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IMAKE(1)		    General Commands Manual		      IMAKE(1)

NAME
       imake - C preprocessor interface	to the make utility

SYNOPSIS
       imake  [	-Ddefine ] [ -Idir ] [ -Udefine	] [ -Ttemplate ] [ -f filename
       ] [ -C filename ] [ -s filename ] [ -e ]	[ -v ]

DESCRIPTION
       Imake is	used to	generate Makefiles from	a template, a set of cpp macro
       functions,  and	a  per-directory input file called an Imakefile.  This
       allows machine dependencies (such as compiler options,  alternate  com-
       mand  names,  and  special make rules) to be kept separate from the de-
       scriptions of the various items to be built.

OPTIONS
       The following command line options may be passed	to imake:

       -Ddefine
	       This option is passed directly to cpp.  It is typically used to
	       set  directory-specific	variables.   For example, the X	Window
	       System used this	flag to	set TOPDIR to the name of  the	direc-
	       tory  containing	the top	of the core distribution and CURDIR to
	       the name	of the current directory, relative to the top.

       -Idirectory
	       This option is passed directly to cpp.  It is typically used to
	       indicate	the directory in which the imake template and configu-
	       ration files may	be found.

       -Udefine
	       This option is passed directly to cpp.  It is typically used to
	       unset variables when debugging imake configuration files.

       -Ttemplate
	       This  option  specifies	the  name  of the master template file
	       (which is usually located in the	directory specified  with  -I)
	       used by cpp.  The default is Imake.tmpl.

       -f filename
	       This option specifies the name of the per-directory input file.
	       The default is Imakefile.

       -C filename
	       This option specifies the name of the .c	file that is construc-
	       ted in the current directory.  The default is Imakefile.c.

       -s filename
	       This  option specifies the name of the make description file to
	       be generated but	make should not	be invoked.  If	 the  filename
	       is a dash (-), the output is written to stdout.	The default is
	       to generate, but	not execute, a Makefile.

       -e      This option indicates the imake should  execute	the  generated
	       Makefile.  The default is to leave this to the user.

       -v      This  option  indicates that imake should print the cpp command
	       line that it is using to	generate the Makefile.

HOW IT WORKS
       Imake invokes cpp with any -I or	-D flags passed	on  the	 command  line
       and passes the name of a	file containing	the following 3	lines:

		 #define IMAKE_TEMPLATE	"Imake.tmpl"
		 #define INCLUDE_IMAKEFILE <Imakefile>
		 #include IMAKE_TEMPLATE

       where  Imake.tmpl and Imakefile may be overridden by the	-T and -f com-
       mand options, respectively.

       The IMAKE_TEMPLATE typically reads in a file containing	machine-depen-
       dent  parameters	(specified as cpp symbols), a site-specific parameters
       file, a file defining variables,	a file containing cpp macro  functions
       for  generating make rules, and finally the Imakefile (specified	by IN-
       CLUDE_IMAKEFILE)	in the current	directory.   The  Imakefile  uses  the
       macro  functions	 to indicate what targets should be built; imake takes
       care of generating the appropriate rules.

       Imake configuration files contain two types of variables,  imake	 vari-
       ables  and  make	variables.  The	imake variables	are interpreted	by cpp
       when imake is run.  By convention they are mixed	case.  The make	 vari-
       ables  are  written into	the Makefile for later interpretation by make.
       By convention make variables are	upper case.

       The rules file (usually named Imake.rules in the	 configuration	direc-
       tory) contains a	variety	of cpp macro functions that are	configured ac-
       cording to the current platform.	 Imake replaces	any occurrences	of the
       string  ``@@''  with  a newline to allow	macros that generate more than
       one line	of make	rules.	For example, the macro

	#define	     program_target(program, objlist)	     @@\
       program:	       objlist	       @@\
	       $(CC)  -o  $@  objlist  $(LDFLAGS)

       when called with	program_target(foo, foo1.o  foo2.o) will expand	to

       foo:    foo1.o  foo2.o
	       $(CC)  -o  $@  foo1.o  foo2.o  $(LDFLAGS)

       Imake also replaces any occurrences of  the  word  ``XCOMM''  with  the
       character  ``#''	 to  permit  placing  comments in the Makefile without
       causing ``invalid directive'' errors from the preprocessor.

