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INOTIFY(7)		   Linux Programmer's Manual		    INOTIFY(7)

       inotify - monitoring file system	events

       The inotify API provides	a mechanism for	monitoring file	system events.
       Inotify can be used to monitor individual files,	or to monitor directo-
       ries.   When  a	directory is monitored,	inotify	will return events for
       the directory itself, and for files inside the directory.

       The following system calls are used with	this API: inotify_init(2)  (or
       inotify_init1(2)),  inotify_add_watch(2), inotify_rm_watch(2), read(2),
       and close(2).

       inotify_init(2) creates an inotify instance and returns a file descrip-
       tor   referring	 to  the  inotify  instance.   The  more  recent  ino-
       tify_init1(2) is	like inotify_init(2), but provides  some  extra	 func-

       inotify_add_watch(2)  manipulates  the  "watch list" associated with an
       inotify instance.  Each item ("watch") in the watch list	specifies  the
       pathname	of a file or directory,	along with some	set of events that the
       kernel should monitor for the file referred to by that pathname.	  ino-
       tify_add_watch(2)  either  creates  a  new  watch  item,	or modifies an
       existing	watch.	Each watch has a unique	"watch descriptor", an integer
       returned	by inotify_add_watch(2)	when the watch is created.

       inotify_rm_watch(2) removes an item from	an inotify watch list.

       When  all  file	descriptors referring to an inotify instance have been
       closed, the underlying object and its resources are freed for reuse  by
       the kernel; all associated watches are automatically freed.

       To  determine  what  events have	occurred, an application read(2)s from
       the inotify file	descriptor.  If	no events have so far occurred,	 then,
       assuming	 a blocking file descriptor, read(2) will block	until at least
       one event occurs	(unless	interrupted by a signal,  in  which  case  the
       call fails with the error EINTR;	see signal(7)).

       Each  successful	read(2)	returns	a buffer containing one	or more	of the
       following structures:

	   struct inotify_event	{
	       int	wd;	  /* Watch descriptor */
	       uint32_t	mask;	  /* Mask of events */
	       uint32_t	cookie;	  /* Unique cookie associating related
				     events (for rename(2)) */
	       uint32_t	len;	  /* Size of name field	*/
	       char	name[];	  /* Optional null-terminated name */

       wd identifies the watch for which this event occurs.  It	is one of  the
       watch  descriptors returned by a	previous call to inotify_add_watch(2).

       mask contains bits that describe	the event that occurred	(see below).

       cookie is a unique integer that	connects  related  events.   Currently
       this  is	 only used for rename events, and allows the resulting pair of
       IN_MOVE_FROM and	IN_MOVE_TO events to be	connected by the  application.

       The  name  field	 is  only present when an event	is returned for	a file
       inside a	watched	directory; it identifies the file pathname relative to
       the  watched  directory.	  This	pathname  is  null-terminated, and may
       include further null bytes to align  subsequent	reads  to  a  suitable
       address boundary.

       The  len	 field	counts	all  of	 the bytes in name, including the null
       bytes; the length of each inotify_event structure is  thus  sizeof(ino-

       The  behavior  when  the	buffer given to	read(2)	is too small to	return
       information about the next event	depends	on the kernel version: in ker-
       nels  before  2.6.21,  read(2)  returns 0; since	kernel 2.6.21, read(2)
       fails with the error EINVAL.

   inotify events
       The inotify_add_watch(2)	mask argument and the mask field of  the  ino-
       tify_event  structure returned when read(2)ing an inotify file descrip-
       tor are both bit	masks identifying inotify events.  The following  bits
       can  be	specified in mask when calling inotify_add_watch(2) and	may be
       returned	in the mask field returned by read(2):

	   IN_ACCESS	     File was accessed (read) (*).
	   IN_ATTRIB	     Metadata changed, e.g., permissions,  timestamps,
			     extended  attributes,  link  count	 (since	 Linux
			     2.6.25), UID, GID,	etc. (*).
	   IN_CLOSE_WRITE    File opened for writing was closed	(*).
	   IN_CLOSE_NOWRITE  File not opened for writing was closed (*).
	   IN_CREATE	     File/directory created in watched directory  (*).
	   IN_DELETE	     File/directory  deleted  from  watched  directory
	   IN_DELETE_SELF    Watched file/directory was	itself deleted.
	   IN_MODIFY	     File was modified (*).
	   IN_MOVE_SELF	     Watched file/directory was	itself moved.
	   IN_MOVED_FROM     File moved	out of watched directory (*).
	   IN_MOVED_TO	     File moved	into watched directory (*).
	   IN_OPEN	     File was opened (*).

