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IEEE80211_SCAN(9)	 BSD Kernel Developer's	Manual	     IEEE80211_SCAN(9)

NAME
     ieee80211_scan -- 802.11 scanning support

SYNOPSIS
     #include <net80211/ieee80211_var.h>

     int
     ieee80211_start_scan(struct ieee80211vap *, int flags, u_int duration,
	 u_int mindwell, u_int maxdwell, u_int nssid,
	 const struct ieee80211_scan_ssid ssids[]);

     int
     ieee80211_check_scan(struct ieee80211vap *, int flags, u_int duration,
	 u_int mindwell, u_int maxdwell, u_int nssid,
	 const struct ieee80211_scan_ssid ssids[]);

     int
     ieee80211_check_scan_current(struct ieee80211vap *);

     int
     ieee80211_bg_scan(struct ieee80211vap *, int);

     int
     ieee80211_cancel_scan(struct ieee80211vap *);

     int
     ieee80211_cancel_scan_any(struct ieee80211vap *);

     int
     ieee80211_scan_next(struct	ieee80211vap *);

     int
     ieee80211_scan_done(struct	ieee80211vap *);

     int
     ieee80211_probe_curchan(struct ieee80211vap *, int);

     void
     ieee80211_add_scan(struct ieee80211vap *,
	 const struct ieee80211_scanparams *, const struct ieee80211_frame *,
	 int subtype, int rssi,	int noise);

     void
     ieee80211_scan_timeout(struct ieee80211com	*);

     void
     ieee80211_scan_assoc_fail(struct ieee80211vap *,
	 const uint8_t mac[IEEE80211_ADDR_LEN],	int reason);

     void
     ieee80211_scan_flush(struct ieee80211vap *);

     void
     ieee80211_scan_iterate(struct ieee80211vap	*, ieee80211_scan_iter_func,
	 void *);

     void
     ieee80211_scan_dump_channels(const	struct ieee80211_scan_state *);

     void
     ieee80211_scanner_register(enum ieee80211_opmode,
	 const struct ieee80211_scanner	*);

     void
     ieee80211_scanner_unregister(enum ieee80211_opmode,
	 const struct ieee80211_scanner	*);

     void
     ieee80211_scanner_unregister_all(const struct ieee80211_scanner *);

     const struct ieee80211_scanner *
     ieee80211_scanner_get(enum	ieee80211_opmode);

DESCRIPTION
     The net80211 software layer provides an extensible	framework for scan-
     ning.  Scanning is	the procedure by which a station locates a BSS to join
     (in infrastructure	and IBSS mode),	or a channel to	use (when operating as
     an	AP or an IBSS master).	Scans are either "active" or "passive".	 An
     active scan causes	one or more ProbeRequest frames	to be sent on visiting
     each channel.  A passive request causes each channel in the scan set to
     be	visited	but no frames to be transmitted; the station only listens for
     traffic.  Note that active	scanning may still need	to listen for traffic
     before sending ProbeRequest frames	depending on regulatory	constraints.

     A scan operation involves constructing a set of channels to inspect (the
     scan set),	visiting each channel and collecting information (e.g. what
     BSS are present), and then	analyzing the results to make decisions	such
     as	which BSS to join.  This process needs to be as	fast as	possible so
     net80211 does things like intelligently construct scan sets and dwell on
     a channel only as long as necessary.  Scan	results	are cached and the
     scan cache	is used	to avoid scanning when possible	and to enable roaming
     between access points when	operating in infrastructure mode.

     Scanning is handled by pluggable modules that implement policy per-oper-
     ating mode.  The core scanning support provides an	infrastructure to sup-
     port these	modules	and exports a common API to the	rest of	the net80211
     layer.  Policy modules decide what	channels to visit, what	state to
     record to make decisions, and selects the final station/channel to	return
     as	the result of a	scan.

     Scanning is done synchronously when initially bringing a vap to an	opera-
     tional state and optionally in the	background to maintain the scan	cache
     for doing roaming and rogue AP monitoring.	 Scanning is not tied to the
     net80211 state machine that governs vaps except for linkage to the
     IEEE80211_S_SCAN state.  Only one vap at a	time may be scanning; this
     scheduling	policy is handled in ieee80211_new_state() and is transparent
     to	scanning code.

     Scanning is controlled by a set of	parameters that	(potentially) con-
     strains the channel set and any desired SSID's and	BSSID's.  net80211
     comes with	a standard scanner module that works with all available	oper-
     ating modes and supports "background scanning" and	"roaming" operation.

SCANNER	MODULES
     Scanning modules use a registration mechanism to hook into	the net80211
     layer.  Use ieee80211_scanner_register() to register a scan module	for a
     particular	operating mode and ieee80211_scanner_unregister() or
     ieee80211_scanner_unregister_all()	to clear entries (typically on module
     unload).  Only one	scanner	module can be registered at any	time for an
     operating mode.

