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IMAKE(1)                FreeBSD General Commands Manual               IMAKE(1)

NAME
       imake - C preprocessor interface to the make utility

SYNOPSIS
       imake [ -Ddefine ] [ -Idir ] [ -Udefine ] [ -Ttemplate ] [ -f filename
       ] [ -C filename ] [ -s filename ] [ -e ] [ -v ]

DESCRIPTION
       Imake is used to generate Makefiles from a template, a set of cpp macro
       functions, and a per-directory input file called an Imakefile.  This
       allows machine dependencies (such as compiler options, alternate
       command names, and special make rules) to be kept separate from the
       descriptions of the various items to be built.

OPTIONS
       The following command line options may be passed to imake:

       -Ddefine
               This option is passed directly to cpp.  It is typically used to
               set directory-specific variables.  For example, the X Window
               System used this flag to set TOPDIR to the name of the
               directory containing the top of the core distribution and
               CURDIR to the name of the current directory, relative to the
               top.

       -Idirectory
               This option is passed directly to cpp.  It is typically used to
               indicate the directory in which the imake template and
               configuration files may be found.

       -Udefine
               This option is passed directly to cpp.  It is typically used to
               unset variables when debugging imake configuration files.

       -Ttemplate
               This option specifies the name of the master template file
               (which is usually located in the directory specified with -I)
               used by cpp.  The default is Imake.tmpl.

       -f filename
               This option specifies the name of the per-directory input file.
               The default is Imakefile.

       -C filename
               This option specifies the name of the .c file that is
               constructed in the current directory.  The default is
               Imakefile.c.

       -s filename
               This option specifies the name of the make description file to
               be generated but make should not be invoked.  If the filename
               is a dash (-), the output is written to stdout.  The default is
               to generate, but not execute, a Makefile.

       -e      This option indicates the imake should execute the generated
               Makefile.  The default is to leave this to the user.

       -v      This option indicates that imake should print the cpp command
               line that it is using to generate the Makefile.

HOW IT WORKS
       Imake invokes cpp with any -I or -D flags passed on the command line
       and passes the name of a file containing the following 3 lines:

                 #define IMAKE_TEMPLATE "Imake.tmpl"
                 #define INCLUDE_IMAKEFILE <Imakefile>
                 #include IMAKE_TEMPLATE

       where Imake.tmpl and Imakefile may be overridden by the -T and -f
       command options, respectively.

       The IMAKE_TEMPLATE typically reads in a file containing machine-
       dependent parameters (specified as cpp symbols), a site-specific
       parameters file, a file defining variables, a file containing cpp macro
       functions for generating make rules, and finally the Imakefile
       (specified by INCLUDE_IMAKEFILE) in the current directory.  The
       Imakefile uses the macro functions to indicate what targets should be
       built; imake takes care of generating the appropriate rules.

       Imake configuration files contain two types of variables, imake
       variables and make variables.  The imake variables are interpreted by
       cpp when imake is run.  By convention they are mixed case.  The make
       variables are written into the Makefile for later interpretation by
       make.  By convention make variables are upper case.

       The rules file (usually named Imake.rules in the configuration
       directory) contains a variety of cpp macro functions that are
       configured according to the current platform.  Imake replaces any
       occurrences of the string ``@@'' with a newline to allow macros that
       generate more than one line of make rules.  For example, the macro

        #define      program_target(program, objlist)        @@\
       program:        objlist         @@\
               $(CC)  -o  $@  objlist  $(LDFLAGS)

       when called with program_target(foo, foo1.o  foo2.o) will expand to

       foo:    foo1.o  foo2.o
               $(CC)  -o  $@  foo1.o  foo2.o  $(LDFLAGS)

       Imake also replaces any occurrences of the word ``XCOMM'' with the
       character ``#'' to permit placing comments in the Makefile without
       causing ``invalid directive'' errors from the preprocessor.