       When monitoring a directory, the	events marked  with  an	 asterisk  (*)
       above  can  occur  for  files  in the directory,	in which case the name
       field in	the returned inotify_event structure identifies	 the  name  of
       the file	within the directory.

       The  IN_ALL_EVENTS  macro  is defined as	a bit mask of all of the above
       events.	This macro can be used as the mask argument when calling  ino-

       Two  additional	convenience  macros  are  IN_MOVE,  which  equates  to
       IN_MOVED_FROM|IN_MOVED_TO,    and    IN_CLOSE	which	 equates    to

       The  following  further bits can	be specified in	mask when calling ino-

	   IN_DONT_FOLLOW (since Linux 2.6.15)
			     Don't dereference pathname	if it  is  a  symbolic
	   IN_MASK_ADD	     Add  (OR)	events to watch	mask for this pathname
			     if	it already exists (instead of replacing	mask).
	   IN_ONESHOT	     Monitor  pathname for one event, then remove from
			     watch list.
	   IN_ONLYDIR (since Linux 2.6.15)
			     Only watch	pathname if it is a directory.

       The following bits may be set in	the mask field returned	by read(2):

	   IN_IGNORED	     Watch    was     removed	  explicitly	 (ino-
			     tify_rm_watch(2))	 or  automatically  (file  was
			     deleted, or file system was unmounted).
	   IN_ISDIR	     Subject of	this event is a	directory.
	   IN_Q_OVERFLOW     Event queue overflowed (wd	is -1 for this event).
	   IN_UNMOUNT	     File   system   containing	  watched  object  was

   /proc interfaces
       The following interfaces	can be used to limit the amount	of kernel mem-
       ory consumed by inotify:

	      The  value  in  this file	is used	when an	application calls ino-
	      tify_init(2) to set an upper limit on the	number of events  that
	      can  be queued to	the corresponding inotify instance.  Events in
	      excess of	this limit are dropped,	but an IN_Q_OVERFLOW event  is
	      always generated.

	      This specifies an	upper limit on the number of inotify instances
	      that can be created per real user	ID.

	      This specifies an	upper limit on the number of watches that  can
	      be created per real user ID.

       Inotify	was merged into	the 2.6.13 Linux kernel.  The required library
       interfaces were	added  to  glibc  in  version  2.4.   (IN_DONT_FOLLOW,
       IN_MASK_ADD, and	IN_ONLYDIR were	only added in version 2.5.)

       The inotify API is Linux-specific.

       Inotify file descriptors	can be monitored using select(2), poll(2), and
       epoll(7).  When an event	is available, the file descriptor indicates as

       Since  Linux  2.6.25,  signal-driven  I/O notification is available for
       inotify file descriptors; see the discussion of	F_SETFL	 (for  setting
       the  O_ASYNC  flag), F_SETOWN, and F_SETSIG in fcntl(2).	 The siginfo_t
       structure (described in sigaction(2)) that is passed to the signal han-
       dler  has  the  following  fields set: si_fd is set to the inotify file
       descriptor number; si_signo is set to the signal	number;	si_code	is set
       to POLL_IN; and POLLIN is set in	si_band.

       If  successive  output  inotify	events	produced  on  the inotify file
       descriptor are identical	(same wd, mask,	cookie,	and  name)  then  they
       are  coalesced  into a single event if the older	event has not yet been
       read (but see BUGS).

       The events returned by reading from an inotify file descriptor form  an
       ordered	queue.	Thus, for example, it is guaranteed that when renaming
       from one	directory to another, events will be produced in  the  correct
       order on	the inotify file descriptor.

       The  FIONREAD  ioctl(2)	returns	 the number of bytes available to read
       from an inotify file descriptor.

       Inotify monitoring of directories is not	recursive: to  monitor	subdi-
       rectories under a directory, additional watches must be created.

       In kernels before 2.6.16, the IN_ONESHOT	mask flag does not work.

       Before  kernel  2.6.25,	the  kernel code that was intended to coalesce
       successive identical events (i.e., the two  most	 recent	 events	 could
       potentially  be	coalesced  if the older	had not	yet been read) instead
       checked if the most recent event	could be  coalesced  with  the	oldest
       unread event.

       inotify_add_watch(2),	 inotify_init(2),    inotify_init1(2),	  ino-
       tify_rm_watch(2),  read(2),   stat(2),	Documentation/filesystems/ino-

       This  page  is  part of release 3.25 of the Linux man-pages project.  A
       description of the project, and information about reporting  bugs,  can
       be found	at

Linux				  2008-11-18			    INOTIFY(7)


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