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HTPASSWD(1)			   htpasswd			   HTPASSWD(1)

NAME
       htpasswd	- Manage user files for	basic authentication

SYNOPSIS
       htpasswd	 [ -c ]	[ -i ] [ -m | -B | -d |	-s | -p	] [ -C cost ] [	-D ] [
       -v ] passwdfile username

       htpasswd	-b [ -c	] [ -m | -B | -d | -s |	-p ] [ -C cost ] [ -D ]	[ -v ]
       passwdfile username password

       htpasswd	-n [ -i	] [ -m | -B | -d | -s |	-p ] [ -C cost ] username

       htpasswd	-nb [ -m | -B |	-d | -s	| -p ] [ -C cost ] username password

SUMMARY
       htpasswd	 is  used  to  create  and update the flat-files used to store
       usernames and password for basic	authentication of HTTP users.  If  ht-
       passwd  cannot  access  a  file,	such as	not being able to write	to the
       output file or not being	able to	read the file in order to  update  it,
       it returns an error status and makes no changes.

       Resources  available  from  the Apache HTTP server can be restricted to
       just the	users listed in	the files created by  htpasswd.	 This  program
       can  only  manage usernames and passwords stored	in a flat-file.	It can
       encrypt and display password information	for use	in other types of data
       stores, though. To use a	DBM database see dbmmanage or htdbm.

       htpasswd	encrypts passwords using either	bcrypt,	a version of MD5 modi-
       fied for	Apache,	SHA1, or the system's crypt() routine.	Files  managed
       by  htpasswd may	contain	a mixture of different encoding	types of pass-
       words; some user	records	may have  bcrypt  or  MD5-encrypted  passwords
       while  others  in  the  same  file  may	have  passwords	encrypted with
       crypt().

       This manual page	only lists the command line arguments. For details  of
       the  directives necessary to configure user authentication in httpd see
       the Apache manual, which	is part	of the Apache distribution or  can  be
       found at	http://httpd.apache.org/.

OPTIONS
       -b     Use  batch  mode;	 i.e.,	get the	password from the command line
	      rather than prompting for	it. This option	should	be  used  with
	      extreme  care, since the password	is clearly visible on the com-
	      mand line. For script use	see the	-i option. Available in	 2.4.4
	      and later.

       -i     Read  the	 password  from	stdin without verification (for	script
	      usage).

       -c     Create the passwdfile.  If  passwdfile  already  exists,	it  is
	      rewritten	and truncated. This option cannot be combined with the
	      -n option.

       -n     Display the results on standard output rather  than  updating  a
	      file.  This is useful for	generating password records acceptable
	      to Apache	for inclusion in non-text  data	 stores.  This	option
	      changes the syntax of the	command	line, since the	passwdfile ar-
	      gument (usually the first	one) is	omitted. It cannot be combined
	      with the -c option.

       -m     Use  MD5	encryption  for	 passwords. This is the	default	(since
	      version 2.2.18).

       -B     Use bcrypt encryption for	passwords. This	is  currently  consid-
	      ered to be very secure.

       -C     This flag	is only	allowed	in combination with -B (bcrypt encryp-
	      tion). It	sets the computing time	used for the bcrypt  algorithm
	      (higher is more secure but slower, default: 5, valid: 4 to 31).

       -d     Use  crypt()  encryption for passwords. This is not supported by
	      the httpd	server on Windows and Netware. This  algorithm	limits
	      the  password length to 8	characters. This algorithm is insecure
	      by today's standards. It used to be the default algorithm	 until
	      version 2.2.17.

       -s     Use  SHA encryption for passwords. Facilitates migration from/to
	      Netscape servers using the  LDAP	Directory  Interchange	Format
	      (ldif). This algorithm is	insecure by today's standards.

       -p     Use  plaintext  passwords. Though	htpasswd will support creation
	      on all platforms,	the httpd daemon will only accept  plain  text
	      passwords	on Windows and Netware.

       -D     Delete  user.  If	 the username exists in	the specified htpasswd
	      file, it will be deleted.

       -v     Verify password. Verify that  the	 given	password  matches  the
	      password	of  the	 user  stored  in the specified	htpasswd file.
	      Available	in 2.4.5 and later.

       passwdfile
	      Name of the file to contain the user name	and password. If -c is
	      given,  this  file  is  created if it does not already exist, or
	      rewritten	and truncated if it does exist.

       username
	      The username to create or	update in passwdfile. If username does
	      not exist	in this	file, an entry is added. If it does exist, the
	      password is changed.

       password
	      The plaintext password to	be encrypted and stored	in  the	 file.
	      Only used	with the -b flag.

EXIT STATUS
       htpasswd	 returns  a  zero status ("true") if the username and password
       have been successfully added or updated in the passwdfile. htpasswd re-
       turns 1 if it encounters	some problem accessing files, 2	if there was a
       syntax problem with the command line, 3 if the password was entered in-
       teractively and the verification	entry didn't match, 4 if its operation
       was interrupted,	5 if a value is	too long  (username,  filename,	 pass-
       word,  or  final	 computed  record), 6 if the username contains illegal
       characters (see the Restrictions	section), and 7	if the file is	not  a
       valid password file.

EXAMPLES
	     htpasswd /usr/local/etc/apache/.htpasswd-users jsmith

       Adds or modifies	the password for user jsmith. The user is prompted for
       the password. The password will be encrypted using the modified	Apache
       MD5 algorithm. If the file does not exist, htpasswd will	do nothing ex-
       cept return an error.

	     htpasswd -c /home/doe/public_html/.htpasswd jane

       Creates a new file and stores a record in it for	user jane. The user is
       prompted	 for  the  password. If	the file exists	and cannot be read, or
       cannot be written, it is	not altered and	htpasswd will display  a  mes-
       sage and	return an error	status.

	     htpasswd -db /usr/web/.htpasswd-all jones Pwd4Steve

       Encrypts	 the  password	from  the  command  line (Pwd4Steve) using the
       crypt() algorithm, and stores it	in the specified file.

SECURITY CONSIDERATIONS
       Web password files such as those	managed	 by  htpasswd  should  not  be
       within the Web server's URI space -- that is, they should not be	fetch-
       able with a browser.

       This program is not safe	as a setuid executable.	Do not make it setuid.

       The use of the -b option	is discouraged,	since when it is used the  un-
       encrypted password appears on the command line.

       When using the crypt() algorithm, note that only	the first 8 characters
       of the password are used	to form	the password. If the supplied password
       is longer, the extra characters will be silently	discarded.

       The  SHA	 encryption format does	not use	salting: for a given password,
       there is	only one encrypted representation. The crypt() and MD5 formats
       permute	the representation by prepending a random salt string, to make
       dictionary attacks against the passwords	more difficult.

       The SHA and crypt() formats are insecure	by today's standards.

RESTRICTIONS
       On the Windows platform,	passwords encrypted with htpasswd are  limited
       to  no  more  than  255	characters in length. Longer passwords will be
       truncated to 255	characters.

       The MD5 algorithm used by htpasswd is specific to the Apache  software;
       passwords encrypted using it will not be	usable with other Web servers.

       Usernames are limited to	255 bytes and may not include the character :.

Apache HTTP Server		  2014-06-24			   HTPASSWD(1)

NAME | SYNOPSIS | SUMMARY | OPTIONS | EXIT STATUS | EXAMPLES | SECURITY CONSIDERATIONS | RESTRICTIONS

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