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intro(1)		    General Commands Manual		      intro(1)

       intro - introduction to command utilities and application programs

       This section describes commands accessible by users, as opposed to sys-
       tem calls in Section (2)	or library routines in Section (3), which  are
       accessible by user programs.

   Command Syntax
       Unless  otherwise  noted, commands described in this section accept op-
       tions and other arguments according to the following syntax:

	      name [ option ( s	)] [ cmd_arg ( s )]

       where the elements are defined as follows:

	      name	Name of	an executable file.

	      option	One or more options can	 appear	 on  a	command	 line.
			Each takes one of the following	forms:

			     A single letter representing an option without an

			     Two or more single-letter options
				    combined into a single command-line	 argu-

			     A single-letter option followed by	a required ar-
			     gument where:
					      is the single letter  represent-
					      ing  an  option that requires an
					      is   an	argument    (character
					      string) satisfying the preceding
				       <>     represents optional white	space.

	      cmd_arg	Path name (or other command  argument)	not  beginning
			with  or  by itself indicating the standard input.  If
			two or more cmd_args appear, they must be separated by
			white space.

   Manual Entry	Formats
       All manual entries follow an established	topic format, but not all top-
       ics are included	in each	entry.

       Gives the name(s) of the	entry and briefly states its purpose.

       Summarizes the use of the entry or program entity being	described.   A
			   conventions are used:

			   strings  are	 literals, and are to be typed exactly
			   as they appear in the manual	(except	for parameters
			   in  the  SYNOPSIS  section of entries in Sections 2
			   and 3).

			   Italic  strings  represent  substitutable  argument
			   names  and  names of	manual entries found elsewhere
			   in the manual.

			   Square brackets [] around an	argument name indicate
			   that	the argument is	optional.

			   Ellipses  (...)  are	used to	show that the previous
			   argument can	be repeated.

			   A final convention is used by  the  commands	 them-
			   selves.   An	 argument beginning with a dash	(-), a
			   plus	sign (+), or an	equal sign (=) is often	 taken
			   to  be some sort of option argument,	even if	it ap-
			   pears in a postion where a file name	could  appear.
			   Therefore  it is unwise to have file	names that be-
			   gin with -, +, or =.

       Discusses the function and behavior of each entry.

       Information under this heading pertains to programming for various spo-
			   languages.	Typical	 entries  indicate support for
			   single- and/or multi-byte characters, the effect of
			   language-related  environment  variables  on	system
			   behavior, and other related information.

       Information under this heading is applicable only if you	are using the
			   networking feature described	there (such as NFS).

       Discusses various values	returned upon completion of program calls.

       Discusses diagnostics indications that may be produced.	 Self-explana-
			   messages are	not listed.

       Lists error conditions and their	corresponding error message or return

       Provides	examples of typical usage, where appropriate.

       Points out potential pitfalls.

       Points  out  variations in HP-UX	operation that are related to the user
			   specific hardware or	hardware combinations.

       Indicate	the origin of the software documented by the manual entry.

       Lists file names	that are built into the	program	or command.

       Provides	pointers to related topics.

       Discusses known bugs and	deficiencies, occasionally suggesting fixes.

       This section	   lists the standard specifications to	which the  HP-
			   UX component	conforms.

       Upon  termination,  each	 command returns two bytes of status, one sup-
       plied by	the system giving the cause for	termination, and (in the  case
       of  ``normal''  termination)  one supplied by the program (for descrip-
       tions, see wait(2) and exit(2)).	 The system-supplied  byte  is	0  for
       normal  termination.  The byte provided by the program is customarily 0
       for successful execution	and non-zero to	 indicate  errors  or  failure
       such  as	incorrect parameters in	the command line, or bad or inaccessi-
       ble data.  Values returned are usually called variously ``exit  code'',
       ``exit  status'',  ``return  code'',  or	 ``return value'', and are de-
       scribed only where special conventions are involved.

       Some commands produce unexpected	results	when processing	files contain-
       ing  null  characters.	These commands often treat text	input lines as
       strings,	and therefore become confused when they	encounter a null char-
       acter (the string terminator) within a line.

       getopt(1), exit(2), wait(2), getopt(3C),	hier(5), introduction(9).

       Web access to HP-UX documentation at



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