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i.cluster(1) GRASS GIS User's Manual i.cluster(1)NAMEi.cluster- Generates spectral signatures for land cover types in an image using a clustering algorithm. The resulting signature file is used as input for i.maxlik, to generate an unsupervised image classification.KEYWORDSimagery, classification, signaturesSYNOPSISi.clusteri.cluster--helpi.clustergroup=namesubgroup=namesignaturefile=nameclasses=integer[seed=name] [sample=rows,cols] [iterations=integer] [conver-gence=float] [separation=float] [min_size=integer] [report-file=name] [--overwrite] [--help] [--verbose] [--quiet] [--ui]Flags:--overwriteAllow output files to overwrite existing files--helpPrint usage summary--verboseVerbose module output--quietQuiet module output--uiForce launching GUI dialogParameters:group=nameA[required]Name of input imagery groupsubgroup=nameA[required]Name of input imagery subgroupsignaturefile=nameA[required]Name for output file containing result signaturesclasses=integerA[required]Initial number of classes Options:1-255seed=nameName of file containing initial signaturessample=rows,colsNumber of rows and columns over which a sample pixel is takeniterations=integerMaximum number of iterations Default:30convergence=floatPercent convergence Options:0-100Default:98.0separation=floatCluster separation Default:0.0min_size=integerMinimum number of pixels in a class Default:17reportfile=nameName for output file containing final reportDESCRIPTIONi.clusterperforms the first pass in the two-pass unsupervised classi- fication of imagery, while the GRASS modulei.maxlikexecutes the sec- ond pass. Both commands must be run to complete the unsupervised clas- sification.i.clusteris a clustering algorithm (a modification of thek-means clustering algorithm) that reads through the (raster) imagery data and builds pixel clusters based on the spectral reflectances of the pixels (see Figure). The pixel clusters are imagery categories that can be related to land cover types on the ground. The spectral distributions of the clusters (e.g., land cover spectral signatures) are influenced by six parameters set by the user. A relevant parameter set by the user is the initial number of clusters to be discriminated.Fig.:Landuse/landcoverclusteringofLANDSATscene(sim-plified)i.clusterstarts by generating spectral signatures for this number of clusters and "attempts" to end up with this number of clusters during the clustering process. The resulting number of clusters and their spectral distributions, however, are also influenced by the range of the spectral values (category values) in the image files and the other parameters set by the user. These parameters are: the minimum cluster size, minimum cluster separation, the percent convergence, the maximum number of iterations, and the row and column sampling intervals. The cluster spectral signatures that result are composed of cluster means and covariance matrices. These cluster means and covariance ma- trices are used in the second pass (i.maxlik) to classify the image. The clusters or spectral classes result can be related to land cover types on the ground. The user has to specify the name of group file, the name of subgroup file, the name of a file to contain result signa- tures, the initial number of clusters to be discriminated, and option- ally other parameters (see below) where thegroupshould contain the imagery files that the user wishes to classify. Thesubgroupis a sub- set of this group. The user must create a group and subgroup by run- ning the GRASS programi.groupbefore runningi.cluster. The subgroup should contain only the imagery band files that the user wishes to classify. Note that this subgroup must contain more than one band file. The purpose of the group and subgroup is to collect map layers for classification or analysis. Thesignaturefileis the file to con- tain result signatures which can be used as input fori.maxlik. The classes value is the initial number of clusters to be discriminated; any parameter values left unspecified are set to their default values.Parameters:group=nameThe name of the group file which contains the imagery files that the user wishes to classify.subgroup=nameThe name of the subset of the group specified in group option, which must contain only imagery band files and more than one band file. The user must create a group and a subgroup by running the GRASS programi.groupbefore runningi.cluster.signaturefile=nameThe name assigned to output signature file which contains signa- tures of classes and can be used as the input file for the GRASS programi.maxlikfor an unsupervised classification.classes=valueThe number of clusters that will initially be identified in the clustering process before the iterations begin.seed=nameThe name of a seed signature file is optional. The seed signatures are signatures that contain cluster means and covariance matrices which were calculated prior to the current run ofi.cluster. They may be acquired from a previously run ofi.clusteror from a super- vised classification signature training site section (e.g., using the signature file output byg.gui.iclass). The purpose of seed signatures is to optimize the cluster decision boundaries (means) for the number of clusters specified.sample=rows,colsThese numbers are optional with default values based on the size of the data set such that the total pixels to be processed is approxi- mately 10,000 (consider round up). The smaller these numbers, the larger the sample size used to generate the signatures for the classes defined.iterations=valueThis parameter determines the maximum number of iterations which is greater