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img2dcm(1)			  OFFIS	DCMTK			    img2dcm(1)

NAME
       img2dcm - Convert standard image	formats	into DICOM format

SYNOPSIS
       img2dcm [options] imgfile-in dcmfile-out

DESCRIPTION
       The  img2dcm  tool  serves  as  a conversion tool from a	standard image
       format like JPEG	or BMP to DICOM. Different output SOP Classes  can  be
       selected. The additional	information (regarding patients, series, etc.)
       stored in the DICOM output file can be extracted	from other DICOM files
       which serve as a	'template' for the resulting DICOM object. img2dcm can
       also be configured to invent missing DICOM type 1 and type 2 attributes
       to work even without any	template dataset.

       img2dcm	only  supports	single-frame  output  so  far,	i.e. it	is not
       possible	to create multi-frame objects. Thus, also output  SOP  Classes
       that  potentially  allow	multiple frames	within one object (such	as the
       new Secondary Capture SOP Classes) can only  be	created	 containing  a
       single frame.

PARAMETERS
       imgfile-in   image file to be imported

       dcmfile-out  DICOM output file

OPTIONS
   general options
	 -h    --help
		 print this help text and exit

	       --version
		 print version information and exit

	       --arguments
		 print expanded	command	line arguments

	 -q    --quiet
		 quiet mode, print no warnings and errors

	 -v    --verbose
		 verbose mode, print processing	details

	 -d    --debug
		 debug mode, print debug information

	 -ll   --log-level  [l]evel: string constant
		 (fatal, error,	warn, info, debug, trace)
		 use level l for the logger

	 -lc   --log-config  [f]ilename: string
		 use config file f for the logger

   input options
       general:

	 -i    --input-format  [i]nput file format: string
		 supported formats: JPEG (default), BMP

	 -df   --dataset-from  [f]ilename: string
		 use dataset from DICOM	file f

	 -stf  --study-from  [f]ilename: string
		 read patient/study from DICOM file f

	 -sef  --series-from  [f]ilename: string
		 read patient/study/series from	DICOM file f

	 -ii   --instance-inc
		 increase instance number read from DICOM file

       JPEG format:

	 -dp   --disable-progr
		 disable support for progressive JPEG

	 -de   --disable-ext
		 disable support for extended sequential JPEG

	 -jf   --insist-on-jfif
		 insist	on JFIF	header existence

	 -ka   --keep-appn
		 keep APPn sections (except JFIF)

   processing options
       attribute checking:

	       --do-checks
		 enable	attribute validity checking (default)

	       --no-checks
		 disable attribute validity checking

	 +i2   --insert-type2
		 insert	missing	type 2 attributes (default)
		 (only with --do-checks)

	 -i2   --no-type2-insert
		 do not	insert missing type 2 attributes
		 (only with --do-checks)

	 +i1   --invent-type1
		 invent	missing	type 1 attributes
		 (only with --do-checks)

	 -i1   --no-type1-invent
		 do not	invent missing type 1 attributes
		 (only with --do-checks)

       character set:

	 +l1   --latin1
		 set latin-1 as	standard character set (default)

	 -l1   --no-latin1
		 keep 7-bit ASCII as standard character	set

       other processing	options:

	 -k    --key  [k]ey: gggg,eeee="str", path or dictionary name="str"
		 add further attribute

   output options
       target SOP class:

	 -sc   --sec-capture
		 write Secondary Capture SOP class

	 -nsc  --new-sc
		 write new Secondary Capture SOP classes

	 -vlp  --vl-photo
		 write Visible Light Photographic SOP class (default)

       output file format:

	 +F    --write-file
		 write file format (default)

	 -F    --write-dataset
		 write data set	without	file meta information

       group length encoding:

	 +g=   --group-length-recalc
		 recalculate group lengths if present (default)

	 +g    --group-length-create
		 always	write with group length	elements

	 -g    --group-length-remove
		 always	write without group length elements

       length encoding in sequences and	items:

	 +e    --length-explicit
		 write with explicit lengths (default)

	 -e    --length-undefined
		 write with undefined lengths

       data set	trailing padding (not with --write-dataset):

	 -p    --padding-off
		 no padding (implicit if --write-dataset)

	 +p    --padding-create	 [f]ile-pad [i]tem-pad:	integer
		 align file on multiple	of f bytes
		 and items on multiple of i bytes

NOTES
   Attribute Sources
       For  converting	a  general image format	into DICOM format, the img2dcm
       application may be fed with some	additional input for filling mandatory
       (and optional) attributes in the	new DICOM file like patient, study and
       series information. This	information can	be collected  using  different
       approaches, which can be	combined and are applied to the	result file in
       the following order:

       o Using	the  --dataset-from  option  img2dcm  is  forced   to	import
	 attributes from an existing DICOM file. The given DICOM file is fully
	 imported and serves as	the basis for all further  export  operations.
	 As  an	 exception, the	SOP Instance UID is not	copied by this option.
	 Also image related data like Rows, Columns etc. is  exchanged	during
	 conversion.  Note  that  img2dcm  does	 not check any other attribute
	 values	for validity, e. g. it does not	look into sequences  to	 adapt
	 any attributes	to the new object (referenced images etc.). Therefore,
	 it is recommended to use the templates	 in  the  data	directory  for
	 (old) SC and VLP objects. See also section 'Input Templates'.
       o The  --study-from  and	--series-from options (mutually	exclusive) can
	 be used to import patient,  study  and	 series	 information  from  an
	 existing  DICOM  file.	 If --series-from is specified,	then the given
	 DICOM file is opened by img2dcm and all mandatory information down to
	 the  series level is imported.	Note that this includes	patient, study
	 and  series  information.  In	case  of  --study-from,	  the	series
	 information is	excluded. The following	attributes are taken over:
	     Patient Level:
	       Patient's Name
	       Patient ID
	       Patient's Sex
	       Patient's Birth Date
	       Specific	Character Set

	     Study Level:
	       Study Instance UID
	       Study Date
	       Study Time
	       Referring Physician's Name
	       Study ID
	       Accession Number

	     Series Level (only	in case	of option --series-from):
	       Series Instance UID
	       Series Number
	       Manufacturer
       o With  the --insert-type2 and --invent-type1 options (both enabled per
	 default), missing  attributes	(type  2  attributes)  and/or  missing
	 attribute  values (for	type 1 attributes) are automatically added and
	 invented  by  img2dcm.	 Please	 note  that  these  options  are  only
	 evaluated  if	option	--do-checks is enabled (default). If the --no-
	 checks	options	is enabled, no automatic attribute insertion will take
	 place.
       o The  --key  option can	be used	to add further attributes to the DICOM
	 output	file. It is also possible  to  specify	sequences,  items  and
	 nested	 attributes  using the --key option. In	these cases, a special
	 'path'	notation has to	be used. Details on this path notation can  be
	 found	in  the	 documentation	of  dcmodify.  The --key option	can be
	 present more than once. The value part	(after the '=')	may be	absent
	 causing  the  attribute to be set with	zero length. Please be advised
	 that the --key	option is applied at the very end, just	before	saving
	 the DICOM file, so there is no	value checking whatsoever.
   UIDs
       New  Study  and	Series	Instance UIDs are generated if necessary after
       applying	the --study-from and --series options. If Study	 Instance  UID
       or  Series  Instance  UID  are  not present after these steps, they are
       newly generated,	independently from each	other. A contrary behavior  is
       chosen  for the SOP Instance UID	that one could expect to be taken over
       when using the --dataset-from option. This is not  the  case,  the  SOP
       Instance	 UID  is  not  copied  to  the	new object. This should	be the
       desirable behavior for most  use	 cases.	 However,  if  a  certain  SOP
       Instance	 UID  should be	inserted into the new object, the --key	option
       should be used.
   Input Templates
       For supporting the conversion into DICOM, img2dcm comes with some  pre-
       defined	templates which	can be used for	the --dataset-from option (see
       sample files SC.dump and	VLP.dump). These templates  should  be	filled
       with  the desired values	and then must be dumped	(converted) to a DICOM
       file before actually being used with img2dcm. Use dump2dcm  to  convert
       the dump	to DICOM. Example:
	 dump2dcm SC.dump SC.dcm

