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inet6(7P)			   Protocols			     inet6(7P)

NAME
       inet6 - Internet	protocol family	for Internet Protocol version 6

SYNOPSIS
       #include	<sys/types.h>
       #include	<netinet/in.h>

DESCRIPTION
       The inet6 protocol family implements a collection of protocols that are
       centered	around the Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) and share	a com-
       mon  address  format.  The inet6	 protocol family can be	accessed using
       the socket interface, where it supports	the  SOCK_STREAM,  SOCK_DGRAM,
       and  SOCK_RAW  socket  types,  or  the Transport	Level Interface	(TLI),
       where it	supports  the connectionless (T_CLTS) and connection  oriented
       (T_COTS_ORD) service types.

PROTOCOLS
       The  Internet  protocol	family for IPv6	included the Internet Protocol
       Version 6 (IPv6), the Neighbor Discovery	Protocol (NDP),	 the  Internet
       Control	Message	 Protocol  (ICMPv6), the Transmission Control Protocol
       (TCP), and the User Datagram Protocol (UDP).

       TCP supports the	socket interface's SOCK_STREAM abstraction  and	 TLI's
       T_COTS_ORD   service   type.    UDP  supports the SOCK_DGRAM socket ab-
       straction and the TLI T_CLTS service type. See tcp(7P) and  udp(7P).  A
       direct  interface  to IPv6 is available using the socket	interface. See
       ip6(7P).	ICMPv6 is used by the kernel to	handle and  report  errors  in
       protocol	 processing.  It   is  also  accessible	 to user programs. See
       icmp6(7P). NDP is used to translate 128-bit IPv6	addresses into	48-bit
       Ethernet	addresses.

       IPv6  addresses come in three types: unicast, anycast, and multicast. A
       unicast address is an identifier	for a  single  network	interface.  An
       anycast address is an identifier	for a set of interfaces; a packet sent
       to an anycast address is	delivered to the "nearest"  interface  identi-
       fied  by	 that  address,	 pursuant to the routing protocol's measure of
       distance. A multicast address is	an identifier for a set	of interfaces;
       a  packet  sent	to a multicast address is delivered to all  interfaces
       identified by that address. There are no	broadcast addresses as such in
       IPv6; their functionality is superseded by multicast addresses.

       For  IPv6  addresses,  there  are three scopes within which unicast ad-
       dresses are guaranteed to be unique. The	scope is indicated by the  ad-
       dress prefix. The three varieties are link-local	(the address is	unique
       on that physical	link),	site-local (the	address	is unique within  that
       site), and global (the address is globally unique).

       The  three  highest order  bits for global unicast addresses are	set to
       001. The	ten highest order bits for site-local  addresses  are  set  to
       1111  1110  11. The ten highest order bits for link-local addresses are
       set to 1111 1110	11. For	multicast addresses, the eight	highest	 order
       bits  are  set  to 1111 1111. Anycast addresses have the	same format as
       unicast addresses.

       IPv6 addresses do not follow the	concept	of "address class" seen	in IP.

       A global	unicast	address	is divided into	the following segments:

	  o  The first three bits are the Format Prefix	identifying a  unicast
	     address.

	  o  The  next 13 bits are the Top-Level Aggregation (TLA) identifier.
	     For example, the identifier could specify the ISP.

	  o  The next eight bits are reserved for future use.

	  o  The next 24 bits are the Next-Level Aggregation (NLA) identifier.

	  o  The next 16 bits are the Site-Level  Aggregation  (SLA)   identi-
	     fier.

	  o  The  last	64  bits are the interface ID. This will most often be
	     the hardware address of the link in IEEE EUI-64 format.

       Link-local unicast addresses are	divided	in this	manner:

	  o  The first ten bits	are the	Format Prefix identifying a link-local
	     address.

	  o  The next 54 bits are zero.

	  o  The  last	64  bits are the interface ID. This will most often be
	     the hardware address of the link in IEEE EUI-64 format.

       Site-local unicast addresses are	divided	in this	manner:

	  o  The first ten bits	are the	Format Prefix identifying a site-local
	     address.

	  o  The next 38 bits are zero.

	  o  The next 16 bits are the subnet ID.

	  o  The  last	64  bits are the interface ID. This will most often be
	     the hardware address of the link in IEEE EUI-64 format.

