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hier(7)            FreeBSD Miscellaneous Information Manual            hier(7)

       hier - file system hierarchy

       The following is a brief description of the root file system.  The
       major directory hierarchy and representative files are listed.

       Symbolic links can be included in the files to provide backward
       compatibility. To display the links, type:
       % ls -l

       See the Guide to Disk Maintenance for more detailed information.

       /       Directory for root file system. This file system is separated
               into nonsharable data, (root (/)) and sharable data, (/usr).
               These two file systems are each divided into the following
               types: static data, variable data, and executable data.

       /bin    Directory for the single user executable data files.

               Parent of all processes,

               Mount program,

       /dev    Directory for devices.
                  MAKEDEV Shell script to create special files
                          Site-specific part of MAKEDEV
                  console Main console,
                  rz      SCSI disks,
                  rrz*    Raw SCSI disks,
                  rmt*    Tapes
                  mrmt*   Tapes
                  tty*    Terminals,

       /etc    Directory for the machine-specific static data files and shell
               scripts for booting.
                  crontab   System clock daemon table,
                  disktab   Disk characteristics and partition tables,
                  fstab     File system configuration table,
                  group     Group file,
                  hosts     Host name-to-network address mapping file,
                  motd      Message-of-the-day file,
                  networks  Network name-to-network number mapping file,
                  passwd    Password file,
                  protocols Name-to-number mapping file,
                  rc        Shell script to bring the system to multiuser mode
                  rc.local  Site-dependent portion of rc
                  remote    Names and description of remote hosts for and
                  services  Network services definition file,
                  termcap   Description of terminal capabilities,
                  ttys      Properties of terminals,

       /lib    Symbolic link to

               Directory for connecting detached files for

       /sys    Symbolic link, normally to

       /tmp    Directory for temporary files (see also
                  e*     Used by
                  ctm*   Used by

       /usr    General purpose directory, on which the file system is normally
               mounted (see description that follows).

       /var    Directory for variable length files, such as spool,
               administrative, and temporary files. These files can also be
               located in See the Guide to Disk Maintenance.

       /vmunix Kernel image

       The directory contains the sharable data. The following is a brief
       description of the file system.  The major directory hierarchy and
       representative files are listed.

       /usr      Root directory for file system.

       /usr/adm  Directory for administrative information, which is now a
                 symbolic link to
                    crash   Directory for crash dumps
                    vmcore.?,vmunix.?   Crash dump files
                    lpacct  Line printer accounting,
                    tracct  Phototypesetter accounting,
                    wtmp    Login history,

       /usr/bin  Directory for the shared executable data files, including
                 utility programs and Shell scripts.
                    as   assembler
                    cc   C compiler executive (see also and
                    csh  C shell

       /usr/dict Directory for word lists.
                    spellhist History file,
                    words     Word list,

       /usr/doc  Directories containing files for the Vol.2 documentation.
                    as   Assembler manual
                    c    C manual

       /usr/etc  Directory for utility programs and shell scripts.

                 Clock daemon,

                 Dump program,

                 A directory where components of the base system and Digital's
                 separately licensed products can locate code examples,
                 scripts, and demos for customers to use.  A typical use is to
                 complement printed documentation.

                 Directory for games.
                    hangman   Hangman game
                    lib       Library directory for games

                 Part of login,

                 Directory for standard #include files.
                    a.out.h  Object file layout,
                    stdio.h  Standard I/O,
                    sys      Symbolic link to (system generation #include

       /usr/lib  Directory for the shared static data files, such as object
                    atrun   System scheduler,
                    cpp     C preprocessor
                    libc.a  System calls and standard I/O (2,3,3S)
                    font    Directory for fonts
                    lint    Directory for utility files for
                    tmac    Directory for macros
                    units   Data file of conversion tables for
                    uucp    Directory for programs and data

       /usr/man  Directory for unformatted and preformatted reference (manual)
                    cat1    Section 1 (preformatted)
                    cat2    Section 2 (preformatted)
                    cat3    Section 3 (preformatted)
                    man1    Section 1 (unformatted)
                    man2    Section 2 (unformatted)
                    man3    Section 3 (unformatted)

       /usr/mdec Directory for ULTRIX boot files.

       /usr/msgs Directory for messages,

       /usr/new  Directory for binaries of new versions of programs.

                 Directory for editor files preserved after crashes or

       /usr/skel Directory for sample user startup files.
                    .cshrc   Startup file for
                    .login   Login startup file for
                    .mailrc  Startup file for
                    .profile Startup file for
                    .project Lists information used by

                 Directory for delayed execution files, which is now a
                 symbolic link to
                    at   Directory used by
                    lpd  Directory used by
                            lock Present when line printer is active
                            cf*  Copy of file to be printed, if necessary
                            df*  Daemon control file,
                            tf*  Transient control file (exists while is
                    mail  Mailboxes for
                            name        Mail file for user name
                            name.lock   Lock file (exists while name is
                                        receiving mail)
                    uucp  Work files and staging area for
                            LOGFILE     Summary log

       /usr/src  Generic sources.
                    usr.bin User sources
                              troff and sources
                              term  Directory of description files for new

       /usr/sys  Directory for system files.
                    b.mips    BINARY for MIPS
                    b.vax     BINARY for VAX
                    fs        Filesystem SRC
                    net       Netword SRC
                    mips      MIPS-specific SRC
                    vax       VAX-specific SRC
                    data      System data files
                              Configuration files
                    h         #include files
                    SAS       Standalone system
                    sys       Machine independent SRC

       /usr/tmp  Symbolic link to

See Also
       apropos(1), find(1), finger(1), grep(1), ls(1), whatis(1), whereis(1),
       which(1), ncheck(8)
       Guide to Disk Maintenance

                                     RISC                              hier(7)

Name | Description | See Also

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