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INSTALLBOOT(8)		  BSD System Manager's Manual		INSTALLBOOT(8)

NAME
     installboot -- install disk bootstrap software

SYNOPSIS
     installboot [-fnv]	[-B s2bno] [-b s1bno] [-m machine] [-o options]
		 [-t fstype] filesystem	primary	[secondary]
     installboot -c [-fnv] [-m machine]	[-o options] [-t fstype] filesystem
     installboot -e [-fnv] [-m machine]	[-o options] bootstrap

DESCRIPTION
     The installboot utility installs and removes NetBSD disk bootstrap	soft-
     ware into a file system.  installboot can install primary into
     filesystem, or disable an existing	bootstrap in filesystem.

     On	some architectures the options of an existing installed	bootstrap, or
     those of a	bootstrap file can be changed.	Installing a new primary boot-
     strap will	reset those options to default values.

     Generally,	NetBSD disk bootstrap software consists	of two parts: a
     "primary" bootstrap program usually written into the disklabel area of
     the file system by	installboot, and a "secondary" bootstrap program that
     usually resides as	an ordinary file in the	file system.

     When booting, the primary bootstrap program is loaded and invoked by the
     machine's PROM or BIOS.  After receiving control of the system it loads
     and runs the secondary bootstrap program, which in	turn loads and runs
     the kernel.  The secondary	bootstrap may allow control over various boot
     parameters	passed to the kernel.

     Perform the following steps to make a file	system bootable:

     1.	  Copy the secondary bootstrap (usually	/usr/mdec/boot.MACHINE or
	  /usr/mdec/boot) to the root directory	of the target file system.

     2.	  Use installboot to install the primary bootstrap program (usually
	  /usr/mdec/bootxx_FSTYPE) into	filesystem.

	  The following	platforms do not require this step if the primary
	  bootstrap already exists and the secondary bootstrap file is just
	  being	updated: alpha,	amd64, amiga, i386, pmax, sparc64, and vax.

	  The following	platform does not require the first step since a sin-
	  gle bootstrap	file is	used.  The single bootstrap is installed like
	  the primary bootstrap	on other platforms: next68k.

     The options and arguments recognized by installboot are as	follows:

     -B	s2bno	 When hard-coding the blocks of	secondary into primary,	start
		 from block s2bno instead of trying to determine the block
		 numbers occupied by secondary by examining filesystem.	 If
		 this option is	supplied, secondary should refer to an actual
		 secondary bootstrap (rather than the file name	of the one
		 present in filesystem)	so that	its size can be	determined.

     -b	s1bno	 Install primary at block number s1bno instead of the default
		 location for the machine and file system type.	 [alpha, pmax,
		 vax]

     -c		 Clear (remove)	any existing bootstrap instead of installing
		 one.

     -e		 Edit the options of an	existing bootstrap.  This can be use
		 to change the options in bootxx_xxxfs files, raw disk parti-
		 tions,	and the	pxeboot_ia32.bin file.	With -v	and without
		 -o, show the current options.	[amd64,	i386]

     -f		 Forces	installboot to ignore some errors.

     -m	machine	 Use machine as	the target machine type.  The default machine
		 is determined from uname(3) and then MACHINE.	The following
		 machines are currently	supported by installboot:

		       alpha, amd64, amiga, ews4800mips, hp300,	hp700, i386,
		       landisk,	macppc,	news68k, newsmips, next68k, pmax,
		       sparc, sparc64, sun2, sun3, vax,	x68k

     -n		 Do not	write to filesystem.

     -o	options	 Machine specific installboot options, comma separated.

		 Supported options are (with the machines for they are valid
		 in brackets):

		       alphasum	 [alpha] Recalculate and restore the Alpha
				 checksum.  This is the	default	for
				 NetBSD/alpha.

		       append	 [alpha, pmax, vax] Append primary to the end
				 of filesystem,	which must be a	regular	file
				 in this case.

		       bootconf	 [amd64, i386] (Don't) read a "boot.cfg" file.

		       command=<boot command>
				 [amiga] Modify	the default boot command line.

		       console=<console	name>
				 [amd64, i386] Set the console device, <con-
				 sole name> must be one	of: pc,	com0, com1,
				 com2, com3, com0kbd, com1kbd, com2kbd or
				 com3kbd.

