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HIER(7)            FreeBSD Miscellaneous Information Manual            HIER(7)

NAME
     hier - layout of file systems

DESCRIPTION
     A sketch of the file system hierarchy.

     /              root directory of the file system

     /bin/          user utilities fundamental to both single-user and multi-
                    user environments

     /boot/         programs and configuration files used during operating
                    system bootstrap

                    defaults/      default bootstrapping configuration files;
                                   see loader.conf(5)
                    kernel/        pure kernel executable (the operating
                                   system loaded into memory at boot time).
                    modules/       third-party loadable kernel modules; see
                                   kldstat(8)

     /cdrom/        default mount point for CD-ROM drives (created by
                    sysinstall(8))

     /compat/       normally a link to /usr/compat.  If not, then the
                    /usr/compat comments apply (created by sysinstall(8))

     /dev/          device special files managed by devfs(5)

                    fd/       file descriptor files; see fd(4)
                    net/      network devices

     /dist/         mount point used by sysinstall(8)

     /etc/          system configuration files and scripts

                    defaults/       default system configuration files; see
                                    rc(8)
                    bluetooth/      bluetooth configuration files
                    gnats/          gnats configuration files; see send-pr(1)
                    localtime       local timezone information; see ctime(3)
                    mail/           Sendmail control files
                    mtree/          mtree configuration files; see mtree(8)
                    namedb/         named configuration files; see named(8)
                    pam.d/          configuration files for the Pluggable
                                    Authentication Modules (PAM) library
                    periodic/       scripts that are run daily, weekly, and
                                    monthly, via cron(8); see periodic(8)
                    rc.d/           System and daemon startup/control scripts;
                                    see rc(8)
                    security/       OpenBSM audit configuration files; see
                                    audit(8)
                    ppp/            ppp configuration files; see ppp(8)
                    ssh/            OpenSSH configuration files; see ssh(1)
                    ssl/            OpenSSL configuration files

     /lib/          critical system libraries needed for binaries in /bin and
                    /sbin

                    geom/      class-specific libraries for the geom(8)
                               utility

     /libexec/      critical system utilities needed for binaries in /bin and
                    /sbin

     /media/        contains subdirectories to be used as mount points for
                    removable media such as CDs, USB drives, and floppy disks

     /mnt/          empty directory commonly used by system administrators as
                    a temporary mount point

     /proc/         process file system; see procfs(5)

     /rescue/       statically linked programs for emergency recovery; see
                    rescue(8)

     /root/         root's HOME directory

     /sbin/         system programs and administration utilities fundamental
                    to both single-user and multi-user environments

     /tmp/          temporary files that are not guaranteed to persist across
                    system reboots

     /usr/          contains the majority of user utilities and applications

                    bin/          common utilities, programming tools, and
                                  applications
                    compat/       files needed to support binary compatibility
                                  with other operating systems, such as Linux
                                  (created by sysinstall(8))
                    games/        useful and semi-frivolous programs
                    include/      standard C include files

                                  altq/           C include files for
                                                  alternate queueing
                                  arpa/           C include files for Internet
                                                  service protocols
                                  bsnmp/          C include files for the SNMP
                                                  daemon
                                  c++/            C++ include files
                                  cam/            C include files for the
                                                  Common Access Methods Layer
                                                  scsi/           The SCSI
                                                                  device on
                                                                  top of CAM
                                  dev/            C include files for
                                                  programming various FreeBSD
                                                  devices
                                                  ic/             Various
                                                                  header files
                                                                  describing
                                                                  driver- and
                                                                  bus-independent
                                                                  hardware
                                                                  circuits
                                                  ofw/            Open
                                                                  Firmware
                                                                  support
                                                  pbio/           8255 PPI
                                                                  cards; see
                                                                  pbio(4)
                                                  ppbus/          The parallel
                                                                  port bus;
                                                                  see ppbus(4)
                                                  usb/            The USB
                                                                  subsystem
                                                  utopia/         Physical
                                                                  chip driver
                                                                  for ATM
                                                                  interfaces;
                                                                  see
                                                                  utopia(4)
                                                  wi/             The wi(4)
                                                                  WaveLAN
                                                                  driver
                                  fs/
                                                  fdescfs/        per-process
                                                                  file
                                                                  descriptors
                                                                  file system
                                                  fifofs/         IEEE Std
                                                                  1003.1
                                                                  (``POSIX.1'')
                                                                  FIFOs file
                                                                  system
                                                  msdosfs/        MS-DOS file
                                                                  system
                                                  nfs/            C include
                                                                  files for
                                                                  NFS (Network
                                                                  File System)
                                                                  version 2, 3
                                                                  and 4
                                                  ntfs/           NTFS file
                                                                  system
                                                  nullfs/         loopback
                                                                  file system
                                                  nwfs/           NetWare file
                                                                  system
                                                  portalfs/       portal file
                                                                  system
                                                  procfs/         process file
                                                                  system
                                                  smbfs/          SMB/CIFS
                                                                  file system
                                                  udf/            UDF file
                                                                  system
                                                  unionfs         union file
                                                                  system
                                  geom/           GEOM framework
                                                  concat/         CONCAT GEOM
                                                                  class
                                                  gate/           GATE GEOM
                                                                  class
                                                  mirror/         MIRROR GEOM
                                                                  class
                                                  nop/            NOP GEOM
                                                                  class
                                                  raid3/          RAID3 GEOM
                                                                  class
                                                  stripe/         STRIPE GEOM
                                                                  class

