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INTRO(4)		   Kernel Interfaces Manual		      INTRO(4)

       intro  -	 introduction to device	drivers, protocols, and	network	inter-

       This section describes device drivers, high-speed  network  interfaces,
       and protocols available under SunOS.  The system	provides drivers for a
       variety of hardware devices, such as disks, magnetic tapes, serial com-
       munication  lines,  mice, and frame buffers, as well as virtual devices
       such as pseudo-terminals	and windows.  SunOS provides hardware  support
       and  a network interface	for the	10-Megabit Ethernet, along with	inter-
       faces for the IP	protocol family	and a STREAMS-based Network  Interface
       Tap (NIT) facility.

       In  addition  to	 describing  device  drivers that are supported	by the
       4.3BSD operating	system,	this section  contains	subsections  that  de-

       o  SunOS-specific device	drivers, under `4S'.

       o  Protocol families, under `4F'.

       o  Protocols and	raw interfaces,	under `4P'.

       o  STREAMS modules, under `4M'.

       o  Network interfaces, under `4N'.

       The  SunOS  kernel can be configured to include or omit many of the de-
       vice drivers described in this section.	The CONFIG section of the man-
       ual  page gives the line(s) to include in the kernel configuration file
       for each	machine	architecture on	which a	device is  supported.	If  no
       specific	 architectures are indicated, the configuration	syntax applies
       to all Sun systems.

       The GENERIC kernel is the default configuration for SunOS.  It contains
       all of the optional drivers for a given machine architecture.  See con-
       fig(8), for details on configuring a new	SunOS kernel.

       The manual page for a device driver may also include a DIAGNOSTICS sec-
       tion,  listing error messages that the driver might produce.  Normally,
       these messages are logged to the	appropriate system log using the  ker-
       nel's  standard	message-buffering mechanism (see syslogd(8)); they may
       also appear on the system console.

       Various special functions, such as querying or altering	the  operating
       characteristics of a device, are	performed by supplying appropriate pa-
       rameters	to the ioctl(2)	system call.  These parameters are  often  re-
       ferred to as ``ioctls.''	 Ioctls	for a specific device are presented in
       the manual page for that	device.	 Ioctls	that pertain to	a class	of de-
       vices  are  listed in a manual page with	a name that suggests the class
       of device, and ending in	`io', such as mtio(4) for  magnetic  tape  de-
       vices,  or dkio(4S) for disk controllers.  In addition, some ioctls op-
       erate directly on higher-level objects such as files, terminals,	 sock-
       ets, and	streams:

       o  Ioctls that operate directly on files, file descriptors, and sockets
	  are described	in filio(4).  Note: the	fcntl(2V) system call  is  the
	  primary  method  for	operating  on file descriptors as such,	rather
	  than on the underlying files.	 Also note that	the setsockopt	system
	  call	(see  getsockopt(2))  is  the  primary method for operating on
	  sockets as such, rather than on the underlying protocol  or  network
	  interface.   Ioctls  for a specific network interface	are documented
	  in the manual	page for that interface.

       o  Ioctls for terminals,	including pseudo-terminals, are	 described  in
	  termio(4).  This manual page includes	information about both the BSD
	  termios structure, as	well as	the System V termio structure.

       o  Ioctls for STREAMS are described in streamio(4).

   Devices Always Present
       Device drivers present in every kernel include:

       o  The paging device; see drum(4).

       o  Drivers for accessing	physical, virtual, and I/O  space  in  memory;
	  see mem(4S).

       o  The data sink; see null(4).

   Terminals and Serial	Communications Devices
       Serial  communication  lines  are  normally  supported  by the terminal
       driver; see tty(4).  This driver	manages	serial lines provided by  com-
       munications  drivers,  such  as	those described	in mti(4S) and zs(4S).
       The terminal driver also	handles	serial lines provided by virtual  ter-
       minals,	such  as the Sun console monitor described in console(4S), and
       true pseudo-terminals, described	in pty(4).

