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INKSCAPE(1)		   Inkscape Commands Manual		   INKSCAPE(1)

NAME
       Inkscape	- an SVG (Scalable Vector Graphics) editing program.

SYNOPSIS
       "inkscape [options] [filename_1 filename_2 ...]"

       options:

	   -?, --help
	   -V, --version
	       --system-data-directory
	       --user-data-directory

	   -p, --pipe
	       --pdf-page=PAGE
	       --pdf-poppler
	       --convert-dpi-method=METHOD
	       --no-convert-text-baseline-spacing

	   -o, --export-filename=FILENAME
	       --export-overwrite
	       --export-type=TYPE[,TYPE]*

	   -C, --export-area-page
	   -D, --export-area-drawing
	   -a, --export-area=x0:y0:x1:y1
	       --export-area-snap
	   -d, --export-dpi=DPI
	   -w, --export-width=WIDTH
	   -h, --export-height=HEIGHT
	       --export-margin=MARGIN

	   -i, --export-id=OBJECT-ID[;OBJECT-ID]*
	   -j, --export-id-only
	   -l, --export-plain-svg
	       --export-ps-level=LEVEL
	       --export-pdf-version=VERSION
	   -T, --export-text-to-path
	       --export-latex
	       --export-ignore-filters
	   -t, --export-use-hints
	   -b, --export-background=COLOR
	   -y, --export-background-opacity=VALUE

	   -I, --query-id=OBJECT-ID[,OBJECT-ID]*
	   -S, --query-all
	   -X, --query-x
	   -Y, --query-y
	   -W, --query-width
	   -H, --query-height

	       --vacuum-defs
	       --select=OBJECT-ID[,OBJECT-ID]*
	       --actions=ACTION(:ARG)[;ACTION(:ARG)]*
	       --action-list
	       --verb=VERB[;VERB]*
	       --verb-list

	   -g, --with-gui
	       --batch-process
	       --shell

DESCRIPTION
       Inkscape	is a GUI editor	for Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) format
       drawing files, with capabilities	similar	to Adobe Illustrator,
       CorelDraw, Xara Xtreme, etc. Inkscape features include versatile
       shapes, bezier paths, freehand drawing, multi-line text,	text on	path,
       alpha blending, arbitrary affine	transforms, gradient and pattern
       fills, node editing, many export	and import formats including PNG and
       PDF, grouping, layers, live clones, and a lot more.  The	interface is
       designed	to be comfortable and efficient	for skilled users, while
       remaining conformant to GNOME standards so that users familiar with
       other GNOME applications	can learn its interface	rapidly.

       SVG is a	W3C standard XML format	for 2D vector drawing. It allows
       defining	objects	in the drawing using points, paths, and	primitive
       shapes.	Colors,	fonts, stroke width, and so forth are specified	as
       `style' attributes to these objects.  The intent	is that	since SVG is a
       standard, and since its files are text/xml, it will be possible to use
       SVG files in a sizeable number of programs and for a wide range of
       uses.

       Inkscape	uses SVG as its	native document	format,	and has	the goal of
       becoming	the most fully compliant drawing program for SVG files
       available in the	Open Source community.

OPTIONS
       -?, --help
	       Shows a help message.

       -V, --version
	       Shows the Inkscape version and build date.

       --system-data-directory
	       Prints the system data directory	where data files that ship
	       with Inkscape are stored. This includes files which Inkscape
	       requires	to run (like unit definitions, built-in	key maps,
	       files describing	UI layout, icon	themes,	etc.), core
	       extensions, stock resources (filters, fonts, markers, color
	       palettes, symbols, templates) and documentation (SVG example
	       files, tutorials).

	       The location in which Inkscape expects the system data
	       directory can be	overridden with	the INKSCAPE_DATADIR
	       environment variable.

       --user-data-directory
	       Prints the user profile directory where user-specific data
	       files and preferences are stored.  Custom extensions and
	       resources (filters, fonts, markers, color palettes, symbols,
	       templates) should be installed into their respective
	       subdirectories in this directory. In addition placing a file
	       with a name identical to	one in the system data directory here
	       allows to override most presets from the	system data directory
	       (e.g. default templates,	UI files, etc.).

