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INDENT(1)		FreeBSD	General	Commands Manual		     INDENT(1)

     indent -- indent and format C program source

     indent [input-file	[output-file]] [-bad | -nbad] [-bap | -nbap]
	    [-bbb | -nbbb] [-bc	| -nbc]	[-bl] [-br] [-cn] [-cdn]
	    [-cdb | -ncdb] [-ce	| -nce]	[-cin] [-clin] [-dn] [-din]
	    [-fc1 | -nfc1] [-in] [-ip |	-nip] [-ln] [-lcn] [-lp	| -nlp]
	    [-npro] [-pcs | -npcs] [-psl | -npsl] [-sc | -nsc] [-sob | -nsob]
	    [-st] [-troff] [-v | -nv]

     Indent is a C program formatter.  It reformats the	C program in the
     input-file	according to the switches.  The	switches which can be speci-
     fied are described	below. They may	appear before or after the file	names.

     NOTE: If you only specify an input-file, the formatting is	done `in-
     place', that is, the formatted file is written back into input-file and a
     backup copy of input-file is written in the current directory.  If
     input-file	is named `/blah/blah/file', the	backup file is named file.BAK.

     If	output-file is specified, indent checks	to make	sure it	is different
     from input-file.

     The options listed	below control the formatting style imposed by indent.

     -bad, -nbad     If	-bad is	specified, a blank line	is forced after	every
		     block of declarations.  Default: -nbad.

     -bap, -nbap     If	-bap is	specified, a blank line	is forced after	every
		     procedure body.  Default: -nbap.

     -bbb, -nbbb     If	-bbb is	specified, a blank line	is forced before every
		     block comment.  Default: -nbbb.

     -bc, -nbc	     If	-bc is specified, then a newline is forced after each
		     comma in a	declaration.  -nbc turns off this option.  The
		     default is	-bc.

     -br, -bl	     Specifying	-bl lines up compound statements like this:

			   if (...)

		     Specifying	-br (the default) makes	them look like this:

			   if (...) {

     -c	-n	     The column	in which comments on code start.  The default
		     is	33.

     -cd -n	     The column	in which comments on declarations start.  The
		     default is	for these comments to start in the same	column
		     as	those on code.

     -cdb, -ncdb     Enables (disables)	the placement of comment delimiters on
		     blank lines.  With	this option enabled, comments look
		     like this:

				   * this is a comment

		     Rather than like this:

				   /* this is a	comment	*/

		     This only affects block comments, not comments to the
		     right of code.  The default is -cdb.

     -ce, -nce	     Enables (disables)	forcing	`else's	to cuddle up to	the
		     immediately preceding `}'.	 The default is	-ce.

     -cin	     Sets the continuation indent to be	n.  Continuation lines
		     will be indented that far from the	beginning of the first
		     line of the statement.  Parenthesized expressions have
		     extra indentation added to	indicate the nesting, unless
		     -lp is in effect.	-ci defaults to	the same value as -i.

     -clin	     Causes case labels	to be indented n tab stops to the
		     right of the containing switch statement.	-cli0 -.5
		     causes case labels	to be indented half a tab stop.	 The
		     default is	-cli0.

     -dn	     Controls the placement of comments	which are not to the
		     right of code.  The default -d1 means that	such comments
		     are placed	one indentation	level to the left of code.
		     Specifying	-d0 lines up these comments with the code.
		     See the section on	comment	indentation below.

     -din	     Specifies the indentation,	in character positions,	from a
		     declaration keyword to the	following identifier.  The
		     default is	-di16.

     -dj, -ndj	     -dj left justifies	declarations.  -ndj indents declara-
		     tions the same as code.  The default is -ndj.

     -ei, -nei	     Enables (disables)	special	else-if	processing.  If	it's
		     enabled, an if following an else will have	the same
		     indentation as the	preceding if statement.

     -fc1, -nfc1     Enables (disables)	the formatting of comments that	start
		     in	column 1.  Often, comments whose leading `/' is	in
		     column 1 have been	carefully hand formatted by the	pro-
		     grammer.  In such cases, -nfc1 should be used.  The
		     default is	-fc1.

     -in	     The number	of spaces for one indentation level.  The
		     default is	4.

     -ip, -nip	     Enables (disables)	the indentation	of parameter declara-
		     tions from	the left margin.  The default is -ip.

     -ln	     Maximum length of an output line.	The default is 75.

