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HIER(7)            FreeBSD Miscellaneous Information Manual            HIER(7)

     hier -- layout of file systems

     A sketch of the file system hierarchy.

     /          root directory of the file system

     /bin/      user utilities fundamental to both single-user and multi-user

     /boot/     programs and configuration files used during operating system

                defaults/  default bootstrapping configuration files; see
                kernel/    pure kernel executable (the operating system loaded
                           into memory at boot time).
                modules/   third-party loadable kernel modules; see kldstat(8)

     /cdrom/    default mount point for CD-ROM drives (created by

     /compat/   normally a link to /usr/compat.  If not, then the /usr/compat
                comments apply (created by sysinstall(8))

     /dev/      device special files managed by devfs(5)

                fd/   file descriptor files; see fd(4)
                net/  network devices

     /dist/     mount point used by sysinstall(8)

     /etc/      system configuration files and scripts

                defaults/   default system configuration files; see rc(8)
                bluetooth/  bluetooth configuration files
                gnats/      gnats configuration files; see send-pr(1)
                isdn/       isdn4bsd configuration files; see isdnd(8)
                localtime   local timezone information; see ctime(3)
                mail/       Sendmail control files
                mtree/      mtree configuration files; see mtree(8)
                namedb/     named configuration files; see named(8)
                pam.d/      configuration files for the Pluggable Authentica-
                            tion Modules (PAM) library; see pam(8)
                periodic/   scripts that are run daily, weekly, and monthly,
                            via cron(8); see periodic(8)
                rc.d/       System and daemon startup/control scripts; see
                security/   OpenBSM audit configuration files; see audit(8)
                ppp/        ppp configuration files; see ppp(8)
                ssh/        OpenSSH configuration files; see ssh(1)
                ssl/        OpenSSL configuration files

     /lib/      critical system libraries needed for binaries in /bin and

                geom/  class-specific libraries for the geom(8) utility

     /libexec/  critical system utilities needed for binaries in /bin and

     /media/    contains subdirectories to be used as mount points for remov-
                able media such as CDs, USB drives, and floppy disks

     /mnt/      empty directory commonly used by system administrators as a
                temporary mount point

     /proc/     process file system; see procfs(5), mount_procfs(8)

     /rescue/   statically linked programs for emergency recovery; see

     /root/     root's HOME directory

     /sbin/     system programs and administration utilities fundamental to
                both single-user and multi-user environments

     /stand/    programs used in a standalone environment

     /tmp/      temporary files that are not guaranteed to persist across sys-
                tem reboots

     /usr/      contains the majority of user utilities and applications

                bin/      common utilities, programming tools, and applica-
                compat/   files needed to support binary compatibility with
                          other operating systems, such as Linux (created by
                games/    useful and semi-frivolous programs
                include/  standard C include files

                          altq/       C include files for alternate queueing
                          arpa/       C include files for Internet service
                          bsnmp/      C include files for the SNMP daemon
                          c++/        C++ include files
                          cam/        C include files for the Common Access
                                      Methods Layer
                                      scsi/       The SCSI device on top of
                          dev/        C include files for programming various
                                      FreeBSD devices
                                      ic/         Various header files
                                                  describing driver- and bus-
                                                  independent hardware cir-
                                      ofw/        Open Firmware support
                                      pbio/       8255 PPI cards; see pbio(4)
                                      ppbus/      The parallel port bus; see
                                      usb/        The USB subsystem
                                      utopia/     Physical chip driver for ATM
                                                  interfaces; see utopia(4)
                                      wi/         The wi(4) WaveLAN driver
                                      fdescfs/    per-process file descriptors
                                                  file system
                                      fifofs/     IEEE Std 1003.1
                                                  (``POSIX.1'') FIFOs file
                                      msdosfs/    MS-DOS file system
                                      ntfs/       NTFS file system
                                      nullfs/     loopback file system
                                      nwfs/       NetWare file system
                                      portalfs/   portal file system
                                      procfs/     process file system
                                      smbfs/      SMB/CIFS file system
                                      udf/        UDF file system
                                      umapfs/     alternate uid/gid mappings
                                                  file system
                                      unionfs     union file system
                          geom/       GEOM framework
                                      concat/     CONCAT GEOM class
                                      gate/       GATE GEOM class
                                      mirror/     MIRROR GEOM class
                                      nop/        NOP GEOM class
                                      raid3/      RAID3 GEOM class
                                      stripe/     STRIPE GEOM class