		       ioaddr=<ioaddr>
				 [amd64, i386] Set the IO address to be	used
				 for the console serial	port.  Defaults	to the
				 IO address used by the	system BIOS for	the
				 specified port.

		       keymap=<keymap>
				 [amd64, i386] Set a boot time keyboard	trans-
				 lation	map.  Each character in	<keymap> will
				 be replaced by	the one	following it.  For ex-
				 ample,	an argument of "zyz" would swap	the
				 lowercase letters `y' and `z'.

		       modules	 [amd64, i386] (Don't) load kernel modules.

		       password=<password>
				 [amd64, i386] Set the password	which must be
				 entered before	the boot menu can be accessed.

		       resetvideo
				 [amd64, i386] Reset the video before booting.

		       speed=<baud rate>
				 [amd64, i386] Set the baud rate for the se-
				 rial console.	If a value of zero is speci-
				 fied, then the	current	baud rate (set by the
				 BIOS) will be used.

		       sunsum	 [alpha, pmax, vax] Recalculate	and restore
				 the Sun and NetBSD/sparc compatible checksum.
				 Note: The existing NetBSD/sparc disklabel
				 should	use no more than 4 partitions.

		       timeout=<seconds>
				 [amd64, i386] Set the timeout before the au-
				 tomatic boot begins to	the given number of
				 seconds.

     -t	fstype	 Use fstype as the type	of filesystem.	The default operation
		 is to attempt to auto-detect this setting.  The following
		 file system types are currently supported by installboot:

		       ffs   BSD Fast File System.

		       raid  Mirrored RAIDframe	File System.

		       raw   `Raw' image.  Note: if a platform needs to	hard-
			     code the block offset of the secondary bootstrap,
			     it	cannot be searched for on this file system
			     type, and must be provided	with -B	s2bno.

     -v		 Verbose operation.

     filesystem	 The path name of the device or	file system image that
		 installboot is	to operate on.	It is not necessary for
		 filesystem to be a currently mounted file system.

     primary	 The path name of the "primary"	boot block to install.	The
		 path name must	refer to a file	in a file system that is cur-
		 rently	mounted.

     secondary	 The path name of the "secondary" boot block, relative to the
		 root of the file system in the	device or image	specified by
		 the filesystem	argument.  Note	that this may refer to a file
		 in a file system that is not mounted.	Most systems require
		 secondary to be in the	"root" directory of the	file system,
		 so the	leading	"/" is not necessary on	secondary.

		 Only certain combinations of platform (-m machine) and	file
		 system	type (-t fstype) require that the name of the sec-
		 ondary	bootstrap is supplied as secondary, so that informa-
		 tion such as the disk block numbers occupied by the secondary
		 bootstrap can be stored in the	primary	bootstrap.  These are:

		       Platform	   File	systems
		       macppc	   ffs,	raw
		       news68k	   ffs,	raw
		       newsmips	   ffs,	raw
		       sparc	   ffs,	raid, raw
		       sun2	   ffs,	raw
		       sun3	   ffs,	raw

     installboot exits 0 on success, and >0 if an error	occurs.

ENVIRONMENT
     installboot uses the following environment	variables:

     MACHINE  Default value for	machine, overriding the	result from uname(3).

FILES
     Most NetBSD ports will contain variations of the following	files:

     /usr/mdec/bootxx_FSTYPE   Primary bootstrap for file system type FSTYPE.
			       Installed into the bootstrap area of the	file
			       system by installboot.

     /usr/mdec/bootxx_fat16    Primary bootstrap for MS-DOS FAT16 file sys-
			       tems.  This differs from	bootxx_msdos in	that
			       it doesn't require the filesystem to have been
			       initialised with	any `reserved sectors'.	 It
			       also uses the information in the	`Boot
			       Parameter Block'	to get the media and filesytem
			       properties.

     /usr/mdec/bootxx_ffsv1    Primary bootstrap for FFSv1 file	systems	(the
			       `traditional' file system prior to NetBSD 6.0).
			       Use dumpfs(8) to	confirm	the file system	format
			       is FFSv1.