	       The default location of the profile directory can be overridden
	       with the	INKSCAPE_PROFILE_DIR environment variable.

       -p, --pipe
	       Reads input file	from standard input (stdin).

       --pdf-page=PAGE
	       Imports the given page of a pdf file. Numbering starts with 1.

       --pdf-poppler
	       By default Inkscape imports PDF files via an internal (poppler-
	       derived)	library.  Text is stored as text. Meshes are converted
	       to tiles.  Use --pdf-poppler to import via an external (poppler
	       with cairo backend) library instead. Text consists of groups
	       containing cloned glyphs	where each glyph is a path.  Images
	       are stored internally. Meshes cause entire document to be
	       rendered	as a raster image.

       --convert-dpi-method=METHOD
	       Choose method used to rescale legacy (pre-0.92) files which
	       render slightly smaller due to the switch from 90 DPI to	96 DPI
	       when interpreting lengths expressed in units of pixels.
	       Possible	values are "none" (no change, document will render at
	       94% of its original size), "scale-viewbox" (document will be
	       rescaled	globally, individual lengths will stay untouched) and
	       "scale-document"	(each length will be re-scaled individually).

       --no-convert-text-baseline-spacing
	       Do not automatically fix	text baselines in legacy (pre-0.92)
	       files on	opening.  Inkscape 0.92	adopts the CSS standard
	       definition for the 'line-height'	property, which	differs	from
	       past versions.  By default, the line height values in files
	       created prior to	Inkscape 0.92 will be adjusted on loading to
	       preserve	the intended text layout.  This	command	line option
	       will skip that adjustment.

       -o, --export-filename=FILENAME
	       Sets the	name of	the output file. The default is	to re-use the
	       name of the input file.	If --export-type is also used, the
	       file extension will be adjusted (or added) as appropriate.
	       Otherwise the file type to export will be inferred from the
	       extension of the	specified filename.

	       Usage of	the special filename "-" makes Inkscape	write the
	       image data to standard output (stdout).

       --export-overwrite
	       Overwrites input	file.

       --export-type=TYPE[,TYPE]*
	       Specify the file	type to	export.	Possible values: svg, png, ps,
	       eps, pdf, emf, wmf, xaml. It is possible	to export more than
	       one file	type at	a time.

	       Note that PostScript does not support transparency, so any
	       transparent objects in the original SVG will be automatically
	       rasterized. Used	fonts are subset and embedded. The default
	       export area is page; you	can set	it to drawing by
	       --export-area-drawing.

	       Note that PDF format preserves the transparency in the original
	       SVG.

       -C, --export-area-page
	       In SVG, PNG, PDF, PS exported area is the page. This is the
	       default for SVG,	PNG, PDF, and PS, so you don't need to specify
	       this unless you are using --export-id to	export a specific
	       object. For EPS this option is currently	not supported.

       -D, --export-area-drawing
	       In SVG, PNG, PDF, PS, and EPS export, exported area is the
	       drawing (not page), i.e.	the bounding box of all	objects	of the
	       document	(or of the exported object if --export-id is used).
	       With this option, the exported image will display all the
	       visible objects of the document without margins or cropping.
	       This is the default export area for EPS.	For PNG, it can	be
	       used in combination with	--export-use-hints.

       -a x0:y0:x1:y1, --export-area=x0:y0:x1:y1
	       In PNG export, set the exported area in SVG user	units
	       (anonymous length units normally	used in	Inkscape SVG).	The
	       default is to export the	entire document	page.  The point (0,0)
	       is the lower-left corner.

       --export-area-snap
	       For PNG export, snap the	export area outwards to	the nearest
	       integer SVG user	unit (px) values. If you are using the default
	       export resolution of 96 dpi and your graphics are pixel-snapped
	       to minimize antialiasing, this switch allows you	to preserve
	       this alignment even if you are exporting	some object's bounding
	       box (with --export-id or	--export-area-drawing) which is	itself
	       not pixel-aligned.

       -d DPI, --export-dpi=DPI
	       The resolution used for PNG export.  It is also used for
	       fallback	rasterization of filtered objects when exporting to
	       PS, EPS,	or PDF (unless you specify --export-ignore-filters to
	       suppress	rasterization).	The default is 96 dpi, which
	       corresponds to 1	SVG user unit (px, also	called "user unit")
	       exporting to 1 bitmap pixel.  This value	overrides the DPI hint
	       if used with --export-use-hints.