       It  is  possible	 to use	any DICOM file as a template. Please note that
       the complete DICOM dataset is imported; hence,  it  should  be  assured
       that   only  attributes	are  present  which  should  be	 part  of  the
       constructed DICOM  object.  The	SOP  Class  UID	 and  the  Pixel  Data
       attributes  (including  attributes  like	 Rows,	Columns	 etc.) are not
       copied but replaced by img2dcm during conversion.
   Input Plugins
       The img2dcm application currently supports the JPEG and the  BMP	 image
       format as input.
   JPEG	Input Plugin
       For  JPEG,  the	original  JPEG from the	source file is not decoded but
       extracted and slightly transformed (e. g. JFIF header is	 cut  off)  to
       allow  fast  conversion	of  even  big  JPEG  files without the need of
       decoding	and re-encoding. The JPEG plugin chooses the necessary	output
       transfer	 syntax	 automatically depending on the	actual encoding	of the
       data inside the JPEG file. Therefore, the following  Transfer  Syntaxes
       (and their corresponding	JPEG encodings)	are used by the	JPEG plugin:
       o JPEG  Coding Process 1	Baseline, Lossy, Non-Hierarchical, Sequential,
	 DCT, Huffman, 8 Bit SOP Class = 1.2.840.10008.1.2.4.50
       o JPEG Coding Process 2 (8-bit) and 4 (12-bit)  Extended,  Lossy,  Non-
	 Hierarchical,	 Sequential,  DCT,  Huffman,  8/12  Bit	 SOP  Class  =
	 1.2.840.10008.1.2.4.51
       o JPEG Coding Process 10	(8-bit)	 and  12  (12-bit)  Full  Progression,
	 lossy,	Non-Hierarch., Progressive, DCT, Huffman, 8/12 Bit SOP Class =
	 1.2.840.10008.1.2.4.55
       Color and grayscale images are supported.
       The support for the Extended  JPEG  Transfer  Syntax  can  be  disabled
       (--disable-ext  option)	as  well  as  the  support  for	 the (retired)
       Progressive JPEG	Transfer Syntax	(--disable-progr option).
       JPEG lossless encoding as well as any arithmetic	or  hierarchical  JPEG
       encoding	modes are not supported	by the plugin.
       JFIF  (JPEG  File  Interchange Format) information facilitates optional
       APPn markers in a JPEG file. Many digital cameras do not	integrate such
       JFIF  information  into	the JPEG output	they create. For example, JFIF
       contains	information about the pixel aspect  ratio  of  the  compressed
       image.  If  you want the	img2dcm	application to insist on a JFIF	header
       in the JPEG stream, you can use the option --insist-on-jfif which  will
       abort  if  no  JFIF  information	can be found. By default, missing JFIF
       information is ignored.
       For DICOM it is kind of a 'gray zone', whether the integration of  JFIF
       (or  any	 other APPn) data into the DICOM object's internal JPEG	stream
       is allowed or not. However, the most reliable approach is to cut	 those
       markers	and  their  information	 off the JPEG stream. This approach is
       also taken by the img2dcm application. By default, all APPn markers are
       cut  off	 from  the  original JPEG stream. However, if you want to keep
       other APPn markers than JFIF (e.	g. EXIF	information) inside the	 DICOM
       stream,	the  option  --keep-appn  does	the  trick.  It	should also be
       slightly	faster than cutting off	APPn information, because  it  is  not
       necessary to scan the whole JPEG	stream for such	data. JFIF information
       is always removed by img2dcm.
   BMP Input Plugin
       img2dcm supports	BMP as input format. However, so  far  only  the  most
       common  BMP  images  are	supported. In particular, BMP images which use
       bit fields or run length	encoding will be  rejected.  Such  images  are
       uncommon.  All  input  images will be converted into a DICOM image with
       RGB color model and a bit depth of 24. There are	 no  specific  options