     -lp, -nlp	     Lines up code surrounded by parenthesis in	continuation
		     lines.  If	a line has a left paren	which is not closed on
		     that line,	then continuation lines	will be	lined up to
		     start at the character position just after	the left
		     paren.  For example, here is how a	piece of continued
		     code looks	with -nlp in effect:

			   p1 =	first_procedure(second_procedure(p2, p3),

		     With -lp in effect	(the default) the code looks somewhat

			   p1 =	first_procedure(second_procedure(p2, p3),

		     Inserting two more	newlines we get:

			   p1 =	first_procedure(second_procedure(p2,

     -npro	     Causes the	profile	files, `./' and
		     `~/', to be ignored.

     -pcs, -npcs     If	true (-pcs) all	procedure calls	will have a space
		     inserted between the name and the `('.  The default is

     -psl, -npsl     If	true (-psl) the	names of procedures being defined are
		     placed in column 1	- their	types, if any, will be left on
		     the previous lines.  The default is -psl.

     -sc, -nsc	     Enables (disables)	the placement of asterisks (`*'s) at
		     the left edge of all comments.

     -sob, -nsob     If	-sob is	specified, indent will swallow optional	blank
		     lines.  You can use this to get rid of blank lines	after
		     declarations.  Default: -nsob.

     -st	     Causes indent to take its input from stdin, and put its
		     output to stdout.

     -Ttypename	     Adds typename to the list of type keywords.  Names	accu-
		     mulate: -T	can be specified more than once.  You need to
		     specify all the typenames that appear in your program
		     that are defined by typedef - nothing will	be harmed if
		     you miss a	few, but the program won't be formatted	as
		     nicely as it should.  This	sounds like a painful thing to
		     have to do, but it's really a symptom of a	problem	in C:
		     typedef causes a syntactic	change in the language and
		     indent can't find all instances of	typedef.

     -troff	     Causes indent to format the program for processing	by
		     troff(1).	It will	produce	a fancy	listing	in much	the
		     same spirit as vgrind(1).	If the output file is not
		     specified,	the default is standard	output,	rather than
		     formatting	in place.

     -v, -nv	     -v	turns on `verbose' mode; -nv turns it off.  When in
		     verbose mode, indent reports when it splits one line of
		     input into	two or more lines of output, and gives some
		     size statistics at	completion. The	default	is -nv.

     You may set up your own `profile' of defaults to indent by	creating a
     file called in	your login directory and/or the	current	direc-
     tory and including	whatever switches you like.  A `' in	the
     current directory takes precedence	over the one in	your login directory.
     If	indent is run and a profile file exists, then it is read to set	up the
     program's defaults.  Switches on the command line,	though,	always over-
     ride profile switches.  The switches should be separated by spaces, tabs
     or	newlines.

     `Box' comments.  Indent assumes that any comment with a dash or star
     immediately after the start of comment (that is, `/*-' or `/**') is a
     comment surrounded	by a box of stars.  Each line of such a	comment	is
     left unchanged, except that its indentation may be	adjusted to account
     for the change in indentation of the first	line of	the comment.

     Straight text.  All other comments	are treated as straight	text.  Indent
     fits as many words	(separated by blanks, tabs, or newlines) on a line as
     possible.	Blank lines break paragraphs.

   Comment indentation
     If	a comment is on	a line with code it is started in the `comment col-
     umn', which is set	by the -cn command line	parameter.  Otherwise, the
     comment is	started	at n indentation levels	less than where	code is	cur-
     rently being placed, where	n is specified by the -dn command line parame-
     ter.  If the code on a line extends past the comment column, the comment
     starts further to the right, and the right	margin may be automatically
     extended in extreme cases.

   Preprocessor	lines
     In	general, indent	leaves preprocessor lines alone.  The only reformat-
     ting that it will do is to	straighten up trailing comments.  It leaves
     embedded comments alone.  Conditional compilation (#ifdef...#endif) is
     recognized	and indent attempts to correctly compensate for	the syntactic
     peculiarities introduced.

   C syntax
     Indent understands	a substantial amount about the syntax of C, but	it has
     a `forgiving' parser.  It attempts	to cope	with the usual sorts of	incom-
     plete and misformed syntax.  In particular, the use of macros like:

	   #define forever for(;;)

     is	handled	properly.

     Indent uses the HOME environment variable.

     ./  profile file
     ~/  profile file

     The indent	command	appeared in 4.2BSD.

     Indent has	even more switches than	ls(1).

     A common mistake that often causes	grief is typing:

	   indent *.c

     to	the shell in an	attempt	to indent all the C programs in	a directory.
     This is probably a	bug, not a feature.

4.2 Berkeley Distribution	 July 1, 1993	     4.2 Berkeley Distribution


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