   Disk	Devices
       Drivers for the following disk controllers provide standard  block  and
       raw interfaces under SunOS:

       o  SCSI controllers, in sd(4S),

       o  Xylogics 450 and 451 SMD controllers,	in xy(4S),

       o  Xylogics 7053	SMD controllers, in xd(4S),

       o  IPI controllers, in id(4S).

       Ioctls to query or set a	disk's geometry	and partitioning are described
       in dkio(4S).

   Magnetic Tape Devices
       Magnetic	tape devices supported by SunOS	 include  those	 described  in
       ar(4S), tm(4S), st(4S), and xt(4S).  Ioctls for all tape-device drivers
       are described in	mtio(4S).

   Frame Buffers
       Frame buffer devices include  color  frame  buffers  described  in  the
       cg*(4S)	and gt(4S) manual pages, monochrome frame buffers described in
       the bw*(4S) manual pages, graphics processor  interfaces	 described  in
       the  gp*(4S) manual pages, and an indirect device for the console frame
       buffer described	in fb(4S).  Ioctls for all  frame-buffer  devices  are
       described in fbio(4S).

   Miscellaneous Devices
       Miscellaneous   devices	include	 the  console  keyboard	 described  in
       kbd(4S),	the console mouse described in mouse(4S), window  devices  de-
       scribed	in win(4S), and	the DES	encryption-chip	interface described in

   Network-Interface Devices
       SunOS supports the 10-Megabit Ethernet as its  primary  network	inter-
       face;  see ie(4S) and le(4S) for	details.  However, a software loopback
       interface, lo(4)	is also	supported.  General properties of  these  net-
       work interfaces are described in	if(4N),	along with the ioctls that op-
       erate on	them.

       Support for network routing is described	in routing(4N).

   Protocols and Protocol Families
       SunOS supports both socket-based	and STREAMS-based  network  communica-
       tions.	The  Internet  protocol	 family, described in inet(4F),	is the
       primary protocol	family primary supported by SunOS, although the	system
       can  support  a number of others.  The raw interface provides low-level
       services, such as packet	fragmentation  and  reassembly,	 routing,  ad-
       dressing, and basic transport for socket-based implementations.	Facil-
       ities for communicating using an	Internet-family	protocol are generally
       accessed	 by  specifying	 the  AF_INET  address	family	when binding a
       socket; see socket(2) for details.

       Major protocols in the Internet family include:

       o  The Internet Protocol	(IP)  itself,  which  supports	the  universal
	  datagram format, as described	in ip(4P).  This is the	default	proto-
	  col for SOCK_RAW type	sockets	within the AF_INET domain.

       o  The Transmission Control Protocol (TCP); see tcp(4P).	 This  is  the
	  default protocol for SOCK_STREAM type	sockets.

       o  The  User Datagram Protocol (UDP); see udp(4P).  This	is the default
	  protocol for SOCK_DGRAM type sockets.

       o  The Address Resolution Protocol (ARP); see arp(4P).

       o  The Internet Control Message Protocol	(ICMP);	see icmp(4P).

       The Network Interface Tap (NIT) protocol, described in  nit(4P),	 is  a
       STREAMS-based facility for accessing the	network	at the link level.

       fcntl(2V),   getsockopt(2),   ioctl(2),	 socket(2),  ar(4S),  arp(4P),
       dkio(4S),  drum(4),  fb(4S),  fbio(4S),	filio(4),  icmp(4P),   if(4N),
       inet(4F),  ip(4P),  kbd(4S),  le(4S), lo(4), mem(4S), mti(4S), mtio(4),
       nit(4P),	null(4),  pty(4),  routing(4N),	 sd(4S),  st(4S)  streamio(4),
       tcp(4P),	 termio(4),  tm(4S), tty(4), udp(4P), win(4S), xd(4S), xy(4S),

       Name		   Appears on Page Description

				 29 April 1992			      INTRO(4)


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