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Intro(1)		    General Commands Manual		      Intro(1)

       Intro, intro - introduction to commands and application programs

       This  section  indicates	 which package contains	the commands being de-
       scribed on this page. To	be able	to  use	 the  command,	the  indicated
       package	must have been installed with the operating system. For	infor-
       mation on how to	add a package see pkgadd(1).

       This section describes, in alphabetical order, commands available  with
       this operating system.

       Pages of	special	interest are categorized as follows:

       1B	 Commands  found  only in the SunOS/BSD	Compatibility Package.
		 Refer to the for more information.

       1C	 Commands for communicating with other systems.

       1F	 Commands associated with Form and Menu	 Language  Interpreter

       1S	 Commands specific to the SunOS	system.

       See these sections of the for more information.

       o  Section 1M in	this manual for	system maintenance commands.

       o  Section 4 of this manual for information on file formats.

       o  Section  5  of  this	manual	for descriptions of publicly available
	  files	and miscellaneous information pages.

       o  Section 6 in this manual for computer	demonstrations.

       For tutorial information	about these commands and procedures, see:



   Manual Page Command Syntax
       Unless otherwise	noted, commands	described in the SYNOPSIS section of a
       manual page accept options and other arguments according	to the follow-
       ing syntax and should be	interpreted as explained below.

       name [-option...]  [cmdarg...]

       [ ]	    Surround an	option or cmdarg that is not required.

       ...	    Indicates multiple occurrences of the option or cmdarg.

       name	    The	name of	an executable file.

       { }	    The	options	and/or arguments enclosed  within  braces  are
		    interdependent,  such  that	 everything  enclosed  must be
		    treated as a unit.

       option	    (Always preceded by	a "-".)
		    noargletter...  or,
		    argletter optarg[,...]

       noargletter  A single letter representing an option without an  option-
		    argument.	Note that more than one	noargletter option can
		    be grouped after one "-" (Rule 5, below).

       argletter    A single letter representing an option  requiring  an  op-

       optarg	    An option-argument (character string) satisfying a preced-
		    ing	argletter.  Note that groups of	optargs	 following  an
		    argletter  must  be	separated by commas, or	separated by a
		    tab	or space character and quoted (Rule 8, below).

       cmdarg	    Path name (or other	command	argument) not  beginning  with
		    "-", or "-"	by itself indicating the standard input.

   Command Syntax Standard: Rules
       These  command  syntax  rules are not followed by all current commands,
       but all new commands will obey them.  getopts(1)	should be used by  all
       shell  procedures to parse positional parameters	and to check for legal
       options.	 It supports Rules 3-10	below.	The enforcement	of  the	 other
       rules must be done by the command itself.

	      1.   Command  names  (name  above)  must be between two and nine
		   characters long.

	      2.   Command names must include only lower-case letters and dig-

	      3.   Option names	(option	above) must be one character long.

	      4.   All options must be preceded	by "-".

	      5.   Options  with  no  arguments	 may be	grouped	after a	single

	      6.   The first option-argument (optarg above) following  an  op-
		   tion	must be	preceded by a tab or space character.

	      7.   Option-arguments cannot be optional.

	      8.   Groups  of option-arguments following an option must	either
		   be separated	by commas or separated by tab or space charac-
		   ter and quoted (-o xxx,z,yy or  -o "xxx z yy").

	      9.   All	options	 must  precede	operands (cmdarg above)	on the
		   command line.

	      10.  "--"	may be used to indicate	the end	of the options.

	      11.  The order of	the options relative to	one another should not

	      12.  The	relative  order	of the operands	(cmdarg	above) may af-
		   fect	their significance in ways determined by  the  command
		   with	which they appear.

	      13.  "-"	preceded and followed by a space character should only
		   be used to mean standard input.

       getopts(1), wait(1), exit(2), getopt(3C), wait(3B)

       Upon termination, each command returns two bytes	of  status,  one  sup-
       plied  by  the system and giving	the cause for termination, and (in the
       case of "normal"	termination) one supplied by the program [see wait(3B)
       and  exit(2)].  The former byte is 0 for	normal termination; the	latter
       is customarily 0	for successful	execution  and	non-zero  to  indicate
       troubles	such as	erroneous parameters, or bad or	inaccessible data.  It
       is called variously "exit code",	"exit status", or "return  code",  and
       is described only where special conventions are involved.

       Some commands produce unexpected	results	when processing	files contain-
       ing null	characters.  These commands often treat	text  input  lines  as
       strings	and therefore become confused upon encountering	a null charac-
       ter (the	string terminator) within a line.

				  24 Feb 1993			      Intro(1)


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