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HIAWATHA(1)		    General Commands Manual		   HIAWATHA(1)

       hiawatha	- advanced and secure webserver

       hiawatha	[options]
       Options:	-c <path>: path	to where the configrationfiles are located.
		-d: don't fork to the background.
		-h: show help and exit.
		-k: check configuration	and exit.
		-m: show enabled modules and exit.
		-v: show version and compile information and exit.

       Hiawatha	 is a secure webserver for Unix. It has	been written with 'be-
       ing secure' and 'easy to	use' as	its main goals.	Hiawatha has  lots  of
       features	 that no other webserver has. Although most of them started as
       an experiment, many of them turned out to be quite effective.

       Hiawatha	has been tested	and runs perfectly on Linux, BSD, MacOS	X  and

       Hiawatha	has the	following configuration	files:

	      See cgi-wrapper(1) for more information.

	      FIGURATION, URL TOOLKIT and XSLT for more	information.

	      See chapter MIMETYPES for	more information.

	      See chapter USER SETTINGS	PER DIRECTORY for more information.

       The  binding, directory,	FastCGI, virtual host and URL toolkit configu-
       ration must be placed inside a record. A	record is defined as follows:

       Record {

       where the word "Record" must be replaced	with  "Binding",  "Directory",
       "FastCGIserver",	"VirtualHost" or "UrlToolkit".

       The global configuration	of the Hiawatha	webserver.

       set variable = value
	      With  'set',  you	 can declare a variable. Make sure the name of
	      the variable doesn't conflict with any of	the configuration  op-
	      tions.  The  variables  are  case-sensitive  and cannot be rede-
	      clared. The variable CONFIG_DIR will be set by Hiawatha  to  the
	      directory	where hiawatha.conf is located.
	      Example: set local_net =
		       AccessList  =  allow local_net, deny (see Ac-
	      cessList for more	information about this option)

       AnonymizeIP = yes|no
	      Anonymize	IP addresses before writing them to the	access and er-
	      ror logfiles.
	      Default =	no     Example:	AnonymizeIP = yes

       BanlistMask  =  (allow|deny) <ip-address>[/netmask][, (allow|deny) <ip-
       address>[/netmask], ...]
	      Prevent IPs from getting banned in case of bad behaviour.	By de-
	      fault,  all IPs can be banned. IPs that are 'denied' in the ban-
	      list will	not be banned.
	      Example: BanlistMask = deny, deny

       BanOnDeniedBody = <ban-time>
	      Number of	seconds	to ban an IP in	case of	a denied request body.
	      See als DenyBody.
	      Default =	0     Example: BanOnDeniedBody = 120

       BanOnFlooding = <number>/<time>:<ban-time>
	      When  a  client sends more than <number> requests	in <time> sec-
	      onds, the	IP will	be banned for <ban-time> seconds.
	      Default =	-/-:0	  Example: BanOnFlooding = 10/1:15

       BanOnGarbage = <ban-time>
	      Number of	seconds	to ban an IP in	case of	a misformed  HTTP  re-
	      quest  (400  Bad	Request). Webbrowsers normally don't send mis-
	      formed HTTP requests. So in case of a 400	errorcode, someone  is
	      probably trying something	not-so-nice.
	      Default =	0     Example: BanOnGarbage = 60

       BanOnInvalidURL = <ban-time>
	      Number of	seconds	to ban an IP in	case of	an invalid URL.
	      Default =	0     Example: BanOnInvalidURL = 60

       BanOnMaxPerIP = <ban-time>
	      How many seconds a client	will be	banned when the	maximum	number
	      of simultaneous connections has been crossed. See	 also  Connec-
	      Default =	2     Example: BanOnMaxPerIP = 5

       BanOnMaxReqSize = <ban-time>
	      Number  of  seconds to ban an IP in case of a too	large HTTP re-
	      quest (413 Request Entity	Too Large). See	also MaxRequestSize.
	      Default =	0     Example: BanOnMaxReqSize = 10

