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Intro(1)                                                              Intro(1)

NAME
       Intro, intro - introduction to commands and application programs

       This section describes, in alphabetical order, commands available with
       this operating system.

       Pages of special interest are categorized as follows:

       1B
                Commands found only in the SunOS/BSD Compatibility Package.

       1C
                Commands for communicating with other systems.

       1F
                Commands associated with Form and Menu Language Interpreter
                (FMLI).

       1S
                Commands specific to SunOS.

   OTHER SECTIONS
       See these sections of the  for more information.

         o
            Section 1M in this manual for system maintenance commands.

         o
            Section 4 of this manual for information on file formats.

         o
            Section 5 of this manual for descriptions of publicly available
            files and miscellaneous information pages.

         o
            Section 6 in this manual for computer demonstrations.

       For tutorial information about these commands and procedures, see:

         o

   Manual Page Command Syntax
       Unless otherwise noted, commands described in the  section of a manual
       page accept options and other arguments according to the following
       syntax and should be interpreted as explained below.

       name [-option...] [cmdarg...] where:

       [ ]
                       Surround an option or cmdarg that is not required.

       ...
                       Indicates multiple occurrences of the option or cmdarg.

       name
                       The name of an executable file.

       { }
                       The options and/or arguments enclosed within braces are
                       interdependent, such that everything enclosed must be
                       treated as a unit.

       option
                       (Always preceded by a "-".) noargletter... or,
                       argletter optarg[,...]

       noargletter
                       A single letter representing an option without an
                       option-argument. Notice that more than one noargletter
                       option can be grouped after one "-" (Guideline 5,
                       below).

       argletter
                       A single letter representing an option requiring an
                       option-argument.

       optarg
                       An option-argument (character string) satisfying a
                       preceding argletter. Notice that groups of optargs
                       following an argletter must be separated by commas, or
                       separated by a tab or space character and quoted
                       (Guideline 8, below).

       cmdarg
                       Path name (or other command argument) not beginning
                       with "-", or "-" by itself indicating the standard
                       input.

       Unless otherwise specified, whenever an operand or option-argument is,
       or contains, a numeric value:

         o
            The number is interpreted as a decimal integer.

         o
            Numerals in the range 0 to 2147483647 are syntactically recognized
            as numeric values.

         o
            When the utility description states that it accepts negative
            numbers as operands or option-arguments, numerals in the range
            -2147483647 to 2147483647 are syntactically recognized as numeric
            values.

         o
            Ranges greater than those listed here are allowed.

   Command Syntax Standard: Guidelines
       These command syntax guidelines are not followed by all current
       commands, but new commands are likely to obey them. getopts(1) should
       be used by all shell procedures to parse positional parameters and to
       check for legal options. It supports Guidelines 3-10 below. The
       enforcement of the other guidelines must be done by the command itself.

       1.
           Command names (name above) should be between two and nine
           characters long.

       2.
           Command names should include only lower-case letters and digits.

       3.
           Option names (option above) must be one character long.

       4.
           All options must be preceded by "-".

       5.
           Options with no arguments can be grouped after a single "-".

       6.
           The first option-argument (optarg above) following an option must
           be preceded by a tab or space character.

       7.
           Option-arguments cannot be optional.

       8.
           Groups of option-arguments following an option must either be
           separated by commas or separated by tab or space character and
           quoted (-o xxx,z,yy or -o"xxx z yy").

       9.
           All options must precede operands (cmdarg above) on the command
           line.

       10.
           "--" can be used to indicate the end of the options.

       11.
           The order of the options relative to one another should not matter.

       12.
           The relative order of the operands (cmdarg above) can affect their
           significance in ways determined by the command with which they
           appear.

       13.
           "-" preceded and followed by a white space character should only be
           used to mean standard input.

       An expanded set of guidelines referred to as CLIP for Command Line
       Interface Paradigm has been developed for Solaris and other Sun
       products. Its intent is to provide a command line syntax more closely
       aligned with the GNU command line syntax popular on Linux systems.There
       is no intent to retrofit existing utilities or even to apply this to
       all new utilities. It is only intended to be applied to sets of
       utilities being developed when appropriate.

       CLIP is a full superset of the guidelines discussed above which are
       closely aligned with IEEE Std. 1003.1-2001 (SUSv3). It does not include
       all the GNU syntax. The GNU syntax allows constructs that either
       conflict with the IEEE rules or are ambiguous. These constructs are not
       allowed.

       The expanded CLIP command line syntax is:

       utility_name -a --longopt1 -c option_argument    -f option_argument --longopt2=option_argument    --longopt3 option_argument operand

       The utility in the example is named utility_name. It is followed by
       options, option-arguments, and operands, collectively referred to as
       arguments. The arguments that consist of a hyphen followed a single
       letter or digit, such as -a, are known as short-options . The arguments
       that consist of two hyphens followed by a series of letters, digits and
       hyphens, such as --longopt1, are known as long-options . Collectively,
       short-options and long-options are referred to as options (or
       historically, flags ). Certain options are followed by an option-
       argument, as shown with -c option_argument . The arguments following
       the last options and option-arguments are named operands. Once the
       first operand is encountered, all subsequent arguments are interpreted
       to be operands.