     /usr/mdec/bootxx_ffsv2    Primary bootstrap for FFSv2 file	systems	(the
			       default file system for some platforms as of
			       NetBSD 6.0).  Use dumpfs(8) to confirm the file
			       system format is	FFSv2.

     /usr/mdec/bootxx_lfsv1    Primary bootstrap for LFSv1 file	systems.

     /usr/mdec/bootxx_lfsv2    Primary bootstrap for LFSv2 file	systems	(the
			       default LFS version).

     /usr/mdec/bootxx_msdos    Primary bootstrap for MS-DOS FAT	file systems.

     /usr/mdec/bootxx_ustarfs  Primary bootstrap for TARFS boot	images.	 This
			       is used by various install media.

     /usr/mdec/boot.MACHINE    Secondary bootstrap for machine type MACHINE.
			       This should be installed	into the file system
			       before installboot is run.

     /usr/mdec/boot	       Synonym for /usr/mdec/boot.MACHINE

     /boot.MACHINE	       Installed copy of secondary bootstrap for ma-
			       chine type MACHINE.

     /boot		       Installed copy of secondary bootstrap.
			       Searched	for by the primary bootstrap if
			       /boot.MACHINE is	not found.

   NetBSD/hp700	files
     /usr/mdec/xxboot	       NetBSD/hp700 primary bootstrap for FFSv1,
			       FFSv2, LFSv1, and LFSv2.

     /usr/mdec/cdboot	       NetBSD/hp700 primary bootstrap for ISO 9660
			       file system.

     /usr/mdec/sdboot	       Synonym for /usr/mdec/xxboot

   NetBSD/macppc files
     /usr/mdec/bootxx	       NetBSD/macppc primary bootstrap.

     /usr/mdec/ofwboot	       NetBSD/macppc secondary bootstrap.

     /ofwboot		       Installed copy of NetBSD/macppc secondary boot-
			       strap.

   NetBSD/next68k files
     /usr/mdec/boot	       NetBSD/next68k bootstrap.

   NetBSD/sparc64 files
     /usr/mdec/bootblk	       NetBSD/sparc64 primary bootstrap.

     /usr/mdec/ofwboot	       NetBSD/sparc64 secondary	bootstrap.

     /ofwboot		       Installed copy of NetBSD/sparc64	secondary
			       bootstrap.

EXAMPLES
   common
     Verbosely install the Berkeley Fast File System primary bootstrap on to
     disk `sd0':
	   installboot -v /dev/rsd0c /usr/mdec/bootxx_ffs
     Note: the "whole disk" partition (c on some ports,	d on others) is	used
     here, since the a partition probably is already opened (mounted as	/), so
     installboot would not be able to access it.

     Remove the	primary	bootstrap from disk `sd1':
	   installboot -c /dev/rsd1c

   NetBSD/amiga
     Modify the	command	line to	change the default from	"netbsd	-ASn2" to
     "netbsd -S":
	   installboot -m amiga	-o command="netbsd -S" /dev/rsd0a
	   /usr/mdec/bootxx_ffs

   NetBSD/ews4800mips
     Install the System	V Boot File System primary bootstrap on	to disk	`sd0',
     with the secondary	bootstrap `/boot' already present in the SysVBFS par-
     tition on the disk:
	   installboot /dev/rsd0c /usr/mdec/bootxx_bfs

   NetBSD/i386 and NetBSD/amd64
     Install new boot blocks on	an existing FFSv2 mounted root file system on
     `wd0', setting the	timeout	to five	seconds, after copying a new secondary
     bootstrap:
	   cp /usr/mdec/boot /boot
	   installboot -v -o timeout=5 /dev/rwd0a /usr/mdec/bootxx_ffsv2
		 Note: Pre NetBSD 6.0 systems used FFSv1 file systems on these
		 platforms; double check with dumpfs(8)	to be sure to use the
		 correct secondary bootstrap.

