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HIER(7)            FreeBSD Miscellaneous Information Manual            HIER(7)

NAME
     hier - layout of file systems

DESCRIPTION
     A sketch of the file system hierarchy.

     /        root directory of the file system

     /bin/    user utilities fundamental to both single-user and multi-user
              environments

     /boot/   programs and configuration files used during operating system
              bootstrap

              defaults/  default bootstrapping configuration files; see
                         loader.conf(5)
              kernel/    pure kernel executable (the operating system loaded
                         into memory at boot time).
              modules/   third-party loadable kernel modules; see kldstat(8)

     /cdrom/  default mount point for CD-ROM drives (created by sysinstall(8))

     /compat/
              normally a link to /usr/compat.  If not, then the /usr/compat
              comments apply (created by sysinstall(8))

     /dev/    block and character device files

              fd/      file descriptor files; see fd(4)

     /dist/   mount point used by sysinstall(8)

     /etc/    system configuration files and scripts

              defaults/    default system configuration files; see rc(8)
              gnats/       gnats configuration files; see send-pr(1)
              isdn/        isdn4bsd configuration files; see isdnd(8)
              localtime    local timezone information; see ctime(3)
              mail/        Sendmail control files
              mtree/       mtree configuration files; see mtree(8)
              namedb/      named configuration files; see named(8)
              pam.d/       configuration files for the Pluggable
                           Authentication Modules (PAM) library; see pam(8)
              periodic/    scripts that are run daily, weekly, and monthly,
                           via cron(8); see periodic(8)
              ppp/         ppp configuration files; see ppp(8)
              ssl/         OpenSSL configuration files

     /lib/    critical system libraries needed for binaries in /bin and /sbin

     /libexec/
              critical system utilites needed for binaries in /bin and /sbin

     /mnt/    empty directory commonly used by system administrators as a
              temporary mount point

     /proc/   process file system; see procfs(5), mount_procfs(8)

     /rescue/
              statically linked programs for emergency recovery; see rescue(8)

     /root/   root's HOME directory

     /sbin/   system programs and administration utilities fundamental to both
              single-user and multi-user environments

     /stand/  programs used in a standalone environment

     /tmp/    temporary files that are not guaranteed to persist across system
              reboots

     /usr/    contains the majority of user utilities and applications

              bin/      common utilities, programming tools, and applications
              compat/   files needed to support binary compatibility with
                        other operating systems, such as Linux (created by
                        sysinstall(8))
              games/    useful and semi-frivolous programs
              include/  standard C include files

                        arpa/       C include files for Internet service
                                    protocols
                        cam/        C include files for the Common Access
                                    Methods Layer
                                    scsi/       The SCSI device on top of CAM
                        dev/        C include files for programming various
                                    FreeBSD devices
                                    ic/         Various header files
                                                describing driver- and bus-
                                                independent hardware circuits
                                    ofw/        OpenFirmware support
                                    ppbus/      The parallel port bus; see
                                                ppbus(4)
                                    usb/        The USB subsystem
                                    utopia/     Physical chip driver for ATM
                                                interfaces; see utopia(4)
                                    wi/         The wi(4) WaveLAN driver
                        fs/
                                    fdescfs/    per-process file descriptors
                                                file system
                                    fifofs/     IEEE Std 1003.1 (``POSIX.1'')
                                                FIFOs file system
                                    msdosfs/    MS-DOS file system
                                    ntfs/       NTFS file system
                                    nullfs/     loopback file system
                                    nwfs/       NetWare file system
                                    portalfs/   portal file system
                                    procfs/     process file system
                                    smbfs/      SMB/CIFS file system
                                    udf/        UDF file system
                                    umapfs/     alternate uid/gid mappings
                                                file system
                                    unionfs     union file system
                        g++/        GNU C++ include files
                                    std/        GNU C++ libstdc++ include
                                                files
                        isc/        ISC utility library libisc include files
                        isofs/
                                    cd9660/     iso9660 file system
                        libmilter/  C include files for libmilter, the
                                    sendmail(8) mail filter API
                        machine/    machine-specific C include files
                        net/        misc network C include files
                        netatalk/   Appletalk protocol
                        netatm/     ATM include files; see atm(8)
                        netinet/    C include files for Internet standard
                                    protocols; see inet(4)
                        netinet6/   C include files for Internet protocol
                                    version 6; see inet6(4)
                        netipx/     IPX/SPX protocol stacks
                        netkey/     kernel key-management service
                        netnatm/    NATM include files; see natm(4)
                        netsmb/     SMB/CIFS requester
                        nfs/        C include files for NFS (Network File
                                    System)
                        objc/       Objective C include files
                        openssl/    OpenSSL (Cryptography/SSL toolkit) headers
                        pccard/     PC-CARD controllers
                        posix4/     POSIX real-time extensions includes; see
                                    p1003_1b(9)
                        protocols/  C include files for Berkeley service
                                    protocols
                        readline/   get a line from a user, with editing; see
                                    readline(3)
                        rpc/        remote procedure calls; see rpc(3)
                        rpcsvc/     definition of RPC service structures; see
                                    rpc(3)
                        security/   PAM; see pam(8)
                        sys/        system C include files (kernel data
                                    structures)
                        ufs/        C include files for UFS (The U-word File
                                    System)
                                    ffs/        Fast file system
                                    ufs/        UFS file system
                        vm/         virtual memory; see vmstat(8)