                          isc/        ISC utility library libisc include files
                                      cd9660/     iso9660 file system
                          libmilter/  C include files for libmilter, the
                                      sendmail(8) mail filter API
                          machine/    machine-specific C include files
                          net/        miscellaneous network C include files
                          netatalk/   Appletalk protocol
                          netatm/     ATM include files; see atm(8)
                          netinet/    C include files for Internet standard
                                      protocols; see inet(4)
                          netinet6/   C include files for Internet protocol
                                      version 6; see inet6(4)
                          netipx/     IPX/SPX protocol stacks
                          netkey/     kernel key-management service
                          netnatm/    NATM include files; see natm(4)
                                      api/        include files for the sig-
                                                  nalling API
                                      msg/        include files that describe
                                                  signalling messages and
                                                  declare associated functions
                                      saal/       include files for the sig-
                                                  nalling AAL layer
                                      sig/        include files for the UNI
                                                  signalling protocol
                          netsmb/     SMB/CIFS requester
                          nfs/        C include files for NFS (Network File
                          objc/       Objective C include files
                          openssl/    OpenSSL (Cryptography/SSL toolkit) head-
                          pccard/     PC-CARD controllers
                          posix4/     POSIX real-time extensions includes; see
                          protocols/  C include files for Berkeley service
                          readline/   get a line from a user, with editing;
                                      see readline(3)
                          rpc/        remote procedure calls; see rpc(3)
                          rpcsvc/     definition of RPC service structures;
                                      see rpc(3)
                          security/   PAM; see pam(8)
                          sys/        system C include files (kernel data
                          ufs/        C include files for UFS (The U-word File
                                      ffs/        Fast file system
                                      ufs/        UFS file system
                          vm/         virtual memory; see vmstat(8)

                lib/      shared and archive ar(1)-type libraries
                          aout/       a.out archive libraries
                          compat/     shared libraries for compatibility
                                      aout/       a.out backward compatibility

                libdata/  miscellaneous utility data files
                          gcc/        gcc(1) configuration data
                          ldscripts/  linker scripts; see ld(1)
                          lint/       various prebuilt lint libraries; see

                libexec/  system daemons & system utilities (executed by other
                          aout/       utilities to manipulate a.out executa-
                          elf/        utilities to manipulate ELF executables
                          lpr/        utilities and filters for LP print sys-
                                      tem; see lpr(1)
                          sendmail/   the sendmail(8) binary; see
                          sm.bin/     restricted shell for sendmail(8); see

                local/    local executables, libraries, etc.  Also used as the
                          default destination for the FreeBSD ports framework.
                          Within local/, the general layout sketched out by
                          hier for /usr should be used.  Exceptions are the
                          man directory (directly under local/ rather than
                          under local/share/), ports documentation (in
                          share/doc/<port>/), and /usr/local/etc (mimics
                obj/      architecture-specific target tree produced by build-
                          ing the /usr/src tree
                ports/    The FreeBSD ports collection (optional).
                sbin/     system daemons & system utilities (executed by
                share/    architecture-independent files

                          calendar/  a variety of pre-fab calendar files; see
                          dict/      word lists; see look(1)

                                     freebsd     FreeBSD-specific terms,
                                                 proper names, and jargon
                                     words       common words
                                     web2        words from Webster's 2nd
                                     papers/     reference databases; see

                          doc/       miscellaneous documentation; source for
                                     most of the printed BSD manuals (avail-
                                     able from the USENIX association)
                                     FAQ/        Frequently Asked Questions
                                     IPv6/       implementation notes for IPv6
                                     bind/       documents pertaining to BIND
                                                 (the Berkeley Internet Name
                                     es/         Spanish translations of docu-
                                                 ments in /usr/share/doc
                                     handbook/   FreeBSD Handbook
                                     ja/         Japanese translations of doc-
                                                 uments in /usr/share/doc
                                     ncurses/    HTML documents pertaining to
                                                 ncurses; see ncurses(3)
                                     ntp/        HTML documents pertaining to
                                                 the Network Time Protocol
                                     papers/     UNIX Papers
                                     psd/        UNIX Programmer's Supplemen-
                                                 tary Documents
                                     ru/         Russian translations of docu-
                                                 ments in /usr/share/doc
                                     smm/        UNIX System Manager's Manual
                                     tutorials/  FreeBSD tutorials
                                     usd/        UNIX User's Supplementary
                                     zh/         Chinese translations of docu-
                                                 ments in /usr/share/doc

