries called These are	also called manual entries  or	refer-
       ence pages.

       For  convenient reference, the manpages are divided into	eight special-
       ized sections.  The printed manual also has a  table  of	 contents  for
       each volume and a composite index.

       Each  manpage  consists	of one or more printed pages, with the manpage
       name and	section	number printed in the  upper  corners.	 Manpages  are
       arranged	 alphabetically	 within	 each section of the reference,	except
       for the intro page at the beginning  of	each  section.	 Manpages  are
       referred	 to by name and	section	number,	in the form pagename(section).

       The manpages are	available on-line through the command if the  manpages
       are  present  on	 the system.  Refer to the man(1) manpage in Section 1
       for more	information.

       Each page in the	printed	manual has two page numbers,  printed  at  the
       bottom  of the page.  The center	page number starts over	with page 1 at
       the beginning of	each new manpage; it is	placed between two  dashes  in
       normal typeface.	 The number printed at the outside corner on each page
       sequences the printed pages within a  section.	Users  usually	locate
       manpages	 by  the  alphabetic  headings	at the top of the page as when
       reading a dictionary.

       Some manpages describe two or  more  commands  or  routines.   In  such
       cases,  the  manpage is usually named for the first command or function
       that appears in the NAME	section.  Occasionally,	a manpage name appears
       as a prefix to the NAME section.	 In such instances, the	name describes
       the commands or functions in more  general  terms.   For	 example,  the
       acct(1M)	 manpage describes the and commands, while the string(3C) man-
       page describes many character string functions.

       The various sections are	described as follows:

       Volume Table of Contents	(Printed Manual)

	      A	complete listing of all	manpages in the	order they  appear  in
	      each  section, as	well as	alphabetically intermixed lists	of all
	      command, function, and feature names that	are the	different from
	      the manpage where	they appear

       Section 1: User Commands

	      Programs that are	usually	invoked	directly by users or from com-
	      mand language procedures (scripts).

       Section 1M: System Administration Commands

	      Commands used for	system installation and	maintenance, including
	      boot  processes,	crash  recovery, system	integrity testing, and
	      other needs.  Most commands in this section  require  the	 supe-
	      ruser privilege.

       Section 2: System Calls

	      Entries  into  the HP-UX kernel, including the C-language	inter-
	      face.  These topics are primarily	of interest to programmers.

       Section 3: Library Functions

	      Available	subroutines that reside	(in binary  form)  in  various
	      system  libraries.   These  topics  are primarily	of interest to

       Section 4: File Formats

	      The structure of various types of	files, primarily  of  interest
	      to administrators	and programmers.  For example, the link	editor
	      output file format is described in  a.out(4).   Files  that  are
	      used  only  by a single command (such as intermediate files used
	      by assemblers) are not described.	 C-language declarations  cor-
	      responding  to  the  formats  in	Section	 4 can be found	in the
	      directories and

       Section 5: Miscellaneous

	      A	variety	of information,	such as	descriptions of	header	files,
	      character	sets, macro packages, and other	topics.

       Section 7: Device Special Files

	      The  characteristics  of special (device)	files that provide the
	      link between HP-UX and system I/O	devices.  The names  for  each
	      topic usually refer to the type of I/O device rather than	to the
	      names of individual special files.

       Section 9: Introduction and Glossary

	      A	general	introduction (this one)	and definitions	of terms  used
	      in the HP-UX environment.

       Composite Index (Printed	Manual)

	      An alphabetical listing of keywords and topics based on the NAME
	      section near the beginning of each  manpage  as  well  as	 other
	      information,  cross-referenced  to  manpage  names and sections.
	      The index	also contains references to built-in features  in  the
	      various command interpreters ("shells").

       All  manpages follow an established section heading format, but not all
       section headings	are included in	each manpage.	A  few	manpages  have
       self-explanatory	specialized headings.

       NAME   Gives  the  names	 of  the  commands, functions, or features and
	      briefly states the purpose.

	      Summarizes the syntax of the command or program entity.	A  few
	      conventions are used:

	      characters  indicate  literal  characters	that should be entered
	      exactly as they appear.  These characters	appear in bold in  the
	      online manpages.

	      Italic  strings  represent  variable  elements  that  should  be
	      replaced with appropriate	values.

	      Roman square  brackets  ([])  indicate  that  the	 contents  are

	      Roman  braces  ({})  indicate  a	required element, usually in a

	      Ellipses	(...)  indicate	 that  the  previous  element  can  be

	      Note:  An	argument beginning with	a dash a plus sign or an equal
	      sign is often defined as a command option, even if it appears in
	      a	 position  where  a  file name could appear.  Therefore, it is
	      unwise to	have files names that begin with or

	      Discusses	the function and behavior of each entry.