              lib/      archive libraries
                        aout/       a.out archive libraries
                        compat/     shared libraries for compatibility
                                    aout/       a.out backward compatibility
                                                libraries

              libdata/  misc. utility data files
                        doscmd/     files used by doscmd (drivers, fonts,
                                    etc.); see doscmd(1)
                                    fonts/  fonts used by doscmd
                        gcc/        ???
                        ldscripts/  linker scripts; see ld(1)
                        lint/       various prebuilt lint libraries; see
                                    lint(1)
                        stallion/   firmware images for Stallion serial
                                    controllers; see stl(4)

              libexec/  system daemons & system utilities (executed by other
                        programs)
                        aout/       utilities to manipulate a.out executables
                        elf/        utilities to manipulate ELF executables
                        lpr/        utilities and filters for LP print system;
                                    see lpr(1)
                        sendmail/   the sendmail(8) binary; see mailwrapper(8)
                        sm.bin/     restricted shell for sendmail(8); see
                                    smrsh(8)

              local/    local executables, libraries, etc.  Also used as the
                        default destination for the FreeBSD ports framework.
                        Within local/, the general layout sketched out by hier
                        for /usr should be used.  Exceptions are the man
                        directory (directly under local/ rather than under
                        local/share/), ports documentation (in
                        share/doc/<port>/), and /usr/local/etc (mimics /etc).
              obj/      architecture-specific target tree produced by building
                        the /usr/src tree
              ports/    The FreeBSD ports collection (optional).
              sbin/     system daemons & system utilities (executed by users)
              share/    architecture-independent files

                        calendar/  a variety of pre-fab calendar files; see
                                   calendar(1)
                        dict/      word lists; see look(1)

                                   freebsd     FreeBSD-specific terms, proper
                                               names, and jargon
                                   words       common words
                                   web2        words from Webster's 2nd
                                               International
                                   papers/     reference databases; see
                                               refer(1)

                        doc/       miscellaneous documentation; source for
                                   most of the printed BSD manuals (available
                                   from the USENIX association)
                                   FAQ/        Frequently Asked Questions
                                   IPv6/       implementation notes for IPv6
                                   bind/       documents pertaining to BIND
                                               (the Berkeley Internet Name
                                               Domain)
                                   es/         Spanish translations of
                                               documents in /usr/share/doc
                                   handbook/   FreeBSD Handbook
                                   ja/         Japanese translations of
                                               documents in /usr/share/doc
                                   ncurses/    HTML documents pertaining to
                                               ncurses; see ncurses(3X)
                                   ntp/        HTML documents pertaining to
                                               the Network Time Protocol
                                   papers/     UNIX Papers
                                   psd/        UNIX Programmer's Supplementary
                                               Documents
                                   ru/         Russian translations of
                                               documents in /usr/share/doc
                                   smm/        UNIX System Manager's Manual
                                   tutorials/  FreeBSD tutorials
                                   usd/        UNIX User's Supplementary
                                               Documents
                                   zh/         Chinese translations of
                                               documents in /usr/share/doc