                                  isc/            ISC utility library libisc
                                                  include files
                                  isofs/
                                                  cd9660/         iso9660 file
                                                                  system
                                  libmilter/      C include files for
                                                  libmilter, the sendmail(8)
                                                  mail filter API
                                  machine/        machine-specific C include
                                                  files
                                  net/            miscellaneous network C
                                                  include files
                                  netatalk/       Appletalk protocol
                                  netinet/        C include files for Internet
                                                  standard protocols; see
                                                  inet(4)
                                  netinet6/       C include files for Internet
                                                  protocol version 6; see
                                                  inet6(4)
                                  netipsec/       kernel key-management
                                                  service; see ipsec(4)
                                  netipx/         IPX/SPX protocol stacks
                                  netnatm/        NATM include files; see
                                                  natm(4)
                                                  api/            include
                                                                  files for
                                                                  the
                                                                  signalling
                                                                  API
                                                  msg/            include
                                                                  files that
                                                                  describe
                                                                  signalling
                                                                  messages and
                                                                  declare
                                                                  associated
                                                                  functions
                                                  saal/           include
                                                                  files for
                                                                  the
                                                                  signalling
                                                                  AAL layer
                                                  sig/            include
                                                                  files for
                                                                  the UNI
                                                                  signalling
                                                                  protocol
                                  netsmb/         SMB/CIFS requester
                                  nfs/            C include files for NFS
                                                  (Network File System)
                                                  version 2 and 3 (legacy)
                                  objc/           Objective C include files
                                  openssl/        OpenSSL (Cryptography/SSL
                                                  toolkit) headers
                                  pccard/         PC-CARD controllers
                                  protocols/      C include files for Berkeley
                                                  service protocols
                                  readline/       get a line from a user, with
                                                  editing; see readline(3)
                                  rpc/            remote procedure calls; see
                                                  rpc(3)
                                  rpcsvc/         definition of RPC service
                                                  structures; see rpc(3)
                                  security/       PAM; see pam(8)
                                  sys/            system C include files
                                                  (kernel data structures)
                                  ufs/            C include files for UFS (The
                                                  U-word File System)
                                                  ffs/            Fast file
                                                                  system
                                                  ufs/            UFS file
                                                                  system
                                  vm/             virtual memory; see
                                                  vmstat(8)

                    lib/          shared and archive ar(1)-type libraries
                                  aout/       a.out archive libraries
                                  compat/     shared libraries for
                                              compatibility
                                              aout/       a.out backward
                                                          compatibility
                                                          libraries
                                  dtrace/     DTrace library scripts
                                  engines/    OpenSSL (Cryptography/SSL
                                              toolkit) dynamically loadable
                                              engines

                    libdata/      miscellaneous utility data files
                                  gcc/        gcc(1) configuration data
                                  ldscripts/  linker scripts; see ld(1)
                                  lint/       various prebuilt lint libraries;
                                              see lint(1)

