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INTRO(4)		 BSD Kernel Interfaces Manual		      INTRO(4)

NAME
     intro -- introduction to devices and device drivers

DESCRIPTION
     This section contains information related to devices, device drivers and
     miscellaneous hardware.

   The device abstraction
     Device is a term used mostly for hardware-related stuff that belongs to
     the system, like disks, printers, or a graphics display with its key-
     board.  There are also so-called pseudo-devices where a device driver em-
     ulates the	behaviour of a device in software without any particular un-
     derlying hardware.	 A typical example for the latter class	is /dev/mem, a
     mechanism whereby the physical memory can be accessed using file access
     semantics.

     The device	abstraction generally provides a common	set of system calls,
     which are dispatched to the corresponding device driver by	the upper lay-
     ers of the	kernel.	 The set of system calls available for devices is cho-
     sen from open(2), close(2), read(2), write(2), ioctl(2), select(2), and
     mmap(2).  Not all drivers implement all system calls; for example,	call-
     ing mmap(2) on a keyboard device is not likely to be useful.

     Aspects of	the device abstraction have changed significantly in FreeBSD
     over the past two decades.	 The section Historical	Notes describes	some
     of	the more important differences.

   Accessing Devices
     Most of the devices in FreeBSD are	accessed through device	nodes, some-
     times also	called special files.  They are	located	within instances of
     the devfs(5) filesystem, which is conventionally mounted on the directory
     /dev in the file system hierarchy (see also hier(7)).

     The devfs(5) filesystem creates or	removes	device nodes automatically ac-
     cording to	the physical hardware recognized as present at any given time.
     For pseudo-devices, device	nodes may be created and removed dynamically
     as	required, depending on the nature of the device.

     Access restrictions to device nodes are usually subject to	the regular
     file permissions of the device node entry,	instead	of being enforced di-
     rectly by the drivers in the kernel.  But since device nodes are not
     stored persistently between reboots, those	file permissions are set at
     boot time from rules specified in devfs.conf(5), or dynamically according
     to	rules defined in devfs.rules(5)	or set using the devfs(8) command.  In
     the latter	case, different	rules may be used to make different sets of
     devices visible within different instances	of the devfs(5)	filesystem,
     which may be used,	for example, to	prevent	jailed subsystems from access-
     ing unsafe	devices.  Manual changes to device node	permissions may	still
     be	made, but will not persist.

   Drivers without device nodes
     Drivers for network devices do not	use device nodes in order to be	ac-
     cessed.  Their selection is based on other	decisions inside the kernel,
     and instead of calling open(2), use of a network device is	generally in-
     troduced by using the system call socket(2).

   Configuring a driver	into the kernel
     For each kernel, there is a configuration file that is used as a base to
     select the	facilities and drivers for that	kernel,	and to tune several
     options.  See config(8) for a detailed description	of the files involved.
     The individual manual pages in this section provide a sample line for the
     configuration file	in their synopsis portions.  See also the files
     /usr/src/sys/conf/NOTES and /usr/src/sys/${ARCH}/conf/NOTES.

     Drivers need not be statically compiled into the kernel; they may also be
     loaded as modules,	in which case any device nodes they provide will ap-
     pear only after the module	is loaded (and has attached to suitable	hard-
     ware, if applicable).

   Historical Notes
     Prior to FreeBSD 6.0, device nodes	could be created in the	traditional
     way as persistent entries in the file system.  While such entries can
     still be created, they no longer function to access devices.

     Prior to FreeBSD 5.0, devices for disk and	tape drives existed in two
     variants, known as	block and character devices, or	to use better terms,
     buffered and unbuffered (raw) devices.  The traditional names are re-
     flected by	the letters "b"	and "c"	as the file type identification	in the
     output of "ls -l".	 Raw devices were traditionally	named with a prefix of
     "r", for example /dev/rda0	would denote the raw version of	the disk whose
     buffered device was /dev/da0.  This is no longer the case;	all disk de-
     vices are now "raw" in the	traditional sense, even	though they are	not
     given "r" prefixes, and "buffered"	devices	no longer exist	at all.

     Buffered devices were accessed through a buffer cache maintained by the
     operating system; historically this was the system's primary disk cache,
     but in FreeBSD this was rendered obsolete by the introduction of unified
     virtual memory management.	 Buffered devices could	be read	or written at
     any byte position,	with the buffer	mechanism handling the reading and
     writing of	disk blocks.  In contrast, raw disk devices can	be read	or
     written only at positions and lengths that	are multiples of the underly-
     ing device	block size, and	write(2) calls are synchronous,	not returning
     to	the caller until the data has been handed off to the device.

SEE ALSO
     close(2), ioctl(2), mmap(2), open(2), read(2), select(2), socket(2),
     write(2), devfs(5), hier(7), config(8)

HISTORY
     This manual page first appeared in	FreeBSD	2.1.

AUTHORS
     This man page has been rewritten by Andrew	Gierth from an earlier version
     written by	Jorg Wunsch with initial input by David	E. O'Brien.

BSD				 April 3, 2019				   BSD

NAME | DESCRIPTION | SEE ALSO | HISTORY | AUTHORS

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