     Create a bootable CD-ROM with an ISO 9660 file system for an i386 system
     with a serial console:
	   mkdir cdrom
	   cp sys/arch/i386/compile/mykernel/netbsd cdrom/netbsd
	   cp /usr/mdec/boot cdrom/boot
	   cp /usr/mdec/bootxx_cd9660 bootxx
	   installboot -o console=com0,speed=19200 -m i386 -e bootxx
	   makefs -t cd9660 -o 'bootimage=i386;bootxx,no-emul-boot' boot.iso
		cdrom

     Create a bootable floppy disk with	an FFSv1 file system for a small cus-
     tom kernel	(note: bigger kernels needing multiple disks are handled with
     the ustarfs file system):
	   newfs -s 1440k /dev/rfd0a
		 Note: Ignore the warnings that	newfs(8) displays; it can not
		 write a disklabel, which is not a problem for a floppy	disk.
	   mount /dev/fd0a /mnt
	   cp /usr/mdec/boot /mnt/boot
	   gzip	-9 < sys/arch/i386/compile/mykernel/netbsd > /mnt/netbsd.gz
	   umount /mnt
	   installboot -v /dev/rfd0a /usr/mdec/bootxx_ffsv1

     Create a bootable FAT file	system on `wd1a', which	should have the	same
     offset and	size as	a FAT primary partition	in the Master Boot Record
     (MBR):
	   newfs_msdos -r 16 /dev/rwd1a
		 Notes:	The -r 16 is to	reserve	space for the primary boot-
		 strap.	 newfs_msdos(8)	will display an	"MBR type" such	as
		 `1', `4', or `6'; the MBR partition type of the appropriate
		 primary partition should be changed to	this value.
	   mount -t msdos /dev/wd1a /mnt
	   cp /usr/mdec/boot /mnt/boot
	   cp path/to/kernel /mnt/netbsd
	   umount /mnt
	   installboot -t raw /dev/rwd1a /usr/mdec/bootxx_msdos

     Make the existing FAT16 filesystem	on `sd0e' bootable.  This can be used
     to	make USB memory	bootable provided it has 512 byte sectors and that the
     manufacturer correctly initialised	the file system.
	   mount -t msdos /dev/sd0e /mnt
	   cp /usr/mdec/boot /mnt/boot
	   cp path/to/kernel /mnt/netbsd
	   umount /mnt
	   installboot /dev/rsd0e /usr/mdec/bootxx_fat16
     It	may also be necessary to use fdisk to make the device itself bootable.

     Switch the	existing installed bootstrap to	use a serial console without
     reinstalling or altering other options such as timeout.
	   installboot -e -o console=com0 /dev/rwd0a

   NetBSD/macppc
     Note the installboot utility is only required for macppc machines with
     OpenFirmware version 2 to boot.  OpenFirmware 3 cannot load bootblocks
     specified in the Apple partition map.

     Install the Berkeley Fast File System primary bootstrap on	to disk	`wd0':
	   installboot /dev/rwd0c /usr/mdec/bootxx /ofwboot

     The secondary NetBSD/macppc bootstrap is located in /usr/mdec/ofwboot.

     The primary bootstrap requires the	raw ofwboot for	the secondary boot-
     strap, not	ofwboot.xcf, which is used for the OpenFirmware	to load	ker-
     nels.

   NetBSD/next68k
     Install the bootstrap on to disk `sd0':
	   installboot /dev/rsd0c /usr/mdec/boot

   NetBSD/pmax
     Install the Berkeley Fast File System primary bootstrap on	to disk	`sd0':
	   installboot /dev/rsd0c /usr/mdec/bootxx_ffs

     NetBSD/pmax requires that this file system	starts at block	0 of the disk.

     Install the ISO 9660 primary bootstrap in the file	/tmp/cd-image:
	   installboot -m pmax /tmp/cd-image /usr/mdec/bootxx_cd9660

     Make an ISO 9660 filesystem in the	file /tmp/cd-image and install the ISO
     9660 primary bootstrap in the filesystem, where the source	directory for
     the ISO 9660 filesystem contains a	kernel,	the primary bootstrap
     bootxx_cd9660 and the secondary bootstrap boot.pmax:
	   mkisofs -o /tmp/cd-image -a -l -v iso-source-dir
	   ...
	   48 51 iso-source-dir/bootxx_cd9660
	   ...
	   installboot -b `expr	48 \* 4` /tmp/cd-image /usr/mdec/bootxx_cd9660

   NetBSD/sparc
     Install the Berkeley Fast File System primary bootstrap on	to disk	`sd0',
     with the secondary	bootstrap `/boot' already present:
	   installboot /dev/rsd0c /usr/mdec/bootxx /boot

   NetBSD/sparc64
     Install the primary bootstrap on to disk `sd0':
	   installboot /dev/rsd0c /usr/mdec/bootblk

     The secondary NetBSD/sparc64 bootstrap is located in /usr/mdec/ofwboot.