       BanOnSQLi = <ban-time>
	      Number of	seconds	to ban an IP in	case of	a detected  SQL-injec-
	      tion attempt. See	also PreventSQLi.
	      Default =	0     Example: BanOnSQLi = 60

       BanOnTimeout = <ban-time>
	      Number  of  seconds to ban an IP in case of a timeout before the
	      first request has	been send. See also TimeForRequest.
	      Default =	0     Example: BanOnTimeout = 30

       BanOnWrongPassword = <number>:<ban-time>
	      Number of	seconds	to ban an IP in	case of	<number>  wrong	 pass-
	      words for	HTTP authentication within a minute.
	      Default =	-:0, Example: BanOnWrongPassword = 3:120

       BlockExtensions = <extension>[,<extension>, ...]
	      Prevent the uploading of files with these	extensions.
	      Example: BlockExtensions = pem, key, exe

       CAcertificates =	<file|directory>
	      Load  CA	root  certificates  which Hiawatha uses	for validation
	      when acting as a client, which it	does for the reverse proxy and
	      the  websockets. If not set, TLS connections that	Hiawatha makes
	      are not secure.
	      Example: CAcertificates =	/etc/ssl/certs/ca-certificates.crt

       CacheRProxyExtensions = <extension>[, <extension>, ...]
	      Enable the internal cache	for reverse proxy requests  for	 these
	      Example:	CacheRProxyExtensions  = css, gif, html, jpg, js, png,

	      (requires	that Hiawatha was not compiled with -DENABLE_CACHE=off
	      or -DENABLE_RPROXY=off)

       CacheSize = <size in megabytes>
	      Size   of	 Hiawatha's  internal  file  cache.  Maximum  is  1024
	      Default =	10     Example:	CacheSize = 25

	      (requires	 that	Hiawatha   was	 not   compiled	  with	 -DEN-

       CacheMaxFilesize	= <size	in kilobytes>
	      Maximum  size  of	 a  file  Hiawatha  will store in its internal
	      Default =	256	Example: CacheMaxFilesize = 128

	      (requires	 that	Hiawatha   was	 not   compiled	  with	 -DEN-

       CGIextension = <extension>[, <extension>, ...]
	      Default extension	of a CGI program.
	      Example: CGIextension = cgi

       CGIhandler = <CGI handler>:<extension>[,	<extension>, ...]
	      Specify  the  handler  for a CGI extension. A handler is an exe-
	      cutable which will run the CGI script.
	      Example: CGIhandler = /usr/bin/php5-cgi:php,php5

       CGIwrapper = <CGI wrapper>
	      Specify the wrapper for CGI processes. A secure CGI  wrapper  is
	      included	in  the	 Hiawatha package (see cgi-wrapper(1) for more
	      Default =	/usr/local/sbin/cgi-wrapper	Example: CGIwrapper  =

       ChallengeClient	=  <threshold>,	 (httpheader|javascript), <ban-time>[,
	      Challenge	the client to verify that it's a real web browser  and
	      not  an  HTTP  bot. When the total amount	of connections reaches
	      <threshold>, Hiawatha sends a response to	the first request in a
	      connection  which	 will  make the	client resend the request, but
	      now with a cookie. The cookie can	be set via an HTTP  Set-Cookie
	      header  or a Javascript. Further requests	are only accepted when
	      the client sends this cookie. Otherwise, the  client  is	banned
	      for  <ban-time>  seconds.	This feature can be used to reduce the
	      effects of a DDoS	attack.	The <secret> can be a random string of
	      up  to 20	characters (the	rest is	ignored) and is	used to	gener-
	      ate the cookie. When not set, Hiawatha will  generate  a	random
	      Example: ChallengeClient = 200, httpheader, 60