                    libexec/      system daemons & system utilities (executed
                                  by other programs)
                                  aout/       utilities to manipulate a.out
                                              executables
                                  elf/        utilities to manipulate ELF
                                              executables
                                  lpr/        utilities and filters for LP
                                              print system; see lpr(1)
                                  sendmail/   the sendmail(8) binary; see
                                              mailwrapper(8)
                                  sm.bin/     restricted shell for
                                              sendmail(8); see smrsh(8)

                    local/        local executables, libraries, etc.  Also
                                  used as the default destination for the
                                  FreeBSD ports framework.  Within local/, the
                                  general layout sketched out by hier for /usr
                                  should be used.  Exceptions are the man
                                  directory (directly under local/ rather than
                                  under local/share/), ports documentation (in
                                  share/doc/<port>/), and /usr/local/etc
                                  (mimics /etc).
                    obj/          architecture-specific target tree produced
                                  by building the /usr/src tree
                    ports/        The FreeBSD ports collection (optional).
                    sbin/         system daemons & system utilities (executed
                                  by users)
                    share/        architecture-independent files

                                  calendar/      a variety of pre-fab calendar
                                                 files; see calendar(1)
                                  dict/          word lists; see look(1)

                                                 freebsd     FreeBSD-specific
                                                             terms, proper
                                                             names, and jargon
                                                 words       common words
                                                 web2        words from
                                                             Webster's 2nd
                                                             International
                                                 papers/     reference
                                                             databases; see
                                                             refer(1)

                                  doc/           miscellaneous documentation;
                                                 source for most of the
                                                 printed BSD manuals
                                                 (available from the USENIX
                                                 association)
                                                 FAQ/        Frequently Asked
                                                             Questions
                                                 IPv6/       implementation
                                                             notes for IPv6
                                                 bind/       documents
                                                             pertaining to
                                                             BIND (the
                                                             Berkeley Internet
                                                             Name Domain)
                                                 es/         Spanish
                                                             translations of
                                                             documents in
                                                             /usr/share/doc
                                                 handbook/   FreeBSD Handbook
                                                 ja/         Japanese
                                                             translations of
                                                             documents in
                                                             /usr/share/doc
                                                 legal/      License files for
                                                             vendor supplied
                                                             firmwares
                                                 ncurses/    HTML documents
                                                             pertaining to
                                                             ncurses; see
                                                             ncurses(3)
                                                 ntp/        HTML documents
                                                             pertaining to the
                                                             Network Time
                                                             Protocol
                                                 papers/     UNIX Papers
                                                 psd/        UNIX Programmer's
                                                             Supplementary
                                                             Documents
                                                 ru/         Russian
                                                             translations of
                                                             documents in
                                                             /usr/share/doc
                                                 smm/        UNIX System
                                                             Manager's Manual
                                                 tutorials/  FreeBSD tutorials
                                                 usd/        UNIX User's
                                                             Supplementary
                                                             Documents
                                                 zh/         Chinese
                                                             translations of
                                                             documents in
                                                             /usr/share/doc

                                  examples/      various examples for users
                                                 and programmers
                                  games/         ASCII text files used by
                                                 various games
                                  groff_font/    device description file for
                                                 device name
                                  info/          GNU Info hypertext system
                                  locale/        localization files; see
                                                 setlocale(3)
                                  man/           manual pages
                                  me/            macros for use with the me
                                                 macro package; see me(7)
                                  misc/          miscellaneous system-wide
                                                 ASCII text files
                                                 fonts/      ???
                                                 termcap     terminal
                                                             characteristics
                                                             database; see
                                                             termcap(5)
                                  mk/            templates for make; see
                                                 make(1)
                                  nls/           national language support
                                                 files; see mklocale(1)
                                  security/      data files for security
                                                 policies such as mac_lomac(4)
                                  sendmail/      sendmail(8) configuration
                                                 files
                                  skel/          example . (dot) files for new
                                                 accounts
                                  snmp/          MIBs, example files and tree
                                                 definitions for the SNMP
                                                 daemon.
                                                 defs/       Tree definition
                                                             files for use
                                                             with
                                                             gensnmptree(1)
                                                 mibs/       MIB files
                                  syscons/       files used by syscons; see
                                                 syscons(4)
                                                 fonts/         console fonts;
                                                                see
                                                                vidcontrol(1)
                                                                and vidfont(1)
                                                 keymaps/       console
                                                                keyboard maps;
                                                                see
                                                                kbdcontrol(1)
                                                                and kbdmap(1)
                                                 scrnmaps/      console screen
                                                                maps
                                  tabset/        tab description files for a
                                                 variety of terminals; used in
                                                 the termcap file; see
                                                 termcap(5)
                                  tmac/          text processing macros; see
                                                 nroff(1) and troff(1)
                                  vi/            localization support and
                                                 utilities for vi(1)
                                  zoneinfo/      timezone configuration
                                                 information; see tzfile(5)
                    src/          BSD, third-party, and/or local source files

