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HIER(7)            FreeBSD Miscellaneous Information Manual            HIER(7)

     hier -- layout of filesystems

     A sketch of the filesystem hierarchy.

     /        root directory of the filesystem

     /bin/    user utilities fundamental to both single-user and multi-user

     /boot/   programs and configuration files used during operating system

              defaults/  default bootstrapping configuration files; see

     /dev/    block and character device files

              MAKEDEV  script for creating device files; see MAKEDEV(8)
              fd/      file descriptor files; see fd(4)

     /etc/    system configuration files and scripts

              defaults/    default system configuration files; see rc(8)
              gnats/       gnats configuration files; see send-pr(1)
              isdn/        isdn4bsd configuration files; see isdnd(8)
              kerberosIV/  configuration files for kerberos version IV; see
              localtime    local timezone information; see ctime(3)
              mail/        Sendmail control files
              mtree/       mtree configuration files; see mtree(8)
              namedb/      named configuration files; see named(8)
              periodic/    scripts that are run daily, weekly, and monthly,
                           via cron(8); see periodic(8)
              ppp/         ppp configuration files; see ppp(8)
              ssl/         OpenSSL configuration files
              uucp/        uucp configuration files; see uucp(1)

     /kernel  pure kernel executable (the operating system loaded into memory
              at boot time).

              loadable kernel modules; see kldstat(8)

     /mnt/    empty directory commonly used by system administrators as a tem-
              porary mount point

     /proc/   process file system; see procfs(5), mount_procfs(8)

     /root/   root's HOME directory

     /sbin/   system programs and administration utilities fundamental to both
              single-user and multi-user environments

     /stand/  programs used in a standalone environment

     /tmp/    temporary files that are not guaranteed to persist across system

     /usr/    contains the majority of user utilities and applications

              bin/      common utilities, programming tools, and applications
              games/    useful and semi-frivolous programs
              include/  standard C include files

                        arpa/        C include files for Internet service pro-
                        cam/         C include files for the Common Access
                                     Methods Layer
                                     scsi/        The SCSI device on top of
                        dev/         C include files for programming various
                                     FreeBSD devices
                                     ppbus/       The parallel port bus; see
                                     usb/         The USB subsystem
                                     smbfs/       SMB/CIFS filesystem
                        g++/         GNU C++ include files
                                     std/         GNU C++ libstdc++ include
                        isc/         ISC utility library libisc include files
                                     cd9660/      iso9660 filesystem
                        kerberosIV/  C include files for kerberos authentica-
                                     tion package; see kerberos(1)
                        libmilter/   C include files for libmilter, the send-
                                     mail mail filter API
                        machine/     machine-specific C include files
                        msdosfs/     MS-DOS file system
                        net/         misc network C include files
                        netatalk/    Appletalk protocol
                        netatm/      ATM include files; see atm(8)
                        netinet/     C include files for Internet standard
                                     protocols; see inet(4)
                        netinet6/    C include files for Internet protocol
                                     version 6; see inet6(4)
                        netipx/      IPX/SPX protocol stacks
                        netkey/      kernel key-management service
                        netnatm/     NATM include files; see natm(4)
                        netns/       Xerox NS protocols
                        netsmb/      SMB/CIFS requester
                        nfs/         C include files for NFS (Network File
                        objc/        Objective C include files
                        openssl/     OpenSSL (Cryptography/SSL toolkit) head-
                        pccard/      PC-CARD controllers
                        posix4/      POSIX real-time extensions includes; see
                        protocols/   C include files for Berkeley service pro-
                        readline/    get a line from a user, with editing; see
                        rpc/         remote procedure calls; see rpc(3)
                        rpcsvc/      definition of RPC service structures; see
                        security/    PAM; see pam(8)
                        ss/          MIT SIPB `subsystem' library, part of
                                     Kerberos IV.
                        sys/         system C include files (kernel data
                        ufs/         C include files for UFS (The U-word File
                                     ffs/         Fast filesystem
                                     mfs/         memory file system; see
                                     ufs/         UFS filesystem
                        vm/          virtual memory; see vmstat(8)