                          examples/  various examples for users and program-
                          games/     ASCII text files used by various games
                                     device description file for device name
                          info/      GNU Info hypertext system
                          isdn/      ISDN
                          locale/    localization files; see setlocale(3)
                          man/       manual pages
                          me/        macros for use with the me macro package;
                                     see me(7)
                          misc/      miscellaneous system-wide ASCII text
                                     fonts/      ???
                                     pcvtfonts/  pcvt fonts; see pcvt(4)
                                     termcap     terminal characteristics
                                                 database; see termcap(5)
                          mk/        templates for make; see make(1)
                          nls/       national language support files; see
                          pcvt/      pcvt documentation and etc examples; see
                          security/  data files for security policies such as
                          sendmail/  sendmail(8) configuration files
                          skel/      example . (dot) files for new accounts
                          snmp/      MIBs, example files and tree definitions
                                     for the SNMP daemon.
                                     defs/       Tree definition files for use
                                                 with gensnmptree(1)
                                     mibs/       MIB files
                          syscons/   files used by syscons; see syscons(4)
                                     fonts/     console fonts; see
                                                vidcontrol(1) and vidfont(1)
                                     keymaps/   console keyboard maps; see
                                                kbdcontrol(1) and kbdmap(1)
                                     scrnmaps/  console screen maps
                          tabset/    tab description files for a variety of
                                     terminals; used in the termcap file; see
                          tmac/      text processing macros; see nroff(1) and
                          vi/        localization support and utilities for
                          zoneinfo/  timezone configuration information; see
                src/      BSD, third-party, and/or local source files

                          bin/        source code for files in /bin
                          contrib/    source code for contributed software
                          crypto/     source code for contributed cryptography
                          etc/        source code for files in /etc
                          games/      source code for files in /usr/games
                          gnu/        Utilities covered by the GNU General
                                      Public License
                          include/    source code for files in /usr/include
                          kerberos5/  build infrastructure for kerberos ver-
                                      sion 5
                          lib/        source code for files in /usr/lib
                          libexec/    source code for files in /usr/libexec
                          release/    files required to produce a FreeBSD
                          sbin/       source code for files in /sbin
                          secure/     build directory for files in
                          share/      source for files in /usr/share
                          sys/        kernel source code
                          tools/      tools used for maintenance and testing
                                      of FreeBSD
                          usr.bin/    source code for files in /usr/bin
                          usr.sbin/   source code for files in /usr/sbin

                X11R6/    X11R6 distribution executables, libraries, etc
                          bin/      X11R6 binaries (servers, utilities, local
                          etc/      X11R6 configuration files and scripts.
                          include/  X11R6 include files.
                          lib/      X11R6 libraries.
                          man/      X11R6 manual pages.
                          share/    architecture-independent files.

     /var/      multi-purpose log, temporary, transient, and spool files

                account/   system accounting files

                           acct        execution accounting file; see acct(5)

                at/        timed command scheduling files; see at(1)
                           jobs/      directory containing job files
                           spool/     directory containing output spool files

                backups/   miscellaneous backup files
                crash/     default directory to store kernel crash dumps; see
                           crash(8) and savecore(8)
                cron/      files used by cron; see cron(8)
                           tabs/      crontab files; see crontab(5)

                db/        miscellaneous automatically generated system-spe-
                           cific database files
                empty/     empty directory for use by programs that need a
                           specifically empty directory.  Used for instance by
                           sshd(8) for privilege separation.
                games/     miscellaneous game status and score files
                heimdal/   kerberos server databases; see kdc(8)
                log/       miscellaneous system log files

                           wtmp        login/logout log; see wtmp(5)

                mail/      user mailbox files
                msgs/      system messages database; see msgs(1)
                preserve/  temporary home of files preserved after an acciden-
                           tal death of an editor; see ex(1)
                quotas/    file system quota information files
                run/       system information files describing various info
                           about system since it was booted

                           named/      writable by the ``bind'' user; see
                           ppp/        writable by the ``network'' group for
                                       command connection sockets; see ppp(8)
                           utmp        database of current users; see utmp(5)

                rwho/      rwho data files; see rwhod(8), rwho(1), and
                spool/     miscellaneous printer and mail system spooling

                                       undelivered submission mail queue; see
                           ftp/        commonly ~ftp; the anonymous ftp root
                           mqueue/     undelivered mail queue; see sendmail(8)
                           output/     line printer spooling directories

                tmp/       temporary files that are kept between system
                                       the directory where recovery files are
                yp/        the NIS maps

     This manual page documents the default FreeBSD file system layout, but
     the actual hierarchy on a given system is defined at the system adminis-
     trator's discretion.  A well-maintained installation will include a cus-
     tomized version of this document.

     apropos(1), find(1), finger(1), grep(1), ls(1), whatis(1), whereis(1),
     which(1), fd(4), devfs(5), fsck(8)

     A hier manual page appeared in Version 7 AT&T UNIX.

FreeBSD 6.2                     April 12, 2006                     FreeBSD 6.2


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