	      Information under	this heading pertains to programming for vari-
	      ous spoken languages.  Typical entries indicate support for sin-
	      gle- or multibyte	characters,  the  effect  of  language-related
	      environment  variables  on  system  behavior,  and other related

	      Information under	this heading is	applicable  only  if  you  are
	      using the	network	feature	described there	(such as NFS).

	      Describes	the values returned by function	calls or in the	return
	      code by commands.

	      Describes	diagnostic information that may	 be  produced.	 Self-
	      explanatory messages are not listed.

       ERRORS Lists  function error conditions (set in and their corresponding
	      error messages.

	      Provides examples	of typical usage.

	      Describes	potential problems and deficiencies.

	      Describes	variations in HP-UX operation that are related to  the
	      use of specific hardware or combinations of hardware.

       AUTHOR Indicates	 the origin of the software documented by the manpage.
	      Unless noted otherwise, the source of an entry is	System V.

       FILES  Lists file names that are	used or	affected  by  the  program  or

       SEE ALSO
	      Provides pointers	to related manpages and	other documentation.

	      For  each	 command or subroutine entry point addressed by	one or
	      more of the following industry standards,	this section lists the
	      standard	specifications to which	that HP-UX component conforms.

	      The various standards are:

	      AES	  OSF Application Environment Specification

	      ANSI C	  ANSI X3.159-1989

	      POSIX.1	  IEEE Standard	1003.1-1988  (IEEE  Computer  Society)
			  (Portable  Operating	System	Interface for Computer

	      POSIX.2	  IEEE Standard	1003.2-1990  (IEEE  Computer  Society)
			  (Portable  Operating	System	Interface for Computer

	      POSIX.4	  IEEE Standard	1003.1b-1993 (IEEE  Computer  Society)
			  (Portable  Operating	System	Interface for Computer

	      FIPS 151-1  Federal  Information	 Processing   Standard	 151-1
			  (National Institute of Standards and Technology)

	      FIPS 151-2  Federal   Information	  Processing   Standard	 151-2
			  (National Institute of Standards and Technology)

	      SVID2	  System V Interface Definition	Issue 2

	      SVID3	  System V Interface Definition	Issue 3

	      XPG2	  X/Open Portability Guide Issue 2 (X/Open, Ltd.)

	      XPG3	  X/Open Portability Guide Issue 3 (X/Open, Ltd.)

	      XPG4	  X/Open Portability Guide Issue 4 (X/Open, Ltd.)

	      XPG4.2	  X/Open Portability Guide Issue 4 (X/Open, Ltd.) Ver-
			  sion 2

       This  is	 a  very brief overview	of how to use the HP-UX	system:	how to
       log in and log out, how to communicate through your machine, and	how to
       run a program.

       HP-UX  uses  control  characters	to perform certain functions.  Control
       characters are generally	shown in the form such as for Control-D.  Hold
       down the	(key while you press the character key.

   Logging In
       To  log	in  you	must have a valid user name and	password, which	can be
       obtained	from your system administrator.

       When a connection has been established, the  system  displays  on  your
       terminal.   Type	your user name and press the key.  Enter your password
       (it is not echoed by the	system)	and press

       A list of copyright notices and	a  message-of-the-day  may  greet  you
       before the first	prompt.

       It  is  important that you type your login name with lowercase letters,
       if possible.  If	you type uppercase letters, HP-UX  assumes  that  your
       terminal	 cannot	 generate  lowercase  letters,	and  treats subsequent
       uppercase input as lowercase.

       When you	log in successfully, the system	starts your login shell.   The
       default	is the POSIX shell, The	POSIX shell (and its predecessors, the
       Korn and	Bourne shells) use as the default prompt.  The C shell uses

       See login(1) for	more on	login,	passwd(1)  to  change  your  password,
       chsh(1) to change your login shell.

   Logging Out
       You can log out of the shells by	typing an command or the (end-of-file)
       character (see the subsection below).  The  shell  terminates  and  the
       prompt  appears again.  (If you are using the C,	Korn, or POSIX shells,
       respectively, see csh(1), ksh(1), or sh-posix(1)	for information	 about
       the special command.)

   How to Communicate Through Your Terminal
       HP-UX  gathers  keyboard	 input	characters and saves them in a buffer.
       The accumulated characters are not passed to the	shell or other program
       until you type

       HP-UX  terminal	input/output  is full-duplex.  It has full read-ahead,
       which means that	you can	type at	any time,  even	 while	a  program  is
       printing	 on  your  display or terminal.	 Of course, if you type	during
       output, the output display will have the	input characters  interspersed
       in it.  However,	whatever you type will be saved	and interpreted	in the
       correct sequence.  There	is a limit to the amount of read-ahead,	but it
       is generous and not likely to be	exceeded unless	the system is severely
       overloaded or operating	abnormally.   When  the	 read-ahead  limit  is
       exceeded, the system throws away	the saved characters.

       stty(1)	tells you how to describe the characteristics of your terminal
       to the system.  profile(4) explains how to accomplish this  task	 auto-
       matically every time you	log in.