                                  bin/            source code for files in
                                                  /bin
                                  contrib/        source code for contributed
                                                  software
                                  crypto/         source code for contributed
                                                  cryptography software
                                  etc/            source code for files in
                                                  /etc
                                  games/          source code for files in
                                                  /usr/games
                                  gnu/            Utilities covered by the GNU
                                                  General Public License
                                  include/        source code for files in
                                                  /usr/include
                                  kerberos5/      build infrastructure for
                                                  kerberos version 5
                                  lib/            source code for files in
                                                  /usr/lib
                                  libexec/        source code for files in
                                                  /usr/libexec
                                  release/        files required to produce a
                                                  FreeBSD release
                                  sbin/           source code for files in
                                                  /sbin
                                  secure/         build directory for files in
                                                  /usr/src/crypto
                                  share/          source for files in
                                                  /usr/share
                                  sys/            kernel source code
                                  tools/          tools used for maintenance
                                                  and testing of FreeBSD
                                  usr.bin/        source code for files in
                                                  /usr/bin
                                  usr.sbin/       source code for files in
                                                  /usr/sbin

     /var/          multi-purpose log, temporary, transient, and spool files

                    account/       system accounting files

                                   acct        execution accounting file; see
                                               acct(5)

                    at/            timed command scheduling files; see at(1)
                                   jobs/          directory containing job
                                                  files
                                   spool/         directory containing output
                                                  spool files

                    backups/       miscellaneous backup files
                    crash/         default directory to store kernel crash
                                   dumps; see crash(8) and savecore(8)
                    cron/          files used by cron; see cron(8)
                                   tabs/          crontab files; see
                                                  crontab(5)

                    db/            miscellaneous automatically generated
                                   system-specific database files
                    empty/         empty directory for use by programs that
                                   need a specifically empty directory.  Used
                                   for instance by sshd(8) for privilege
                                   separation.
                    games/         miscellaneous game status and score files
                    heimdal/       kerberos server databases; see kdc(8)
                    log/           miscellaneous system log files

                                   wtmp        login/logout log; see wtmp(5)

                    mail/          user mailbox files
                    msgs/          system messages database; see msgs(1)
                    preserve/      temporary home of files preserved after an
                                   accidental death of an editor; see ex(1)
                    quotas/        file system quota information files
                    run/           system information files describing various
                                   info about system since it was booted

                                   named/      writable by the ``bind'' user;
                                               see named(8)
                                   ppp/        writable by the ``network''
                                               group for command connection
                                               sockets; see ppp(8)
                                   utmp        database of current users; see
                                               utmp(5)

                    rwho/          rwho data files; see rwhod(8), rwho(1), and
                                   ruptime(1)
                    spool/         miscellaneous printer and mail system
                                   spooling directories

                                   clientmqueue/
                                               undelivered submission mail
                                               queue; see sendmail(8)
                                   ftp/        commonly ~ftp; the anonymous
                                               ftp root directory
                                   mqueue/     undelivered mail queue; see
                                               sendmail(8)
                                   output/     line printer spooling
                                               directories

                    tmp/           temporary files that are kept between
                                   system reboots
                                   vi.recover/
                                               the directory where recovery
                                               files are stored
                    yp/            the NIS maps

NOTES
     This manual page documents the default FreeBSD file system layout, but
     the actual hierarchy on a given system is defined at the system
     administrator's discretion.  A well-maintained installation will include
     a customized version of this document.

SEE ALSO
     apropos(1), find(1), finger(1), grep(1), ls(1), whatis(1), whereis(1),
     which(1), fd(4), devfs(5), fsck(8)

HISTORY
     A hier manual page appeared in Version 7 AT&T UNIX.

FreeBSD 11.0-PRERELEASE          May 25, 2008          FreeBSD 11.0-PRERELEASE

NAME | DESCRIPTION | NOTES | SEE ALSO | HISTORY

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