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INET6(4)	       FreeBSD Kernel Interfaces Manual		      INET6(4)

NAME
     inet6 -- Internet protocol	version	6 family

SYNOPSIS
     #include <sys/types.h>
     #include <netinet/in.h>

DESCRIPTION
     The Internet Protocol version 6 family is an updated version of the In-
     ternet Protocol version 4 family.	It comprises Internet Protocol version
     6 (IPv6), Internet	Control	Message	Protocol version 6 (ICMPv6), Transmis-
     sion Control Protocol (TCP), and User Datagram Protocol (UDP).  tcp(4) is
     used to support the SOCK_STREAM abstraction while udp(4) is used to sup-
     port the SOCK_DGRAM abstraction.  A raw interface to IPv6 is available by
     creating an Internet socket of type SOCK_RAW.  The	ICMPv6 message proto-
     col is accessible from a raw socket.

     IPv6 addresses are	128-bit	quantities, stored in network standard byte-
     order.  The include file <netinet/in.h> defines this address as a dis-
     criminated	union.

     Sockets bound to the inet6	family utilize the following addressing	struc-
     ture:

	   struct sockaddr_in6 {
		   u_int8_t	   sin6_len;
		   sa_family_t	   sin6_family;
		   in_port_t	   sin6_port;
		   u_int32_t	   sin6_flowinfo;
		   struct in6_addr sin6_addr;
		   u_int32_t	   sin6_scope_id;
	   };

     Sockets may be created with the local address "::"	(which is equal	to
     IPv6 address 0:0:0:0:0:0:0:0) to effect "wildcard"	matching on incoming
     messages.

     For security reasons, OpenBSD does	not route IPv4 traffic to an AF_INET6
     socket, and does not support IPv4 mapped addresses, where IPv4 traffic is
     seen as if	it comes from an IPv6 address like "::ffff:10.1.1.1".  Where
     both IPv4 and IPv6	traffic	need to	be accepted, bind and listen on	two
     sockets.

     Global addresses utilise the first	48 bits	of the address for the routing
     prefix.  The next 16 bits designate the subnet, and the final 64 bits are
     used as a host identifier.

     The IPv6 specification also defines link-local addresses, which are
     scoped.  A	scoped address is ambiguous to the kernel if it	is specified
     without a scope identifier.  To manipulate	scoped addresses properly from
     userland, programs	must use the advanced API defined in RFC 3542.	A com-
     pact description of the advanced API is available in ip6(4).  If scoped
     addresses are specified without explicit scope, the kernel	may raise an
     error.

     KAME supports an extended numeric IPv6 address notation for link-local
     addresses,	such as	"fe80::1%de0" to specify "fe80::1" on the "de0"	inter-
     face.  This notation is supported by getaddrinfo(3) and getnameinfo(3),
     as	well as	userland programs such as telnet(1) and	ftp(1).

     Scoped addresses are handled specially in the kernel.  In kernel struc-
     tures like	routing	tables or interface structures,	scoped addresses have
     their interface index embedded into the address.  Therefore the address
     on	some kernel structures is not the same as that on the wire.  The em-
     bedded index will be visible on PF_ROUTE sockets, kernel memory access
     via kvm(3), and some other	occasions.  HOWEVER, users should never	use
     the embedded form.

IPv6 SETUP
     Generally speaking, IPv6 connectivity is achieved in a fashion similar to
     that for IPv4.  For native	IPv6 setup, routers attach to the network ei-
     ther manually or using autoconf to	connect	to an ISP; hosts receive an
     address prefix from a router advertisement	daemon such as rad(8) and use
     autoconf for stateless address configuration (SLAAC).  For	setups which
     tunnel IPv6 over IPv4, see	gif(4).

     The INET6 and TUNNEL sections of ifconfig(8) contain information relevant
     to	IPv6 setups; settings can be made permanent using hostname.if(5)
     files.  Routers need to set the net.inet6.ip6.forwarding sysctl(2).

SEE ALSO
     socket(2),	icmp6(4), ip6(4), tcp(4), udp(4), hostname.if(5), ifconfig(8),
     rad(8)

STANDARDS
     Tatsuya Jinmei and	Atsushi	Onoe, An Extension of Format for IPv6 Scoped
     Addresses,	internet draft,	draft-ietf-ipngwg-scopedaddr-format-02.txt,
     June 2000,	work in	progress material.

     R.	Gilligan, S. Thomson, J. Bound,	J. McCann, and W. Stevens, Basic
     Socket Interface Extensions for Ipv6, RFC 3493, February 2003.

     W.	Stevens, M. Thomas, E. Nordmark, and T.	Jinmei,	Advanced Sockets
     Application Programming Interface (API) for IPv6, RFC 3542, May 2003.

HISTORY
     The implementation	described herein appeared in WIDE/KAME project.

CAVEATS
     It	is advisable to	explicitly reject all packets to your network not used
     by	any of your interface prefixes.	 Otherwise packets that	have a desti-
     nation address belonging to your network may be routed back to your
     provider via the default route.  Set a reject route for your assigned
     prefix:

	   # route add -net 2001:db8::/48 ::1 -reject

FreeBSD	13.0			 May 14, 2019			  FreeBSD 13.0

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | IPv6 SETUP | SEE ALSO | STANDARDS | HISTORY | CAVEATS

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