than the number of iterations predicted to achieve the op- timum percent convergence. The default value is 30. If the number of iterations reaches the maximum designated by the user; the user may want to reruni.clusterwith a higher number of iterations (seereportfile). Default: 30convergence=valueA high percent convergence is the point at which cluster means be- come stable during the iteration process. The default value is 98.0 percent. When clusters are being created, their means con- stantly change as pixels are assigned to them and the means are re- calculated to include the new pixel. After all clusters have been created,i.clusterbegins iterations that change cluster means by maximizing the distances between them. As these means shift, a higher and higher convergence is approached. Because means will never become totally static, a percent convergence and a maximum number of iterations are supplied to stop the iterative process. The percent convergence should be reached before the maximum number of iterations. If the maximum number of iterations is reached, it is probable that the desired percent convergence was not reached. The number of iterations is reported in the cluster statistics in the report file (seereportfile). Default: 98.0separation=valueThis is the minimum separation below which clusters will be merged in the iteration process. The default value is 0.0. This is an im- age-specific number (a "magic" number) that depends on the image data being classified and the number of final clusters that are ac- ceptable. Its determination requires experimentation. Note that as the minimum class (or cluster) separation is increased, the maximum number of iterations should also be increased to achieve this sepa- ration with a high percentage of convergence (seeconvergence). Default: 0.0min_size=valueThis is the minimum number of pixels that will be used to define a cluster, and is therefore the minimum number of pixels for which means and covariance matrices will be calculated. Default: 17reportfile=nameThe reportfile is an optional parameter which contains the result, i.e., the statistics for each cluster. Also included are the re- sulting percent convergence for the clusters, the number of itera- tions that was required to achieve the convergence, and the separa- bility matrix.NOTESSamplingmethodi.clusterdoes not cluster all pixels, but only a sample (see parametersample). The result of that clustering is not that all pixels are as- signed to a given cluster; essentially, only signatures which are rep- resentative of a given cluster are generated. When runningi.clusteron the same data asking for the same number of classes, but with different sample sizes, likely slightly different signatures for each cluster are obtained at each run.Algorithmusedfori.clusterThe algorithm uses input parameters set by the user on the initial num- ber of clusters, the minimum distance between clusters, and the corre- spondence between iterations which is desired, and minimum size for each cluster. It also asks if all pixels to be clustered, or every "x"th row and "y"th column (sampling), the correspondence between iter- ations desired, and the maximum number of iterations to be carried out. In the 1st pass, initial cluster means for each band are defined by giving the first cluster a value equal to the band mean minus its stan- dard deviation, and the last cluster a value equal to the band mean plus its standard deviation, with all other cluster means distributed equally spaced in between these. Each pixel is then assigned to the class which it is closest to, distance being measured as Euclidean dis- tance. All clusters less than the user-specified minimum distance are then merged. If a cluster has less than the user-specified minimum num- ber of pixels, all those pixels are again reassigned to the next near- est cluster. New cluster means are calculated for each band as the av- erage of raster pixel values in that band for all pixels present in that cluster. In the 2nd pass, pixels are then again reassigned to clusters based on new cluster means. The cluster means are then again recalculated. This process is repeated until the correspondence between iterations reaches a user-specified level, or till the maximum number of iterations speci- fied is over, whichever comes first.EXAMPLEPreparing the statistics for unsupervised classification of a LANDSAT subscene in North Carolina: g.region raster=lsat7_2002_10 -p # store VIZ, NIR, MIR into group/subgroup (leaving out TIR) i.group group=lsat7_2002 subgroup=lsat7_2002 \ input=lsat7_2002_10,lsat7_2002_20,lsat7_2002_30,lsat7_2002_40,lsat7_2002_50,lsat7_2002_70 # generate signature file and report i.cluster group=lsat7_2002 subgroup=lsat7_2002 \ signaturefile=sig_cluster_lsat2002 \ classes=10 reportfile=rep_clust_lsat2002.txt To complete the unsupervised classification,i.maxlikis subsequently used. See example in its manual page.SEE ALSOoImage classification wiki pageoHistorical reference also the GRASS GIS 4 Image Processing man- ual (PDF)oWikipedia article onk-means clustering (note thati.clusteruses a modification of thek-means clustering algorithm)g.gui.iclass,i.group,i.gensig,i.maxlik,i.segment,i.smap,r.kappaAUTHORSMichael Shapiro, U.S. Army Construction Engineering Research Laboratory Tao Wen, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, IllinoisSOURCE CODEAvailable at: i.cluster source code (history) Main index | Imagery index | Topics index | Keywords index | Graphical index | Full indexA(C) 2003-2020 GRASS Development Team, GRASS GIS 7.8.4 Reference Manual GRASS 7.8.4 i.cluster(1)

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