       -w WIDTH, --export-width=WIDTH
	       The width of generated bitmap in	pixels.	 This value overrides
	       the --export-dpi	setting	(or the	DPI hint if used with
	       --export-use-hints).

       -h HEIGHT, --export-height=HEIGHT
	       The height of generated bitmap in pixels.  This value overrides
	       the --export-dpi	setting	(or the	DPI hint if used with
	       --export-use-hints).

       --export-margin=MARGIN
	       Adds a margin around the	exported area. The size	of the margin
	       is specified in units of	page size (for SVG) or millimeters
	       (for PS/PDF).  The option currently has no effect for other
	       export formats.

       -i ID, --export-id=OBJECT-ID[;OBJECT-ID]*
	       For PNG,	PS, EPS, PDF and plain SVG export, the id attribute
	       value of	the object(s) that you want to export from the
	       document; all other objects are not exported.  By default the
	       exported	area is	the bounding box of the	object;	you can
	       override	this using --export-area (PNG only) or
	       --export-area-page.

	       If you specify many values with a semicolon separated list of
	       objects,	each one will be exported separately. In this case the
	       exported	files will be named this way:
	       [input_filename]_[ID].[export_type]

       -j, --export-id-only
	       For PNG and plain SVG, only export the object whose id is given
	       in --export-id. All other objects are hidden and	won't show in
	       export even if they overlay the exported	object.	 Without
	       --export-id, this option	is ignored. For	PDF export, this is
	       the default, so this option has no effect.

       -l, --export-plain-svg
	       Export document(s) to plain SVG format, without sodipodi: or
	       inkscape: namespaces and	without	RDF metadata. Use the
	       --export-filename option	to specify the filename.

       --export-ps-level=LEVEL
	       Set language version for	PS and EPS export. PostScript level 2
	       or 3 is supported. Default is 3.

       --export-pdf-version=VERSION
	       Select the PDF version of the exported PDF file.	This option
	       basically exposes the PDF version selector found	in the PDF-
	       export dialog of	the GUI. You must provide one of the versions
	       from that combo-box, e.g. "1.4".	The default pdf	export version
	       is "1.4".

       -T, --export-text-to-path
	       Convert text objects to paths on	export,	where applicable (for
	       PS, EPS,	PDF and	SVG export).

       --export-latex
	       (for PS,	EPS, and PDF export) Used for creating images for
	       LaTeX documents,	where the image's text is typeset by LaTeX.
	       When exporting to PDF/PS/EPS format, this option	splits the
	       output into a PDF/PS/EPS	file (e.g. as specified	by
	       --export-type) and a LaTeX file.	Text will not be output	in the
	       PDF/PS/EPS file,	but instead will appear	in the LaTeX file.
	       This LaTeX file includes	the PDF/PS/EPS.	Inputting
	       (\input{image.tex}) the LaTeX file in your LaTeX	document will
	       show the	image and all text will	be typeset by LaTeX. See the
	       resulting LaTeX file for	more information.  Also	see GNUPlot's
	       `epslatex' output terminal.

       --export-ignore-filters
	       Export filtered objects (e.g. those with	blur) as vectors,
	       ignoring	the filters (for PS, EPS, and PDF export).  By
	       default,	all filtered objects are rasterized at --export-dpi
	       (default	96 dpi), preserving the	appearance.

       -t, --export-use-hints
	       While exporting to PNG, use export filename and DPI hints
	       stored in the exported object (only with	--export-id).  These
	       hints are set automatically when	you export selection from
	       within Inkscape.	 So, for example, if you export	a shape	with
	       id="path231" as /home/me/shape.png at 300 dpi from document.svg
	       using Inkscape GUI, and save the	document, then later you will
	       be able to reexport that	shape to the same file with the	same
	       resolution simply with

		   inkscape -i path231 -t document.svg

	       If you use --export-dpi,	--export-width,	or --export-height
	       with this option, then the DPI hint will	be ignored and the
	       value from the command line will	be used.  If you use
	       --export-filename with this option, then	the filename hint will
	       be ignored and the filename from	the command line will be used.