                        examples/  various examples for users and programmers
                        games/     ASCII text files used by various games
                        groff_font/
                                   device description file for device name
                        info/      GNU Info hypertext system
                        isdn/      ISDN
                        locale/    localization files; see setlocale(3)
                        man/       manual pages
                        me/        macros for use with the me macro package;
                                   see me(7)
                        misc/      misc system-wide ASCII text files
                                   fonts/      ???
                                   pcvtfonts/  pcvt fonts; see pcvt(4)
                                   termcap     terminal characteristics
                                               database; see termcap(5)
                        mk/        templates for make; see make(1)
                        nls/       national language support files; see
                                   mklocale(1)
                        pcvt/      pcvt documentation and etc examples; see
                                   pcvt(4)
                        security/  data files for security policies such as
                                   mac_lomac(4)
                        sendmail/  sendmail(8) configuration files
                        skel/      example . (dot) files for new accounts
                        syscons/   files used by syscons; see syscons(4)
                                   fonts/       console fonts; see
                                                vidcontrol(1) and vidfont(1)
                                   keymaps/     console keyboard maps; see
                                                kbdcontrol(1) and kbdmap(1)
                                   scrnmaps/    console screen maps
                        tabset/    tab description files for a variety of
                                   terminals; used in the termcap file; see
                                   termcap(5)
                        tmac/      text processing macros; see nroff(1) and
                                   troff(1)
                        vi/        localization support and utilities for
                                   vi(1)
                        zoneinfo/  timezone configuration information; see
                                   tzfile(5)
              src/      BSD, third-party, and/or local source files

                        bin/        source code for files in /bin
                        contrib/    source code for contributed software
                        crypto/     source code for contributed cryptography
                                    software
                        etc/        source code for files in /etc
                        games/      source code for files in /usr/games
                        gnu/        Utilities covered by the GNU General
                                    Public License
                        include/    source code for files in /usr/include
                        kerberos5/  build infrastructure for kerberos version
                                    5
                        lib/        source code for files in /usr/lib
                        libexec/    source code for files in /usr/libexec
                        release/    files required to produce a FreeBSD
                                    release
                        sbin/       source code for files in /sbin
                        secure/     build directory for files in
                                    /usr/src/crypto
                        share/      source for files in /usr/share
                        sys/        kernel source code
                        tools/      tools used for maintenance and testing of
                                    FreeBSD
                        usr.bin/    source code for files in /usr/bin
                        usr.sbin/   source code for files in /usr/sbin

              X11R6/    X11R6 distribution executables, libraries, etc
                        (optional).
                        bin/      X11R6 binaries (servers, utilities, local
                                  packages/ports).
                        etc/      X11R6 configuration files and scripts.
                        include/  X11R6 include files.
                        lib/      X11R6 libraries.
                        man/      X11R6 manual pages.
                        share/    architecture-independent files.

     /var/    multi-purpose log, temporary, transient, and spool files

              account/   system accounting files

                         acct        execution accounting file; see acct(5)

              at/        timed command scheduling files; see at(1)
                         jobs/      directory containing job files
                         spool/     directory containing output spool files

              backups/   misc. backup files
              crash/     default directory to store kernel crash dumps; see
                         crash(8) and savecore(8)
              cron/      files used by cron; see cron(8)
                         tabs/      crontab files; see crontab(5)

              db/        misc. automatically generated system-specific
                         database files
              empty/     empty directory for use by programs that need a
                         specifically empty directory.  Used for instance by
                         sshd(8) for privilege separation.
              games/     misc. game status and score files
              heimdal/   kerberos server databases; see kdc(8)
              log/       misc. system log files

                         wtmp        login/logout log; see wtmp(5)

              mail/      user mailbox files
              msgs/      system messages database; see msgs(1)
              preserve/  temporary home of files preserved after an accidental
                         death of an editor; see ex(1)
              quotas/    file system quota information files
              run/       system information files describing various info
                         about system since it was booted

                         named/      writable by the ``bind'' user; see
                                     named(8)
                         ppp/        writable by the ``network'' group for
                                     command connection sockets; see ppp(8)
                         utmp        database of current users; see utmp(5)

              rwho/      rwho data files; see rwhod(8), rwho(1), and
                         ruptime(1)
              spool/     misc. printer and mail system spooling directories

                         clientmqueue/
                                     undelivered submission mail queue; see
                                     sendmail(8)
                         ftp/        commonly ~ftp; the anonymous ftp root
                                     directory
                         mqueue/     undelivered mail queue; see sendmail(8)
                         output/     line printer spooling directories

              tmp/       temporary files that are kept between system reboots
                         vi.recover/
                                     the directory where recovery files are
                                     stored
              yp/        the NIS maps

NOTES
     This manual page documents the default FreeBSD file system layout, but
     the actual hierarchy on a given system is defined at the system
     administrator's discretion.  A well-maintained installation will include
     a customized version of this document.

SEE ALSO
     apropos(1), find(1), finger(1), grep(1), ls(1), whatis(1), whereis(1),
     which(1), fsck(8)

HISTORY
     A hier manual page appeared in Version 7 AT&T UNIX.

FreeBSD 11.0-PRERELEASE          June 5, 1993          FreeBSD 11.0-PRERELEASE

NAME | DESCRIPTION | NOTES | SEE ALSO | HISTORY

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