       Some complex imake macros require generated make variables local to
       each invocation of the macro, often because their value depends on
       parameters passed to the macro.  Such variables can be created by using
       an imake variable of the form XVARdefn, where n is a single digit.  A
       unique make variable will be substituted.  Later occurrences of the
       variable XVARusen will be replaced by the variable created by the
       corresponding XVARdefn.

       On systems whose cpp reduces multiple tabs and spaces to a single
       space, imake attempts to put back any necessary tabs (make is very
       picky about the difference between tabs and spaces).  For this reason,
       colons (:) in command lines must be preceded by a backslash (\).

USE WITH THE X WINDOW SYSTEM
       The X Window System used imake extensively up through the X11R6.9
       release, for both full builds within the source tree and external
       software.  X has since moved to GNU autoconf and automake for its build
       system in X11R7.0 and later releases, but still maintains imake for
       building existing external software programs that have not yet
       converted.

       As mentioned above, two special variables, TOPDIR and CURDIR, are set
       to make referencing files using relative path names easier.  For
       example, the following command is generated automatically to build the
       Makefile in the directory lib/X/ (relative to the top of the sources):

            %  ../.././config/imake  -I../.././config  \
                 -DTOPDIR=../../.   -DCURDIR=./lib/X
       When building X programs outside the source tree, a special symbol
       UseInstalled is defined and TOPDIR and CURDIR are omitted.  If the
       configuration files have been properly installed, the script xmkmf(1)
       may be used.

INPUT FILES
       Here is a summary of the files read by imake as used by X.  The
       indentation shows what files include what other files.
           Imake.tmpl  generic variables
               site.def        site-specific, BeforeVendorCF defined
               *.cf    machine-specific
                   *Lib.rules  shared library rules
               site.def        site-specific, AfterVendorCF defined
               Imake.rules     rules
               Project.tmpl    X-specific variables
                   *Lib.tmpl   shared library variables
               Imakefile
                   Library.tmpl        library rules
                   Server.tmpl server rules
                   Threads.tmpl        multi-threaded rules

       Note that site.def gets included twice, once before the *.cf file and
       once after.  Although most site customizations should be specified
       after the *.cf file, some, such as the choice of compiler, need to be
       specified before, because other variable settings may depend on them.

       The first time site.def is included, the variable BeforeVendorCF is
       defined, and the second time, the variable AfterVendorCF is defined.
       All code in site.def should be inside an #ifdef for one of these
       symbols.

FILES
       Imakefile.c
              temporary input file for cpp

       /tmp/Imf.XXXXXX
              temporary Makefile for -s

       /tmp/IIf.XXXXXX
              temporary Imakefile if specified Imakefile uses # comments

       tradcpp
              default C preprocessor

SEE ALSO
       make(1), xmkmf(1)

       Paul DuBois
              imake-Related Software and Documentation,
              http://www.snake.net/software/imake-stuff/

       Paul DuBois
              Software Portability with imake, Second Edition, O'Reilly &
              Associates, 1996.

       S. I. Feldman,
              Make -- A Program for Maintaining Computer Programs

ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
       The following environment variables may be set, however their use is
       not recommended as they introduce dependencies that are not readily
       apparent when imake is run:

       IMAKEINCLUDE
            If defined, this specifies a ``-I'' include argument to pass to
            the C preprocessor.  E.g., ``-I/usr/X11/config''.

       IMAKECPP
            If defined, this should be a valid path to a preprocessor program.
            E.g., ``/usr/local/cpp''.  By default, imake will use cc -E or
            tradcpp, depending on the OS specific configuration.

       IMAKEMAKE
            If defined, this should be a valid path to a make program, such as
            ``/usr/local/make''.  By default, imake will use whatever make
            program is found using execvp(3).  This variable is only used if
            the ``-e'' option is specified.

AUTHOR
       Todd Brunhoff, Tektronix and MIT Project Athena; Jim Fulton, MIT X
       Consortium

X Version 11                      imake 1.0.7                         IMAKE(1)

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | OPTIONS | HOW IT WORKS | USE WITH THE X WINDOW SYSTEM | INPUT FILES | FILES | SEE ALSO | ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES | AUTHOR

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