       -b COLOR, --export-background=COLOR
	       Background color	of exported PNG.  This may be any SVG
	       supported color string, for example "#ff007f" or	"rgb(255, 0,
	       128)".  If not set, then	the page color set in Inkscape in the
	       Document	Options	dialog will be used (stored in the pagecolor=
	       attribute of sodipodi:namedview).

       -y VALUE, --export-background-opacity=VALUE
	       Opacity of the background of exported PNG.  This	may be a value
	       either between 0.0 and 1.0 (0.0 meaning full transparency, 1.0
	       full opacity) or	greater	than 1 up to 255 (255 meaning full
	       opacity).  If not set and the -b	option is not used, then the
	       page opacity set	in Inkscape in the Document Options dialog
	       will be used (stored in the inkscape:pageopacity= attribute of
	       sodipodi:namedview).  If	not set	but the	-b option is used,
	       then the	value of 255 (full opacity) will be used.

       -I, --query-id=OBJECT-ID[,OBJECT-ID]*
	       Set the ID(s) of	the object(s) whose dimensions are queried in
	       a comma-separated list. If not set, query options will return
	       the dimensions of the drawing (i.e. all document	objects), not
	       the page	or viewbox.

	       If you specify many values with a comma separated list of
	       objects,	any geometry query (e.g. --query-x) will return	a
	       comma separated list of values corresponding to the list	of
	       objects in --query-id.

       -S, --query-all
	       Prints a	comma delimited	listing	of all objects in the SVG
	       document	with IDs defined, along	with their x, y, width,	and
	       height values.

       -X, --query-x
	       Query the X coordinate of the drawing or, if specified, of the
	       object with --query-id. The returned value is in	px (SVG	user
	       units).

       -Y, --query-y
	       Query the Y coordinate of the drawing or, if specified, of the
	       object with --query-id. The returned value is in	px (SVG	user
	       units).

       -W, --query-width
	       Query the width of the drawing or, if specified,	of the object
	       with --query-id.	The returned value is in px (SVG user units).

       -H, --query-height
	       Query the height	of the drawing or, if specified, of the	object
	       with --query-id.	The returned value is in px (SVG user units).

       --vacuum-defs
	       Remove all unused items from the	"<defs>" section of the	SVG
	       file.  If this option is	invoked	in conjunction with
	       --export-plain-svg, only	the exported file will be affected.
	       If it is	used alone, the	specified file will be modified	in
	       place.

       --select=OBJECT-ID[,OBJECT-ID]*
	       The --select command will cause objects that have the ID
	       specified to be selected.  You can select many objects width a
	       comma separated list.  This allows various verbs	to act upon
	       them.  To remove	all the	selections use "--verb=EditDeselect".
	       The object IDs available	are dependent on the document
	       specified to load.

       --actions=ACTION(:ARG)[;ACTION(:ARG)]*
	       Actions are a new method	to call	functions with an optional
	       single parameter.  To get a list	of the action IDs available,
	       use the --action-list command line option.  Eventually all
	       verbs will be replaced by actions.   Temporarily, any verb can
	       be used as an action (without a parameter).  Note, most verbs
	       require a GUI (even if they don't use it). To close the GUI
	       automatically at	the end	of processing, use --batch-process.
	       In addition all export options have matching actions (remove
	       the '--'	in front of the	option and replace '=' with ':').

	       If only actions are used	--batch-process	must be	used.

	       Export can be forced at any point with the export-do action.
	       This allows one to do multiple exports on a single file.

       --action-list
	       Prints a	list of	all available actions.

       --verb=VERB[;VERB]*
	       The --verb command will execute a specific verb or list of
	       verbs as	if they	were called from a menu	or button. Dialogs
	       will appear if that is part of the verb.	 To get	a list of the
	       verb IDs	available, use the --verb-list command line option.

	       Note that the --verb command requires a GUI.

	       Together	with --select provides some basic scripting for
	       Inkscape	from the command line.	They both can receive many
	       arguments as needed on the command line and are executed	in
	       order on	every document.