       ConnectionsPerIP	= <number>
	      Maximum  number  of simultaneous connections per IP address. See
	      also RequestLimitMask.
	      Default =	15     Example:	ConnectionsPerIP = 50

       ConnectionsTotal	= <number>
	      Maximum number of	simultaneous connections.
	      Default =	150	Example: ConnectionsTotal = 1000

       DHsize =	2048|4096|8192
	      Set the size of the Diffie-Hellman keys.
	      Default =	2048	 Example: DHsize = 4096

       ExploitLogfile =	<filename with full path>
	      Logfile for all exploit attempts:	CSRF, denied bodies,  SQL  in-
	      jection and XSS
	      Default =	/var/log/hiawatha/exploit.log	  Example: ExploitLog-
	      file = /var/log/exploit_attempts.log

       GarbageLogfile =	<filename with full path>
	      Logfile for all misformed	HTTP requests.
	      Example: GarbageLogfile =	/var/log/hiawatha/garbage.log

       GZipExtensions =	<extension>[, <extension>, ...]
	      Add extensions to	the list of extensions of the  files  Hiawatha
	      will  compress  before  uploading.  Files	with the text/*	or im-
	      age/svg+xml mimetype will	also be	compressed.
	      Default =	cer,crt,doc,pem,ppt,ttf,xls,xml,xsl,xslt      Example:
	      GZipExtensions = json

       HideProxy = <ip-address>[/netmask][, <ip-address>[/netmask], ...]
	      A	request	sent from the supplied IP address will be searched for
	      a	X-Forwarded-For	header.	When found, the	 last  IP  address  in
	      that  field will be used as the client IP	address. Make sure you
	      only allow trusted reverse proxies in this IP list.
	      Example: HideProxy =

       Include <filename>|<directory>
	      Include another configuration file or configuration files	 in  a
	      Example: Include /usr/local/etc/hiawatha/hosts.conf

       KickOnBan = yes|no
	      Close  all  other	connections that originate from	the same IP in
	      case of a	ban.
	      Default =	no     Example:	KickOnBan = yes

       KillTimedoutCGI = yes|no
	      If a CGI process times out (see  TimeForCGI  for	more  informa-
	      tion), Hiawatha will send	a TERM signal to the CGI process, wait
	      1	second and then	send a KILL signal to the  CGI	process.  This
	      option has no effect on FastCGI jobs.
	      Default =	yes	Example: KillTimedoutCGI = no

       ListenBacklog = <value>
	      The  backlog  value for the listen() system call.	This value de-
	      fines the	size of	the waiting queue for incoming connections.
	      Default =	16     Example:	ListenBacklog =	128

       LogfileMask = (allow|deny) <ip-address>[/netmask][,  (allow|deny)  <ip-
       address>[/netmask], ...]
	      List  of	IPs  from which	HTTP requests will be logged. If an IP
	      does not match an	entry in the list, the request will be logged.
	      Example: LogfileMask = deny

       LogFormat = hiawatha|common|extended
	      Define the format	of the logfile:	hiawatha = Hiawatha's  default
	      format,  common  = Common	Log Format, extended = Extended	Common
	      Log Format.
	      Default =	hiawatha     Example: LogFormat	= extended

       LogTimeouts = yes|no
	      Log connection timeouts in the system logfile.
	      Default =	yes	Example: LogTimeouts = no

       MaxServerLoad = <value>
	      When the server has a load higher	than  <value>,	Hiawatha  will
	      drop  incoming connections. This options is only available under
	      Example: MaxServerLoad = 0.7

       MaxUrlLength = <value>
	      The maximum length of the	path of	an URL that the	webserver  ac-
	      cepts  as	 being valid. Otherwise, a 414 error code is returned.
	      The value	'none' disables	this check.
	      Default =	1000	 Example: MaxUrlLength = 500

       MimetypeConfig =	<configuration file>
	      The location of the mimetype configuration file. It the path  is
	      omitted, Hiawatha's configuration	file directory will be used.
	      Default	 =   mimetype.conf	 Example:   MimetypeConfig   =