              lib/      archive libraries
                        aout/       a.out archive libraries
                        compat/     shared libraries for compatibility
                                    aout/       a.out backward compatibility

              libdata/  misc. utility data files
                        doscmd/     files used by doscmd (drivers, fonts,
                                    etc.); see doscmd(1)
                                    fonts/  fonts used by doscmd
                        gcc/        ???
                        ldscripts/  linker scripts; see ld(1)
                        lint/       various prebuilt lint libraries; see
                        msdosfs/    Character set conversion tables
                                    5.00503/    contains Perl modules for Perl
                                                version 5.00503; see perl(1)
                        stallion/   holds the download firmware images

              libexec/  system daemons & system utilities (executed by other
                        aout/       utilities to manipulate a.out executables
                        elf/        utilities to manipulate ELF executables
                        lpr/        utilities and filters for LP print system;
                                    see lpr(1)
                        sendmail/   the sendmail binary; see mailwrapper(8)
                                    and sendmail(8)
                        sm.bin/     restricted shell for sendmail; see
                        uucp/       uucp utilities; see uucp(1)

              local/    local executables, libraries, etc.  Also used as the
                        default destination for the FreeBSD ports framework.
                        Within local/, the general layout sketched out by
                        hier(7) for /usr should be used.  Exceptions are the
                        man directory (directly under local/ rather than under
                        local/share/), ports documentation (in
                        share/doc/<port>/), and /usr/local/etc (mimics /etc).
              obj/      architecture-specific target tree produced by building
                        the /usr/src tree
              ports/    The FreeBSD ports collection (optional).
              sbin/     system daemons & system utilities (executed by users)
              share/    architecture-independent files

                        calendar/  a variety of pre-fab calendar files; see
                        dict/      word lists; see look(1)

                                   web2        words from Webster's 2nd Inter-
                                   words       common words
                                   papers/     reference databases; see

                        doc/       miscellaneous documentation; source for
                                   most of the printed BSD manuals (available
                                   from the USENIX association)
                                   FAQ/        Frequently Asked Questions
                                   IPv6/       implementation notes for IPv6
                                   bind/       documents pertaining to BIND
                                               (the Berkeley Internet Name
                                   es/         Spanish translations of docu-
                                               ments in /usr/share/doc
                                   handbook/   FreeBSD Handbook
                                   ja/         Japanese translations of docu-
                                               ments in /usr/share/doc
                                   ncurses/    HTML documents pertaining to
                                               ncurses; see ncurses(3X)
                                   ntp/        HTML documents pertaining to
                                               the Network Time Protocol
                                   papers/     UNIX Papers
                                   psd/        UNIX Programmer's Supplementary
                                   ru/         Russian translations of docu-
                                               ments in /usr/share/doc
                                   smm/        UNIX System Manager's Manual
                                   tutorials/  FreeBSD tutorials
                                   usd/        UNIX User's Supplementary Docu-
                                   zh/         Chinese translations of docu-
                                               ments in /usr/share/doc

                        examples/  various examples for users and programmers
                        games/     ASCII text files used by various games
                                   device description file for device name
                        info/      GNU Info hypertext system
                        isdn/      ISDN
                        libg++/    libg++'s genclass prototype/template class
                        locale/    localization files; see setlocale(3)
                        man/       manual pages
                        me/        macros for use with the me macro package;
                                   see me(7)
                        misc/      misc system-wide ASCII text files
                                   fonts/      ???
                                   pcvtfonts/  pcvt fonts; see pcvt(4)
                                   termcap     terminal characteristics data-
                                               base; see termcap(5)
                        mk/        templates for make; see make(1)
                        nls/       national language support files; see
                        pcvt/      pcvt documentation and etc examples; see
                        perl/      perl library files; see perl(1)
                        sendmail/  sendmail configuration files; see
                        skel/      example . (dot) files for new accounts
                        syscons/   files used by syscons; see syscons(4)
                                   fonts/       console fonts; see
                                                vidcontrol(1) and vidfont(1)
                                   keymaps/     console keyboard maps; see
                                                kbdcontrol(1) and kbdmap(1)
                                   scrnmaps/    console screen maps
                        tabset/    tab description files for a variety of ter-
                                   minals; used in the termcap file; see
                        tmac/      text processing macros; see nroff(1) and
                        vi/        localization support and utilities for
                        zoneinfo/  timezone configuration information; see
              src/      BSD, third-party, and/or local source files

