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intro(1)                FreeBSD General Commands Manual               intro(1)

       intro - introduction to command utilities and application programs

       This section describes commands accessible by users, as opposed to
       system calls in Section (2) or library routines in Section (3), which
       are accessible by user programs.

   Command Syntax
       Unless otherwise noted, commands described in this section accept
       options and other arguments according to the following syntax:

              name [ option ( s )] [ cmd_arg ( s )]

       where the elements are defined as follows:

              name      Name of an executable file.

              option    One or more options can appear on a command line.
                        Each takes one of the following forms:

                             A single letter representing an option without an

                             Two or more single-letter options
                                    combined into a single command-line

                             A single-letter option followed by a required
                             argument where:
                                              is the single letter
                                              representing an option that
                                              requires an argument,
                                              is an argument (character
                                              string) satisfying the preceding
                                       <>     represents optional white space.

              cmd_arg   Path name (or other command argument) not beginning
                        with or by itself indicating the standard input.  If
                        two or more cmd_args appear, they must be separated by
                        white space.

   Manual Entry Formats
       All manual entries follow an established topic format, but not all
       topics are included in each entry.

       Gives the name(s) of the entry and briefly states its purpose.

       Summarizes the use of the entry or program entity being described.  A
       few                 conventions are used:

                           strings are literals, and are to be typed exactly
                           as they appear in the manual (except for parameters
                           in the SYNOPSIS section of entries in Sections 2
                           and 3).

                           Italic strings represent substitutable argument
                           names and names of manual entries found elsewhere
                           in the manual.

                           Square brackets [] around an argument name indicate
                           that the argument is optional.

                           Ellipses (...) are used to show that the previous
                           argument can be repeated.

                           A final convention is used by the commands
                           themselves.  An argument beginning with a dash (-),
                           a plus sign (+), or an equal sign (=) is often
                           taken to be some sort of option argument, even if
                           it appears in a postion where a file name could
                           appear.  Therefore it is unwise to have file names
                           that begin with -, +, or =.

       Discusses the function and behavior of each entry.

       Information under this heading pertains to programming for various
       spoken              languages.  Typical entries indicate support for
                           single- and/or multi-byte characters, the effect of
                           language-related environment variables on system
                           behavior, and other related information.

       Information under this heading is applicable only if you are using the
                           networking feature described there (such as NFS).

       Discusses various values returned upon completion of program calls.

       Discusses diagnostics indications that may be produced.  Self-
       explanatory         messages are not listed.

       Lists error conditions and their corresponding error message or return

       Provides examples of typical usage, where appropriate.

       Points out potential pitfalls.

       Points out variations in HP-UX operation that are related to the user
       or                  specific hardware or hardware combinations.

       Indicate the origin of the software documented by the manual entry.

       Lists file names that are built into the program or command.

       Provides pointers to related topics.

       Discusses known bugs and deficiencies, occasionally suggesting fixes.

       This section        lists the standard specifications to which the HP-
                           UX component conforms.

       Upon termination, each command returns two bytes of status, one
       supplied by the system giving the cause for termination, and (in the
       case of ``normal'' termination) one supplied by the program (for
       descriptions, see wait(2) and exit(2)).  The system-supplied byte is 0
       for normal termination.  The byte provided by the program is
       customarily 0 for successful execution and non-zero to indicate errors
       or failure such as incorrect parameters in the command line, or bad or
       inaccessible data.  Values returned are usually called variously ``exit
       code'', ``exit status'', ``return code'', or ``return value'', and are
       described only where special conventions are involved.

       Some commands produce unexpected results when processing files
       containing null characters.  These commands often treat text input
       lines as strings, and therefore become confused when they encounter a
       null character (the string terminator) within a line.

       getopt(1), exit(2), wait(2), getopt(3C), hier(5), introduction(9).

       Web access to HP-UX documentation at



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