   Special Interactive Characters
       A number	of special characters are used to control the input and	output
       of your terminal.  These	characters have	defaults and can be  redefined
       with the	command	(see stty(1)).

	      stty	      Default At Login		  Common
	      Name    Character	(ASCII Name; Key Names)	  Redefinition
	      eof     ^D (EOT)

			    erase   #					^H (BS;	Backspace)
	      kill    @					  ^U (NAK), ^X (CAN)
	      intr    ^? (DEL; Delete, Rub, Rubout)	  ^C (ETX)
	      quit    ^\ (FS)
	      start   ^Q (DC1; X-ON)
	      stop    ^S (DC3; X-OFF)

       The  character  terminates  "file"  input from the terminal, as read by
       programs	and scripts.  By extension, can	also terminate the shell  (see
       the subsection above).

       The  character  deletes	all  characters	 typed before it on a terminal
       input line.  The	character erases the last character typed.  Successive
       uses of will erase characters back to, but not beyond, the beginning of
       the input line.

       The character generates an interrupt signal  that  bypasses  the	 input
       buffer.	 This signal generally causes whatever program you are running
       to terminate.  It can be	used to	stop a long printout  that  you	 don't
       want.  However, programs	can arrange either to ignore this signal alto-
       gether, or to be	notified when it  happens  (instead  of	 being	termi-
       nated).	 For  example, the editor catches interrupts and stops what it
       is doing, instead of terminating, so that an interrupt can be  used  to
       halt an editing operation without losing	the file being edited.

       The  character  generates  a quit signal	that bypasses the input	buffer
       and most	program	traps and causes a running program to  terminate.   It
       can cause a core	dump in	the current directory.

       The  character can be used to pause output to the terminal.  It is com-
       monly used on video terminals to	suspend	output to  the	display	 while
       you  read  what is already being	displayed.  You	can then resume	output
       by typing the character.	 When and are used to suspend or  resume  out-
       put, they bypass	the keyboard command-line buffer and are not passed to
       the program.  However, any other	characters typed on the	 keyboard  are
       saved and used as input later in	the program.

       The  and	characters can be used as normal text characters if you	escape
       them with a preceding as	in Therefore, to erase a you need two

       The and characters cannot be escaped on the input line.

   End-of-Line and Tab Characters
       Besides adapting	to the speed of	the terminal, HP-UX tries to be	intel-
       ligent  as  to  whether	you have a terminal with a (key, or whether it
       must be simulated with a	return/line-feed character pair.  In the  lat-
       ter case, all incoming return characters	are changed to line-feed char-
       acters (the standard line delimiter), and a  return/line-feed  pair  is
       echoed  to  the terminal.  If you get into the wrong mode, use the com-
       mand to correct it (see stty(1)).

       Tab characters are used freely in HP-UX source programs.	 If your  ter-
       minal does not have the tab function, you can arrange to	have tab char-
       acters changed into spaces during output, and echoed as	spaces	during
       input.	The  command sets or resets this mode.	By default, the	system
       assumes that tabs are set every eight character positions.  The command
       (see  tabs(1)) can set tab stops	on your	terminal, if the terminal sup-
       ports tabs.

   How to Run a	Program
       When you	have successfully logged into HP-UX, the shell monitors	 input
       from  your  terminal.  The shell	accepts	typed lines from the terminal,
       splits them into	command	names and arguments, then  executes  the  com-
       mand.   The  command can	be the name of a shell built-in, an executable
       script of commands, or an executable program.  There is nothing special
       about  system-provided  commands, except	that they are kept in directo-
       ries where the shell can	find them.  You	can also keep commands in your
       own directories and arrange for the shell to find them there.

       The  command  name is the first word on an input	line to	the shell; the
       command and its arguments are separated from one	another	by blanks (one
       or more space and/or tab	characters).

       When  a	program	 terminates,  the shell	ordinarily regains control and
       prompts you to indicate that it is  ready  for  another	command.   The
       shell has many other capabilities, which	are described in detail	in the
       appropriate manpages: sh-posix(1) for the POSIX shell, ksh(1)  for  the
       Korn shell, or csh(1) for the C shell.

   The Current Directory
       HP-UX  has  a file system arranged in a hierarchy of directories.  When
       the system administrator	gave you a user	name, he or she	also created a
       directory for you (ordinarily with the same name	as your	user name, and
       known as	your login or home directory).	When you log in,  that	direc-
       tory  becomes  your current or working directory, and any file name you
       type is assumed to be in	that directory by default.   Because  you  are
       the  owner  of this directory, you have full permission to read,	write,
       alter, or destroy its contents.	The permissions	 you  have  for	 other
       directories  and	files will have	been granted or	denied to you by their
       respective owners, or by	the system administrator.  To change the  cur-
       rent working directory use cd(1).