       Option-arguments are sometimes shown separated from their short-options
       by <BLANKS>s, sometimes directly adjacent. This reflects the situation
       that in some cases an option-argument is included within the same
       argument string as the option; in most cases it is the next argument.
       This specification requires that the option be a separate argument from
       its option-argument, but there are some exceptions to ensure continued
       operation of historical applications:

         o
            If the SYNOPSIS of a utility shows a <SPACE> between a short-
            option and option-argument (as with -c option_argument in the
            example), the application uses separate arguments for that option
            and its option-argument.

         o
            If a <SPACE> is not shown (as with -f option_argument in the
            example), the application expects an option and its option-
            argument directly adjacent in the same argument string, without
            intervening <BLANK>s.

         o
            Notwithstanding the preceding requirements, an application should
            accept short-options and option-arguments as a single argument or
            as separate arguments whether or not a <SPACE> is shown on the
            synopsis line.

         o
            Long-options with option-arguments are always documented as using
            an equals sign as the separator between the option name and the
            option-argument. If the OPTIONS section of a utility shows an
            equals sign (=) between a long-option and its option-argument (as
            with --longopt2= option_argument in the example), a application
            shall also permit the use of separate arguments for that option
            and its option-argument (as with --longopt1 option_argument in the
            example).

       CLIP expands the guidelines discussed with the following additional
       guidelines:

       14.
                The form command subcommand [options] [operands] is
                appropriate for grouping similar operations. Subcommand names
                should follow the same conventions as command names as
                specified in guidelines 1 and 2.

       15.
                Long-options should be preceded by -- and should include only
                alphanumeric characters and hyphens from the portable
                character set. Option names are typically one to three words
                long, with hyphens to separate words.

       16.
                --name=argument should be used to specify an option-argument
                for a long-option. The form --name argument is also accepted.

       17.
                All utilities should support two standard long-options:
                --version (with the short-option synonym -V ) and --help (with
                the short-option synonym -? ). The short option synonyms for
                --version can vary if the preferred synonym is already in use
                (but a  synonym shall be provided). Both of these options stop
                further argument processing when encountered and after
                displaying the appropriate output, the utility successfully
                exits.

       18.
                Every short-option should have exactly one corresponding long-
                option and every long-option should have exactly one
                corresponding short-option. Synonymous options can be allowed
                in the interest of compatibility with historical practice or
                community versions of equivalent utilities.

       19.
                The short-option name should get its name from the long-option
                name according to these rules:

                    1.
                        Use the first letter of the long-option name for the
                        short-option name.

                    2.
                        If the first letter conflicts with other short-option
                        names, choose a prominent consonant.

                    3.
                        If the first letter and the prominent consonant
                        conflict with other shortoption names, choose a
                        prominent vowel.

                    4.
                        If none of the letters of the long-option name are
                        usable, select an arbitrary character.

       20.
                If a long-option name consists of a single character, it must
                use the same character as the short-option name. Single
                character long-options should be avoided. They are only
                allowed for the exceptionally rare case that a single
                character is the most  descriptive name.

       21.
                The subcommand in the form described in guideline 1 of the
                additional CLIP guidelines is generally required. In the case
                where it is omitted, the command shall take no operands and
                only options which are defined to stop further argument
                processing when encountered are allowed. Invoking a command of
                this form without a subcommand and no arguments is an error.
                This guideline is provided to allow the common forms command
                --help, command -?, command --version, and command -V to be
                accepted in the command-subcommand construct.

       Several of these guidelines are only of interest to the authors of
       utilities. They are provided here for the use of anyone wanting to
       author utilities following this syntax.

       See attributes(5) for a discussion of the attributes listed in this
       section.

       getopts(1), wait(1), exit(2), getopt(3C), wait(3UCB), attributes(5)

       Upon termination, each command returns two bytes of status, one
       supplied by the system and giving the cause for termination, and (in
       the case of "normal" termination) one supplied by the program [see
       wait(3UCB) and exit(2)]. The former byte is 0 for normal termination.
       The latter byte is customarily 0 for successful execution and non-zero
       to indicate troubles such as erroneous parameters, or bad or
       inaccessible data. It is called variously "exit code", "exit status",
       or "return code", and is described only where special conventions are
       involved.

       Some commands produce unexpected results when processing files
       containing null characters. These commands often treat text input lines
       as strings and therefore become confused upon encountering a null
       character (the string terminator) within a line.

                                  28 Sep 2005                         Intro(1)

NAME

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