       for fine-tuning BMP format conversion.
   Output Plugins
       The  desired  output  SOP  Class	 can  be selected on the command line.
       Currently, an export plugin for the Secondary Capture Image  SOP	 class
       (default,  option  -sc),	 the  new  Secondary Capture Image SOP classes
       (option -nsc) and Visible Light Photographic Image  SOP	class  (option
       -vl)  are  available.  Please  note  that  the  first one is deprecated
       according to the	DICOM standard but is selected as a default because it
       is  widely  supported. Future versions of img2dcm might provide further
       output plugins for other	SOP Classes.
       For the new Secondary Capture  SOP  classes,  it	 is  not  possible  to
       specify	which  specific	 SOP  class should be used for output. That is
       because these new SOP classes are differentiated	 from  each  other  by
       color  depth  (1/8/16) and the fact whether the image is	black/white or
       color. That is why img2dcm decides during conversion, which output  SOP
       class is	suitable for a given source image.
EXAMPLES
       Here  are  some	examples  that show how	the img2dcm application	can be
       used.
       1.  img2dcm image.jpg out.dcm
	   Read	JPEG file 'image.jpg', convert to the  old  Secondary  Capture
	   SOP	class and save the result to DICOM file	'out.dcm'. This	is the
	   easiest way of using	img2dcm. Any type  1  and  type	 2  attributes
	   required  for  writing valid	objects	of this	SOP class are inserted
	   automatically.
       2.  img2dcm -i BMP image.bmp out.dcm
	   Same	as above but tells img2dcm to read a BMP file instead of JPEG.
       3.  img2dcm image.jpg out.dcm -vlp -k 'PatientName=Bond^James'
	   Same	as first example, but writes Visible Light Photographic	 Image
	   object  to  'out.dcm'  and  sets  PatientName to 'Bond^James' which
	   otherwise would be left empty.
       4.  img2dcm   image.jpg	 out.dcm   --series-from    template.dcm    -k
	   'PatientName=Bond^James'
	   Same	as 1), but imports patient/study/series	information from DICOM
	   file	'template.dcm'.	Please note that  attribute  PatientName  will
	   contain 'Bond^James'	at the end, any	value from 'template.dcm' will
	   be overwritten. That	is, because the	-k option is  applied  at  the
	   very	end of the conversion pipeline (see above).
       5.  img2dcm image.jpg out.dcm --no-checks
	   Same	as 1), but does	not perform any	attribute checking and no type
	   1 and type 2	attribute insertion! So	in this	case, an invalid DICOM
	   object  would  be  generated. This can be interesting if the	output
	   file	is  not	 meant	to  be	completed  but	will  undergo  further
	   transformations,  e.	 g. adding attributes using dcmodify. Only use
	   option --no-checks if you know what you are doing!
       6.  img2dcm image.jpg out.dcm --no-type1-invent
	   Same	as 1), but does	not insert missing type	 1  attributes	and/or
	   their values. Type 2	attributes will	be inserted. Note that in this
	   case	it must	be assured that	all type 1 attributes are provided  by
	   other means,	i. e. by adding	them with the --key option. Otherwise,
	   img2dcm will	report an error	and will stop converting.
       7.  img2dcm image.jpg out.dcm --keep-appn --insist-on-jfif
	   Same	as 1), but takes over APPn  information	 like  EXIF  into  the
	   DICOM  object's  resulting  JPEG  stream. Further, --insist-on-jfif
	   will	force img2dcm to abort if no JFIF information is  existent  in
	   the source file.
LOGGING
       The  level  of  logging	output	of  the	various	command	line tools and
       underlying libraries can	be specified by	the  user.  By	default,  only
       errors  and  warnings  are  written to the standard error stream. Using
       option --verbose	also informational messages  like  processing  details