   Path	Names
       To  refer  to  files  not in the	current	directory, you must use	a path
       name.  Full (absolute) path names begin with which is the name  of  the
       root  directory	of  the	 whole file system.  After the slash comes the
       name of each directory containing the next subdirectory (followed by  a
       until  finally the file name is reached (for example, refers to file in
       directory while is itself a subdirectory	of is a	 subdirectory  of  the
       root directory).	 See glossary(9) for a formal definition of path name.

       If your current directory contains subdirectories, the  path  names  of
       files  in  them	begin  with the	name of	the corresponding subdirectory
       (without	a prefixed Generally, a	path name can be used anywhere a  file
       name is required.

       Important  commands  that  modify  the  contents	of directories are and
       which respectively copy,	move (that is, rename, relocate, or both), and
       remove  files.	To  determine  the  status of files or the contents of
       directories, use	the command.  Use  to  make  directories,  to  destroy
       them, and to rename them	(see cp(1), ls(1), mkdir(1), mv(1), rm(1), and

   Writing a Program
       To enter	the text of a source program into an HP-UX file,  use  a  text
       editing	program	 such  as or (see vi(1), ex(1),	and ed(1)).  The three
       principal languages available under HP-UX are C (see cc_bundled(1)  and
       cc(1)),	FORTRAN	 (see f77(1)), and Pascal (see pc(1)).	After the pro-
       gram text has been entered with the editor  and	written	 into  a  file
       (whose  name has	the appropriate	suffix), you can give the name of that
       file to the appropriate language	processor as an	 argument.   Normally,
       the  output  of	the language processor will be left in a file named in
       the current directory.  Since the results of a  subsequent  compilation
       may also	be placed in thus overwriting the current output, you may want
       to use to give the output a unique name.	 If the	program	is written  in
       assembly	 language,  you	will probably need to link library subroutines
       with it (see ld(1)).  FORTRAN, C, and Pascal call the linker  automati-

       When you	have gone through this entire process without encountering any
       diagnostics, the	resulting program can be run by	giving its name	to the
       shell in	response to the	prompt.

       Your  programs can receive arguments from the command line just as sys-
       tem programs do by using	the argc and argv parameters.	See  the  sup-
       plied C tutorial	for details.

   Text	Processing
       Almost all text is entered through a text editor.  The editor preferred
       above all others	provided with HP-UX is the editor.  For	batch-process-
       ing  text  files, the editor is very efficient.	Other editors are used
       much less frequently.  The editor is useful for handling	certain	situa-
       tions while using but most other	editors	are rarely used	except in var-
       ious scripts.

       The following editors are the same program masquerading	under  various
       names:  and (see	vi(1)) and and (see ex(1)).  For information about the
       stream editor, see sed(1).  The line editor is described	in ed(1).

       The commands most often used to display text on a terminal are and (see
       cat(1),	more(1),  and pr(1)).  The command simply copies ASCII text to
       the terminal, with no processing	at all.	 The command displays text  on
       the terminal a screenful	at a time, pausing for an acknowledgement from
       the user	before continuing.  The	command	paginates text,	supplies head-
       ings, and has a facility	for multicolumn	output.	 is most commonly used
       in conjunction with the command (see lp(1)) to pipe formatted text to a
       line printer.

   Interuser Communication
       Certain	commands  provide interuser communication.  Even if you	do not
       plan to use them, it could be beneficial	to learn about	them,  because
       someone	else  may direct them toward you.  To communicate with another
       user that is currently logged in, you can use to	transfer text directly
       to  that	 user's	 terminal  display  (if	 permission  to	do so has been
       granted by the other user).  Otherwise, or (in order of	ease  of  use)
       can  send  a  message  to  another  user's  mailbox.   The user is then
       informed	by HP-UX that mail has arrived (if  currently  logged  in)  or
       mail  is	 present  (when	 the  user  next  logs	in).  Refer to elm(1),
       mail(1),	mailx(1), and write(1) for explanations	of how these  commands
       are used.

       UNIX  is	 a  registered	trademark in the United	States and other coun-
       tries, licensed exclusively through X/Open Company Limited.

       cat(1), cc_bundled(1), cd(1), chsh(1),  cp(1),  csh(1),	ed(1),	ex(1),
       ksh(1),	ld(1),	login(1),  lp(1),  ls(1),  mail(1),  mailx(1), man(1),
       mkdir(1), more(1), mv(1), passwd(1), pr(1),  rm(1),  rmdir(1),  sed(1),
       sh(1),  sh-posix(1),  stty(1), tabs(1), vi(1), write(1),	a.out(4), pro-
       file(4),	glossary(9).

       Web access to HP-UX documentation at



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