                        bin/         source code for files in /bin
                        contrib/     source code for contributed software
                        crypto/      source code for contributed cryptography
                        etc/         source code for files in /etc
                        games/       source code for files in /usr/games
                        gnu/         Utilities covered by the GNU General Pub-
                                     lic License
                        include/     source code for files in /usr/include
                        kerberosIV/  source code for kerberos version IV
                        lib/         source code for files in /usr/lib
                        libexec/     source code for files in /usr/libexec
                        release/     files required to produce a FreeBSD
                        sbin/        source code for files in /sbin
                        secure/      build directory for files in
                        share/       source for files in /usr/share
                        sys/         kernel source code
                        tools/       tools used for maintenance and testing of
                        usr.bin/     source code for files in /usr/bin
                        usr.sbin/    source code for files in /usr/sbin

              X11R6/    X11R6 distribution executables, libraries, etc
                        bin/      X11R6 binaries (servers, utilities, local
                        etc/      X11R6 configuration files and scripts.
                        include/  X11R6 include files.
                        lib/      X11R6 libraries.
                        man/      X11R6 manual pages.
                        share/    architecture-independent files.

     /var/    multi-purpose log, temporary, transient, and spool files

              account/   system accounting files

                         acct        execution accounting file; see acct(5)

              at/        timed command scheduling files; see at(1)
                         jobs/      directory containing job files
                         spool/     directory containing output spool files

              backups/   misc. backup files
              crash/     default directory to store kernel crash dumps; see
                         crash(8) and savecore(8)
              cron/      files used by cron; see cron(8)
                         tabs/      crontab files; see crontab(5)

              db/        misc. automatically generated system-specific data-
                         base files
              empty/     empty directory used by sshd(8) for privilege separa-
                         tion; see sshd(8)
              games/     misc. game status and score files
              heimdal/   kerberos server databases; see kdc(8)
              log/       misc. system log files

                         wtmp        login/logout log; see wtmp(5)

              mail/      user mailbox files
              msgs/      system messages database; see msgs(1)
              preserve/  temporary home of files preserved after an accidental
                         death of an editor; see ex(1)
              quotas/    filesystem quota information files
              run/       system information files describing various info
                         about system since it was booted

                         ppp/        writable by the ``network'' group for
                                     command connection sockets; see ppp(8)
                         utmp        database of current users; see utmp(5)

              rwho/      rwho data files; see rwhod(8), rwho(1), and
              spool/     misc. printer and mail system spooling directories

                                     undelivered submission mail queue; see
                         ftp/        commonly ~ftp; the anonymous ftp root
                         mqueue/     undelivered mail queue; see sendmail(8)
                         output/     line printer spooling directories
                         uucp/       uucp spool directory
                                     commonly ~uucp; public uucp temporary

              tmp/       temporary files that are kept between system reboots
                                     the directory where recovery files are
              yp/        the NIS maps

     This manual page documents the default FreeBSD filesystem layout, but the
     actual hierarchy on a given system is defined at the system administra-
     tor's discretion.  A well-maintained installation will include a cus-
     tomized version of this document.

     apropos(1), find(1), finger(1), grep(1), ls(1), whatis(1), whereis(1),
     which(1), fsck(8)

     A hier manual page appeared in Version 7 AT&T UNIX.

FreeBSD 4.10                     June 5, 1993                     FreeBSD 4.10


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