DRIVER SUPPORT
     Scanning operations are usually managed by	the net80211 layer.  Drivers
     must provide ic_scan_start	and ic_scan_stop methods that are called at
     the start of a scan and when the work is done; these should handle	work
     such as enabling receive of Beacon	and ProbeResponse frames and disable
     any BSSID matching.  The ic_set_channel method is used to change channels
     while scanning.  net80211 will generate ProbeRequest frames and transmit
     them using	the ic_raw_xmit	method.	 Frames	received while scanning	are
     dispatched	to net80211 using the normal receive path.  Devices that off-
     load scan work to firmware	most easily mesh with net80211 by operating on
     a channel-at-a-time basis as this defers control to net80211's scan ma-
     chine scheduler.  But multi-channel scanning is supported if the driver
     manually dispatches results using ieee80211_add_scan() routine to enter
     results into the scan cache.

SCAN REQUESTS
     Scan requests occur by way	of the IEEE80211_SCAN_REQUEST ioctl or through
     a change in a vap's state machine that requires scanning.	In both	cases
     the scan cache can	be checked first and, if it is deemed suitably "warm"
     then it's contents	are used without leaving the current channel.  To
     start a scan without checking the cache ieee80211_start_scan() can	be
     called; otherwise ieee80211_check_scan() can be used to first check the
     scan cache, kicking off a scan if the cache contents are out of date.
     There is also ieee80211_check_scan_current() which	is a shorthand for us-
     ing previously set	scan parameters	for checking the scan cache and	then
     scanning.

     Background	scanning is done using ieee80211_bg_scan() in a	co-routine
     fashion.  The first call to this routine will start a background scan
     that runs for a limited period of time before returning to	the BSS	chan-
     nel.  Subsequent calls advance through the	scan set until all channels
     are visited.  Typically these later calls are timed to allow receipt of
     frames buffered by	an access point	for the	station.

     A scan operation can be canceled using ieee80211_cancel_scan() if it was
     initiated by the specified	vap, or	ieee80211_cancel_scan_any() to force
     termination regardless which vap started it.  These requests are mostly
     used by net80211 in the transmit path to cancel background	scans when
     frames are	to be sent.  Drivers should not	need to	use these calls	(or
     most of the calls described on this page).

     The ieee80211_scan_next() and ieee80211_scan_done() routines do explicit
     iteration through the scan	set and	should not normally be used by driv-
     ers.  ieee80211_probe_curchan() handles the work of transmitting
     ProbeRequest frames when visiting a channel during	an active scan.	 When
     the channel attributes are	marked with IEEE80211_CHAN_PASSIVE this	func-
     tion will arrange that before any frame is	transmitted 802.11 traffic is
     first received (in	order to comply	with regulatory	constraints).

     Min/max dwell time	parameters are used to constrain time spent visiting a
     channel.  The maximum dwell time constrains the time spent	listening for
     traffic.  The minimum dwell time is used to reduce	this time--when	it is
     reached and one or	more frames have been received then an immediate chan-
     nel change	will be	done.  Drivers can override this behaviour through the
     iv_scan_mindwell method.

SCAN CACHE MANAGEMENT
     The scan cache contents are managed by the	scan policy module and are
     opaque outside this module.  The net80211 scan framework defines API's
     for interacting.  The validity of the scan	cache contents are controlled
     by	iv_scanvalid which is exported to user space through the
     IEEE80211_SCAN_VALID request.

     The cache contents	can be explicitly flushed with ieee80211_scan_flush()
     or	by setting the IEEE80211_SCAN_FLUSH flag when starting a scan opera-
     tion.

     Scan cache	entries	are created with the ieee80211_add_scan() routine;
     usually on	receipt	of Beacon or ProbeResponse frames.  Existing entries
     are typically updated based on the	latest information though some infor-
     mation such as RSSI and noise floor readings may be combined to present
     an	average.

     The cache contents	is aged	through	ieee80211_scan_timeout() calls.	 Typi-
     cally these happen	together with other station table activity; every
     IEEE80211_INACT_WAIT seconds (default 15).

     Individual	cache entries are marked usable	with
     ieee80211_scan_assoc_success() and	faulty with
     ieee80211_scan_assoc_fail() with the latter taking	an argument to iden-
     tify if there was no response to Authentication/Association requests or
     if	a negative response was	received (which	might hasten cache eviction or
     blacklist the entry).

     The cache contents	can be viewed using the	ieee80211_scan_iterate() call.
     Cache entries are exported	in a public format that	is exported to user
     applications through the IEEE80211_SCAN_RESULTS request.

SEE ALSO
     ioctl(2), ieee80211(9), ieee80211_proto(9)

BSD				March 29, 2010				   BSD

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | SCANNER MODULES | DRIVER SUPPORT | SCAN REQUESTS | SCAN CACHE MANAGEMENT | SEE ALSO

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