       are  reported.  Option  --debug	can be used to get more	details	on the
       internal	activity, e.g. for debugging purposes.	Other  logging	levels
       can  be	selected  using	option --log-level. In --quiet mode only fatal
       errors are reported. In such very severe	error events, the  application
       will  usually  terminate.  For  more  details  on the different logging
       levels, see documentation of module 'oflog'.
       In case the logging output should be written to file  (optionally  with
       logfile	rotation),  to syslog (Unix) or	the event log (Windows)	option
       --log-config can	be used.  This	configuration  file  also  allows  for
       directing  only	certain	messages to a particular output	stream and for
       filtering certain messages based	on the	module	or  application	 where
       they  are  generated.  An  example  configuration  file	is provided in
       _etcdir_/logger.cfg.
COMMAND	LINE
       All command line	tools  use  the	 following  notation  for  parameters:
       square  brackets	 enclose  optional  values  (0-1), three trailing dots
       indicate	that multiple values are allowed (1-n),	a combination of  both
       means 0 to n values.
       Command line options are	distinguished from parameters by a leading '+'
       or '-' sign, respectively. Usually, order and position of command  line
       options	are  arbitrary	(i.e.  they  can appear	anywhere). However, if
       options are mutually exclusive the rightmost appearance is  used.  This
       behavior	 conforms  to  the  standard  evaluation  rules	of common Unix
       shells.
       In addition, one	or more	command	files can be specified	using  an  '@'
       sign  as	 a  prefix to the filename (e.g. @command.txt).	Such a command
       argument	is replaced by the content  of	the  corresponding  text  file
       (multiple  whitespaces  are  treated  as	a single separator unless they
       appear between two quotation marks) prior to  any  further  evaluation.
       Please  note  that  a command file cannot contain another command file.
       This simple but effective  approach  allows  one	 to  summarize	common
       combinations  of	 options/parameters  and  avoids longish and confusing
       command lines (an example is provided in	file _datadir_/dumppat.txt).
ENVIRONMENT
       The img2dcm utility  will  attempt  to  load  DICOM  data  dictionaries
       specified  in the DCMDICTPATH environment variable. By default, i.e. if
       the  DCMDICTPATH	 environment   variable	  is   not   set,   the	  file
       _datadir_/dicom.dic  will be loaded unless the dictionary is built into
       the application (default	for Windows).
       The  default  behavior  should  be  preferred   and   the   DCMDICTPATH
       environment  variable  only used	when alternative data dictionaries are
       required. The DCMDICTPATH environment variable has the same  format  as
       the  Unix  shell	PATH variable in that a	colon (':') separates entries.
       On Windows systems, a semicolon (';') is	used as	a separator. The  data
       dictionary  code	 will  attempt	to  load  each	file  specified	in the
       DCMDICTPATH environment variable. It is an error	if no data  dictionary
       can be loaded.
FILES
       _datadir_/SC.dump - Sample dump file for	Secondary Capture images
       _datadir_/VLP.dump  -  Sample  dump file	for Visible Light Photographic
       images
SEE ALSO
       dcm2pnm(1), dcmj2pnm(1),	dump2dcm(1), dcmconv(1), dcmodify(1)
COPYRIGHT
       Copyright (C) 2007-2021 e.V., Escherweg 2, 26121	Oldenburg, Germany.

Version	3.6.6			Thu Jan	14 2021			    img2dcm(1)

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | PARAMETERS | OPTIONS | NOTES | EXAMPLES | LOGGING | COMMAND LINE | ENVIRONMENT | FILES | SEE ALSO | COPYRIGHT

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