       --verb-list
	       Lists all the verbs that	are available in Inkscape by ID. This
	       ID can be used in defining keymaps or menus. It can also	be
	       used with the --verb command line option.

       -g, --with-gui
	       Try to use the GUI (on Unix, use	the X server even if $DISPLAY
	       is not set).

       --batch-process
	       Close GUI after executing all actions or	verbs.

       --shell With this parameter, Inkscape will enter	an interactive command
	       line shell mode.	In this	mode, you type in commands at the
	       prompt and Inkscape executes them, without you having to	run a
	       new copy	of Inkscape for	each command. This feature is mostly
	       useful for scripting and	server uses: it	adds no	new
	       capabilities but	allows you to improve the speed	and memory
	       requirements of any script that repeatedly calls	Inkscape to
	       perform command line tasks (such	as export or conversions).

	       In shell	mode Inkscape expects a	sequence of actions (or	verbs)
	       as input.  They will be processed line by line, that means
	       typically when pressing enter.  It is possible (but not
	       necessary) to put all actions on	a single line.

	       The following example opens a file and exports it into two
	       different formats, then opens another file and exports a	single
	       object:

		   file-open:file1.svg;	export-type:pdf; export-do; export-type:png; export-do
		   file-open:file2.svg;	export-id:rect2; export-id-only; export-filename:rect_only.svg;	export-do

CONFIGURATION
       The main	configuration file is located in
       ~/.config/inkscape/preferences.xml; it stores a variety of
       customization settings that you can change in Inkscape (mostly in the
       Inkscape	Preferences dialog).  Also in the subdirectories there,	you
       can place your own:

       $HOME/.config/inkscape/extensions/ - extension effects.

       $HOME/.config/inkscape/icons/ - icons.

       $HOME/.config/inkscape/keys/ - keyboard maps.

       $HOME/.config/inkscape/templates/ - new file templates.

DIAGNOSTICS
       The program returns zero	on success or non-zero on failure.

       A variety of error messages and warnings	may be printed to STDERR or
       STDOUT.	If the program behaves erratically with	a particular SVG file
       or crashes, it is useful	to look	at this	output for clues.

EXAMPLES
       While obviously Inkscape	is primarily intended as a GUI application, it
       can be used for doing SVG processing on the command line	as well.

       Open an SVG file	in the GUI:

	   inkscape filename.svg

       Export an SVG file into PNG with	the default resolution of 96 dpi (one
       SVG user	unit translates	to one bitmap pixel):

	   inkscape --export-filename=filename.png filename.svg

       Same, but force the PNG file to be 600x400 pixels:

	   inkscape --export-filename=filename.png -w 600 -h 400 filename.svg

       Same, but export	the drawing (bounding box of all objects), not the
       page:

	   inkscape --export-filename=filename.png --export-area-drawing filename.svg

       Export two different files into four distinct file formats each:

	   inkscape --export-type=png,ps,eps,pdf filename1.svg filename2.svg

       Export to PNG the object	with id="text1555", using the output filename
       and the resolution that were used for that object last time when	it was
       exported	from the GUI:

	   inkscape --export-id=text1555 --export-use-hints filename.svg

       Same, but use the default 96 dpi	resolution, specify the	filename, and
       snap the	exported area outwards to the nearest whole SVG	user unit
       values (to preserve pixel-alignment of objects and thus minimize
       aliasing):

	   inkscape --export-id=text1555 --export-filename=text.png --export-area-snap filename.svg

       Convert an Inkscape SVG document	to plain SVG:

	   inkscape --export-plain-svg --export-filename=filename2.svg filename1.svg

       Convert an SVG document to EPS, converting all texts to paths:

	   inkscape --export-filename=filename.eps --export-text-to-path filename.svg

       Query the width of the object with id="text1555":

	   inkscape --query-width --query-id=text1555 filename.svg

       Duplicate the objects with id="path1555"	and id="rect835", rotate the
       duplicates 90 degrees, save SVG,	and quit:

	   inkscape --select=path1555,rect835 --verb="EditDuplicate;ObjectRotate90;FileSave;FileQuit" filename.svg

       Select all objects with ellipse tag, rotate them	30 degrees, save the
       file, and quit.