ADDRESSING
       IPv6 addresses are sixteen byte quantities, stored in network byte  or-
       der.  The  socket API uses the sockaddr_in6 structure when passing IPv6
       addresses between an  application  and  the  kernel.  The  sockaddr_in6
       structure has the following members:

       sa_familty_t	sin6_family;
       in_port_t	sin6_port;
       uint32_t		sin6_flowinfo;
       struct in6_addr	sin6_addr;
       uint32_t		sin6_scope_id;
       uint32_t		__sin6_src_id;

       Library	routines are provided to  manipulate  structures  of	  this
       form. See inet(3SOCKET).

       The sin6_addr field of the sockaddr_in6 structure specifies a local  or
       remote  IPv6  address.  Each network interface has one or more IPv6 ad-
       dresses configured, that	is, a link-local  address,  a  site-local  ad-
       dress, and one or more global unicast IPv6 addresses. The special value
       of all zeros may	be used	on this	field to test for "wildcard" matching.
       Given in	a bind(3SOCKET)	call, this value leaves	the local IPv6 address
       of the socket unspecified, so that the socket will receive  connections
       or  messages directed at	any of the valid IPv6 addresses	of the system.
       This can	prove useful when a process neither knows nor cares  what  the
       local IPv6 address is, or when a	process	wishes to receive requests us-
       ing all of its network interfaces. The sockaddr_in6 structure given  in
       the  bind()  call must specify an in6_addr value	of either all zeros or
       one of the system's valid IPv6 addresses. Requests to  bind  any	 other
       address	will  elicit  the  error EADDRNOTAVAI. When a connect(3SOCKET)
       call is made for	a socket that has a wildcard local address, the	system
       sets  the sin6_addr field of the	socket to the IPv6 address of the net-
       work interface through  which  the  packets  for	 that  connection  are
       routed.

       The sin6_port field of the sockaddr_in6 structure specifies a port num-
       ber used	by TCP or UDP. The local port address specified	 in  a	bind()
       call  is	 restricted  to	 be  greater  than IPPORT_RESERVED (defined in
       <netinet/in.h>) unless the creating process is running  as  the	super-
       user,   providing  a  space of protected	port numbers. In addition, the
       local port address cannot be in use by any socket of the	 same  address
       family and type.	Requests to bind sockets to port numbers being used by
       other sockets return the	error EADDRINUSE. If the local port address is
       specified as 0, the system picks	a unique port address greater than IP-
       PORT_RESERVED. A	unique local port address  is  also  selected  when  a
       socket  which  is  not  bound is	used in	a connect(3SOCKET) or sendto()
       call. See send(3SOCKET).	This allows programs that do  not  care	 which
       local  port  number is used to set up TCP connections by	simply calling
       socket(3SOCKET) and then	connect(3SOCKET), and then sending  UDP	 data-
       grams with a socket() call followed by a	sendto() call.

       Although	 this  implementation  restricts  sockets to unique local port
       numbers,	TCP allows multiple  simultaneous  connections	involving  the
       same  local  port  number  so long as the remote	IPv6 addresses or port
       numbers are different for  each	connection.  Programs  may  explicitly
       override	 the socket restriction	by setting the SO_REUSEADDR socket op-
       tion with setsockopt(). See getsockopt(3SOCKET).

       In addition, the	same port may be bound by two separate sockets if  one
       is an IP	socket and the other an	IPv6 socket.

       TLI  applies  somewhat different	semantics to the binding of local port
       numbers.	These semantics	apply when Internet family protocols are  used
       using the TLI.

SEE ALSO
       ioctl(2),   bind(3SOCKET),   connect(3SOCKET),getipnodebyaddr(3SOCKET),
       getipnodebyname(3SOCKET),getprotobyname(3SOCKET),	    getservby-
       name(3SOCKET),	getsockopt(3SOCKET),   inet(3SOCKET),	send(3SOCKET),
       icmp6(7P), ip6(7P), tcp(7P), udp(7P)

       Conta, A. and Deering, S., Internet Control Message  Protocol  (ICMPv6)
       for the Internet	Protocol Version 6 (IPv6) Specification, RFC 1885, De-
       cember 1995.

       Deering,	S. and Hinden, B., Internet Protocol, Version 6	(IPv6)	Speci-
       fication, RFC 1883, December 1995.

       Hinden,	B. and Deering,	S.,  IP	Version	6 Addressing Architecture, RFC
       1884, December 1995.

NOTES
       The IPv6	support	is subject to change as	 the  Internet	protocols  de-
       velop.  Users  should  not depend on details of the current implementa-
       tion, but rather	the services exported.

SunOS 5.9			  1 Jul	1999			     inet6(7P)

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | PROTOCOLS | ADDRESSING | SEE ALSO | NOTES

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