   NetBSD/sun2 and NetBSD/sun3
     Install the Berkeley Fast File System primary bootstrap on	to disk	`sd0',
     with the secondary	bootstrap `/boot' already present:
	   installboot /dev/rsd0c /usr/mdec/bootxx /boot

SEE ALSO
     uname(3), boot(8),	disklabel(8), dumpfs(8), fdisk(8), pxeboot(8)

HISTORY
     This implementation of installboot	appeared in NetBSD 1.6.

AUTHORS
     The machine independent portion of	this implementation of installboot was
     written by	Luke Mewburn.  The following people contributed	to the various
     machine dependent back-ends: Simon	Burge (pmax), Chris Demetriou (alpha),
     Matthew Fredette (sun2, sun3), Matthew Green (sparc64), Ross Harvey (al-
     pha), Michael Hitch (amiga), Paul Kranenburg (sparc), David Laight
     (i386), Christian Limpach (next68k), Luke Mewburn (macppc), Matt Thomas
     (vax), Izumi Tsutsui (news68k, newsmips), and UCHIYAMA Yasushi
     (ews4800mips).

BUGS
     There are not currently primary bootstraps	to support all file systems
     types which are capable of	being the root file system.

     If	a disk has been	converted from FFS to RAID without the contents	of the
     disk erased, then the original FFS	installation may be auto-detected in-
     stead of the RAID installation.  In this case, the	-t raid	option must be
     provided.

   NetBSD/alpha
     The NetBSD/alpha primary bootstrap	program	can only load the secondary
     bootstrap program from file systems starting at the beginning (block 0)
     of	disks.	Similarly, the secondary bootstrap program can only load ker-
     nels from file systems starting at	the beginning of disks.

     The size of primary bootstrap programs is restricted to 7.5KB, even
     though some file systems (e.g., ISO 9660) are able	to accommodate larger
     ones.

   NetBSD/hp300
     The disk must have	a boot partition large enough to hold the bootstrap
     code.  Currently the primary bootstrap must be a LIF format file.

   NetBSD/i386 and NetBSD/amd64
     The bootstrap must	be installed in	the NetBSD partition that starts at
     the beginning of the mbr partition.  If that is a valid filesystem	and
     contains the /boot	program	then it	will be	used as	the root filesystem,
     otherwise the `a' partition will be booted.

     The size of primary bootstrap programs is restricted to 8KB, even though
     some file systems (e.g., ISO 9660)	are able to accommodate	larger ones.

   NetBSD/macppc
     Due to restrictions in installboot	and the	secondary bootstrap implemen-
     tation, file systems where	kernels	exist must start at the	beginning of
     disks.

     Currently,	installboot doesn't recognize an existing Apple	partition map
     on	the disk and always writes a faked map to make disks bootable.

     The NetBSD/macppc bootstrap program can't load kernels from FFSv2 parti-
     tions.

   NetBSD/next68k
     The size of bootstrap programs is restricted to the free space before the
     file system at the	beginning of the disk minus 8KB.

   NetBSD/pmax
     The NetBSD/pmax secondary bootstrap program can only load kernels from
     file systems starting at the beginning of disks.

     The size of primary bootstrap programs is restricted to 7.5KB, even
     though some file systems (e.g., ISO 9660) are able	to accommodate larger
     ones.

   NetBSD/sun2 and NetBSD/sun3
     The NetBSD/sun2 and NetBSD/sun3 secondary bootstrap program can only load
     kernels from file systems starting	at the beginning of disks.

   NetBSD/vax
     The NetBSD/vax secondary bootstrap	program	can only load kernels from
     file systems starting at the beginning of disks.

     The size of primary bootstrap programs is restricted to 7.5KB, even
     though some file systems (e.g., ISO 9660) are able	to accommodate larger
     ones.

BSD			       February	11, 2012			   BSD

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | ENVIRONMENT | FILES | EXAMPLES | SEE ALSO | HISTORY | AUTHORS | BUGS

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