	   inkscape --actions="select-via-element:ellipse;transform-rotate:30;FileSave;FileClose" --batch-process filename.svg

       Export the object with the ID MyTriangle	with a semi transparent	purple
       background to the file triangle_purple.png and with a red background to
       the file	triangle_red.png.

	   inkscape --actions="export-id:MyTriangle; export-id-only; export-background:purple; export-background-opacity:0.5;export-filename:triangle_purple.png; export-do; export-background:red; export-background-opacity:1; export-filename:triangle_red.png" filename.svg

       Read an SVG from	standard input (stdin) and export it to	PDF format:

	   cat filename.svg | inkscape --pipe --export-filename=filename.pdf

       Export an SVG to	PNG format and write it	to standard output (stdout),
       then convert it to JPG format with ImageMagick's	convert	program:

	   inkscape --export-type=png --export-filename=- filename.svg | convert - filename.jpg

       Same as above, but also reading from a pipe (--export-filename can be
       omitted in this case)

	   cat filename.svg | inkscape --pipe --export-type=png	| convert - filename.jpg

ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
       INKSCAPE_PROFILE_DIR
	       Set a custom location for the user profile directory.

       INKSCAPE_DATADIR
	       Set a custom location for the Inkscape data directory (e.g.
	       $PREFIX/share if	Inkscape's shared files	are in
	       $PREFIX/share/inkscape).

       INKSCAPE_LOCALEDIR
	       Set a custom location for the translation catalog.

       For more	details	see also
       <http://wiki.inkscape.org/wiki/index.php/Environment_variables>

THEMES
       To load different icons sets instead of the default
       $PREFIX/share/inkscape/icons/icons.svg file, the	directory
       $HOME/.config/inkscape/icons/ is	used.  Icons are loaded	by name	(e.g.
       fill_none.svg), or if not found,	then from icons.svg.  If the icon is
       not loaded from either of those locations, it falls back	to the default
       system location.

       The needed icons	are loaded from	SVG files by searching for the SVG id
       with the	matching icon name.  (For example, to load the "fill_none"
       icon from a file, the bounding box seen for SVG id "fill_none" is
       rendered	as the icon, whether it	comes from fill_none.svg or
       icons.svg.)

OTHER INFO
       The canonical place to find Inkscape info is at
       <https://www.inkscape.org/>.  The website has news, documentation,
       tutorials, examples, mailing list archives, the latest released version
       of the program, bugs and	feature	requests databases, forums, and	more.

SEE ALSO
       potrace,	cairo, rsvg, batik, ghostscript, pstoedit.

       SVG compliance test suite:
       <https://www.w3.org/Graphics/SVG/WG/wiki/Test_Suite_Overview>

       SVG validator: <https://validator.w3.org/>

       Scalable	Vector Graphics	(SVG) 1.1 Specification	W3C Recommendation 16
       August 2011 <https://www.w3.org/TR/SVG11/>

       Scalable	Vector Graphics	(SVG) 1.2 Specification	W3C Working Draft 13
       April 2005 <https://www.w3.org/TR/SVG12/>

       Scalable	Vector Graphics	(SVG) 2	Specification W3C Candidate
       Recommendation 15 September 2016	<https://www.w3.org/TR/SVG2/>

       Document	Object Model (DOM): Level 2 Core W3C Recommendation 13
       November	2000 <https://www.w3.org/TR/DOM-Level-2-Core/>

GUI NOTES
       To learn	Inkscape's GUI operation, read the manual in Help > Inkscape
       manual, and the tutorials in Help > Tutorials.

       Apart from SVG, Inkscape	can import (File > Import) most	bitmap formats
       (PNG, BMP, JPG, XPM, GIF, etc.),	plain text (requires Perl), PS and EPS
       (requires Ghostscript), PDF and AI format (AI version 9.0 or newer).

       Inkscape	exports	32-bit PNG images (File	> Export PNG Image) as well as
       AI, PS, EPS, PDF, DXF, and several other	formats	via File > Save	as.

       Inkscape	can use	the pressure and tilt of a graphic tablet pen for
       width, angle, and force of action of several tools, including the
       Calligraphic pen.

       Inkscape	includes a GUI front-end to the	Potrace	bitmap tracing engine
       (<http://potrace.sf.net>) which is embedded into	Inkscape.