       Some complex imake macros require generated  make  variables  local  to
       each  invocation	of the macro, often because their value	depends	on pa-
       rameters	passed to the macro.  Such variables can be created  by	 using
       an  imake  variable of the form XVARdefn, where n is a single digit.  A
       unique make variable will be substituted.   Later  occurrences  of  the
       variable	 XVARusen will be replaced by the variable created by the cor-
       responding XVARdefn.

       On systems whose	cpp reduces multiple  tabs  and	 spaces	 to  a	single
       space,  imake  attempts	to  put	 back any necessary tabs (make is very
       picky about the difference between tabs and spaces).  For this  reason,
       colons (:) in command lines must	be preceded by a backslash (\).

USE WITH THE X WINDOW SYSTEM
       The  X  Window System used imake	extensively up through the X11R6.9 re-
       lease, for both full builds within the source tree and  external	 soft-
       ware.   X  has  since  moved to GNU autoconf and	automake for its build
       system in X11R7.0 and later releases, but  still	 maintains  imake  for
       building	 existing  external  software  programs	that have not yet con-
       verted.

       As mentioned above, two special variables, TOPDIR and CURDIR,  are  set
       to  make	referencing files using	relative path names easier.  For exam-
       ple, the	following command is  generated	 automatically	to  build  the
       Makefile	in the directory lib/X/	(relative to the top of	the sources):

	    %  ../.././config/imake  -I../.././config  \
		 -DTOPDIR=../../.   -DCURDIR=./lib/X
       When building X programs	outside	the source tree, a special symbol Use-
       Installed is defined and	TOPDIR and CURDIR are omitted.	If the config-
       uration	files have been	properly installed, the	script xmkmf(1)	may be
       used.

INPUT FILES
       Here is a summary of the	files read by imake as used by X.  The	inden-
       tation shows what files include what other files.
	   Imake.tmpl  generic variables
	       site.def	       site-specific, BeforeVendorCF defined
	       *.cf    machine-specific
		   *Lib.rules  shared library rules
	       site.def	       site-specific, AfterVendorCF defined
	       Imake.rules     rules
	       Project.tmpl    X-specific variables
		   *Lib.tmpl   shared library variables
	       Imakefile
		   Library.tmpl	       library rules
		   Server.tmpl server rules
		   Threads.tmpl	       multi-threaded rules

       Note  that  site.def gets included twice, once before the *.cf file and
       once after.  Although most site customizations should be	specified  af-
       ter  the	 *.cf  file,  some, such as the	choice of compiler, need to be
       specified before, because other variable	settings may depend on them.

       The first time site.def is included, the	variable BeforeVendorCF	is de-
       fined, and the second time, the variable	AfterVendorCF is defined.  All
       code in site.def	should be inside an #ifdef for one of these symbols.

FILES
       Imakefile.c
	      temporary	input file for cpp

       /tmp/Imf.XXXXXX
	      temporary	Makefile for -s

       /tmp/IIf.XXXXXX
	      temporary	Imakefile if specified Imakefile uses #	comments

       tradcpp
	      default C	preprocessor

SEE ALSO
       make(1),	xmkmf(1)

       Paul DuBois
	      imake-Related	   Software	    and		Documentation,
	      http://www.snake.net/software/imake-stuff/

       Paul DuBois
	      Software	Portability with imake,	Second Edition,	O'Reilly & As-
	      sociates,	1996.

       S. I. Feldman,
	      Make -- A	Program	for Maintaining	Computer Programs

ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
       The following environment variables may be set, however	their  use  is
       not recommended as they introduce dependencies that are not readily ap-
       parent when imake is run:

       IMAKEINCLUDE
	    If defined,	this specifies a ``-I''	include	argument  to  pass  to
	    the	C preprocessor.	 E.g., ``-I/usr/X11/config''.

       IMAKECPP
	    If defined,	this should be a valid path to a preprocessor program.
	    E.g., ``/usr/local/cpp''.  By default, imake will  use  cc	-E  or
	    tradcpp, depending on the OS specific configuration.

       IMAKEMAKE
	    If defined,	this should be a valid path to a make program, such as
	    ``/usr/local/make''.  By default, imake  will  use	whatever  make
	    program  is	 found using execvp(3).	 This variable is only used if
	    the	``-e'' option is specified.

AUTHOR
       Todd Brunhoff, Tektronix	and MIT	Project	Athena;	Jim Fulton, MIT	X Con-
       sortium

X Version 11			  imake	1.0.7			      IMAKE(1)

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | OPTIONS | HOW IT WORKS | USE WITH THE X WINDOW SYSTEM | INPUT FILES | FILES | SEE ALSO | ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES | AUTHOR

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