       Inkscape	can use	external scripts (stdin-to-stdout filters) that	are
       represented by commands in the Extensions menu. A script	can have a GUI
       dialog for setting various parameters and can get the IDs of the
       selected	objects	on which to act	via the	command	line. Inkscape comes
       with an assortment of effects written in	Python.

KEYBINDINGS
       To get a	complete list of keyboard and mouse shortcuts, view
       doc/keys.html, or use the Keys and Mouse	command	in Help	menu.

BUGS
       Many bugs are known; please refer to the	website
       (<https://www.inkscape.org/>) for reviewing the reported	ones and to
       report newly found issues.  See also the	Known Issues section in	the
       Release Notes for your version (file `NEWS').

HISTORY
       The codebase that would become Inkscape began life in 1999 as the
       program Gill, the GNOME Illustrator application,	created	by Raph
       Levien.	The stated objective for Gill was to eventually	support	all of
       SVG.  Raph implemented the PostScript bezier imaging model, including
       stroking	and filling, line cap style, line join style, text, etc.
       Raph's Gill page	is at <http://www.levien.com/svg/>.  Work on Gill
       appears to have slowed or ceased	in 2000.

       The next	incarnation of the codebase was	to become the highly popular
       program Sodipodi, led by	Lauris Kaplinski.  The codebase	was turned
       into a powerful illustration program over the course of several year's
       work, adding several new	features, multi-lingual	support, porting to
       Windows and other operating systems, and	eliminating dependencies.

       Inkscape	was formed in 2003 by four active Sodipodi developers, Bryce
       Harrington, MenTaLguY, Nathan Hurst, and	Ted Gould, wanting to take a
       different direction with	the codebase in	terms of focus on SVG
       compliance, interface look-and-feel, and	a desire to open development
       opportunities to	more participants.  The	project	progressed rapidly,
       gaining a number	of very	active contributors and	features.

       Much work in the	early days of the project focused on code
       stabilization and internationalization.	The original renderer
       inherited from Sodipodi was laced with a	number of mathematical corner
       cases which led to unexpected crashes when the program was pushed
       beyond routine uses; this renderer was replaced with Livarot which,
       while not perfect either, was significantly less	error prone.  The
       project also adopted a practice of committing code frequently, and
       encouraging users to run	developmental snapshots	of the program;	this
       helped identify new bugs	swiftly, and ensure it was easy	for users to
       verify the fixes.  As a result, Inkscape	releases have generally	earned
       a reputation for	being robust and reliable.

       Similarly, efforts were taken to	internationalize and localize the
       interface, which	has helped the program gain contributors worldwide.

       Inkscape	has had	a beneficial impact on the visual attractiveness of
       Open Source in general, by providing a tool for creating	and sharing
       icons, splash screens, website art, and so on.  In a way, despite being
       "just an	drawing	program", Inkscape has played an important role	in
       making Open Source more visually	stimulating to larger audiences.

AUTHORS
       This codebase owes its existence	to a large number of contributors
       throughout its various incarnations.  The following list	is certainly
       incomplete, but serves to recognize the many shoulders on which this
       application sits:

       Maximilian Albert, Joshua A. Andler, Tavmjong Bah, Pierre Barbry-Blot,
       Jean-FranA<section>ois Barraud, Campbell	Barton,	Bill Baxter, John
       Beard, John Bintz, Arpad	Biro, Nicholas Bishop, Joshua L. Blocher,
       Hanno BA<paragraph>ck, Tomasz Boczkowski, Adrian	Boguszewski, Henrik
       Bohre, Boldewyn,	Daniel Borgmann, Bastien Bouclet, Hans Breuer, Gustav
       Broberg,	Christopher Brown, Marcus Brubaker, Luca Bruno,	Brynn, Nicu
       Buculei,	Bulia Byak, Pierre Caclin, Ian Caldwell, Gail Carmichael, Ed
       Catmur, Chema Celorio, Jabiertxo	Arraiza	Cenoz, Johan Ceuppens,
       Zbigniew	Chyla, Alexander Clausen, John Cliff, Kees Cook, Ben Cromwell,
       Jon Cruz, AurA(C)lie De-Cooman, Kris De Gussem, Milosz Derezynski,
       Daniel DAaz, Bruno Dilly, Larry Doolittle, Nicolas Dufour, Tim Dwyer,
       Maxim V.	Dziumanenko, Johan Engelen, Miklos Erdelyi, Ulf	Erikson,
       NoA(C) Falzon, Frank Felfe, Andrew Fitzsimon, Edward Flick, Marcin
       Floryan,	Fred, Ben Fowler, Cedric Gemy, Steren Giannini,	Olivier
       Gondouin, Ted Gould, Toine de Greef, Michael Grosberg, Bryce
       Harrington, Dale	Harvey,	AurA(C)lio Adnauer Heckert, Carl Hetherington,
       Jos Hirth, Hannes Hochreiner, Thomas Holder, Joel Holdsworth,
       Christoffer Holmstedt, Alan Horkan, Karl	Ove Hufthammer,	Richard
       Hughes, Nathan Hurst, inductiveload, Thomas Ingham, Jean-Olivier
       Irisson,	Bob Jamison, Ted Janeczko, Marc	Jeanmougin, jEsuSdA, Lauris
       Kaplinski, Lynn Kerby, Niko Kiirala, James Kilfiger, Nikita Kitaev,
       Jason Kivlighn, Adrian Knoth, Krzysztof KosiAski, Petr Kovar, BenoA(R)t
       Lavorata, Alex Leone, Julien Leray, Raph	Levien,	Diederik van Lierop,
       Nicklas Lindgren, Vitaly	Lipatov, Ivan Louette, Fernando	Lucchesi
       Bastos Jurema, Pierre-Antoine Marc, Aurel-AimA(C) Marmion, Colin
       Marquardt, Craig	Marshall, Ivan MasA!r, Dmitry G. Mastrukov, David
       Mathog, Matiphas, Patrick McDermott, Michael Meeks, Federico Mena,
       MenTaLguY, Aubanel Monnier, Vincent Montagne, Tim Mooney, Derek P.
       Moore, Chris Morgan, Peter Moulder, JA<paragraph>rg MA1/4ller, Yukihiro
       Nakai, Victor Navez, Christian Neumair, Nick, Andreas Nilsson, Mitsuru
       Oka, VinAcius dos Santos	Oliveira, Martin Owens,	Alvin Penner, Matthew
       Petroff,	Jon Phillips, Zdenko Podobny, Alexandre	Prokoudine, Jean-
       RenA(C) Reinhard, Alexey	Remizov, Frederic Rodrigo, Hugo	Rodrigues,
       Juarez Rudsatz, Xavier Conde Rueda, Felipe CorrAaa da Silva Sanches,
       Christian Schaller, Marco Scholten, Tom von Schwerdtner,	Markus
       Schwienbacher, Danilo A egan, Abhishek Sharma, Tim Sheridan, Shivaken,
       Michael Sloan, John Smith, Sandra Snan, BoA!tjan	A petiA, Aaron Spike,
       Kaushik Sridharan, Ralf Stephan,	Dariusz	Stojek,	Patrick	Storz, Martin
       Sucha, ~suv, Pat	Suwalski, Adib Taraben,	Hugh Tebby, Jonas Termeau,
       David Turner, Andre Twupack, Aleksandar UroA!eviA, Alex Valavanis,
       Joakim Verona, Lucas Vieites, Daniel Wagenaar, Liam P. White, Sebastian
       WA1/4st,	Michael	Wybrow,	Gellule	Xg, Daniel Yacob, David	Yip, Masatake
       Yamato, Moritz Eberl, Sebastian Faubel

COPYRIGHT AND LICENSE
       Copyright (C) 1999-2020 by Authors.

       Inkscape	is free	software; you can redistribute it and/or modify	it
       under the terms of the GPL version 3 or later.

1.0				  2020-08-30			   INKSCAPE(1)

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | OPTIONS | CONFIGURATION | DIAGNOSTICS | EXAMPLES | ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES | THEMES | OTHER INFO | SEE ALSO | GUI NOTES | KEYBINDINGS | BUGS | HISTORY | AUTHORS | COPYRIGHT AND LICENSE

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