       MinTLSversion = 1.0|1.1|1.2
	      Specify the minimum TLS version Hiawatha accepts for HTTPS  con-
	      Default =	1.2, Example: MinTLSversion = 1.1

	      (requires	that Hiawatha was not compiled with -DENABLE_TLS=off)

       MonitorServer = <ip-address>
	      Specify  the IP address of the Hiawatha Monitor server. This en-
	      ables logging of statistical information.	Use a X-Hiawatha-Moni-
	      tor  CGI header to log an	event. Use the value 'failed_login' to
	      log a failed login or 'exploit_attempt' to log  an  exploit  at-
	      Example: MonitorServer =

	      (requires	that Hiawatha was compiled with	-DENABLE_MONITOR=on)

       PIDfile = <filename>
	      The  name	 of the	file in	which Hiawatha will write its process-
	      ID. Don't	change unless you know what you	are  doing  (the  CGI-
	      wrapper and the MacOS X preference pane need the PID-file	at its
	      default location).
	      Default =	/var/run/	  Example: PIDfile = /data/hi-

       Platform	= cygwin|windows
	      If  set  to 'windows', Hiawatha will convert the Unix-style path
	      to CGI programs to a Windows-style path.
	      Default =	windows	    Example: Platform =	cygwin

	      This option is only available in the Windows (Cygwin) version of

       RebanDuringBan =	yes|no
	      Reset  the  ban-time  when  a client tries to reconnect during a
	      Default =	no     Example:	RebanDuringBan = yes

       ReconnectDelay =	<time>
	      The number of seconds Hiawatha will remember the IP  address  of
	      the  connection  and  pretend  the client	is still connected. In
	      combination with ConnectionsPerIP, this can be used  to  prevent
	      flooding.	 Note  that  the BanOnMaxPerIP ban-timer will be used,
	      not the BanOnFlooding ban-timer. Causes some load	on the server.
	      Default =	0     Example: ReconnectDelay =	3

       RequestLimitMask	= (allow|deny)	<ip-address>[/netmask][,  (allow|deny)
       <ip-address>[/netmask], ...]
	      Define  for  which clients the ConnectionsPerIP, MaxRequestSize,
	      TimeForRequest and PreventSQLi settings should not be  used.  If
	      an  IP  is allowed or not	listed,	the mentioned settings will be
	      Example: RequestLimitMask	= deny

       ServerId	= <userid>|<userid>:<groupid>[,	<groupid>, ...]
	      The userid and groupid(s)	the server will	change to. If  only  a
	      userid  is  specified,  the  groupid(s)  will  be	 looked	 up in
	      /etc/passwd and /etc/group. The userid en	groupid	of  user  root
	      are not allowed here. The	userid or groupid can also be a	name.
	      Default =	65534:65534	Example: ServerId = www-data

       ServerString = <text>
	      The  text	behind 'Server:' in the	HTTP header of a response. Use
	      'none' to	completely remove the  Server  string  from  the  HTTP
	      Default =	Hiawatha v<version>	Example: ServerString =	myWeb-

       SetResourceLimits = yes|no
	      Let Hiawatha set the resource limits for number of  threads  and
	      file descriptors.
	      Default =	yes	Example: SetResourceLimits = no

       SocketSendTimeout = <time>
	      Sets  the	 SO_SNDTIMEO  value for	all client connection sockets.
	      Use 0 to disable this feature.
	      Default =	3     Example: SocketSendTimeout = 10

       Syslog  =   [system][,	exploit][,   garbage][,	  access][,   error][,
       all][;<syslog identifier>]
	      Log information to syslog.
	      Example: Syslog =	system,	access,	error

       SystemLogfile = <filename with full path>
	      Logfile for all system- and errormessages.
	      Default  =  /var/log/hiawatha/system.log	   Example: SystemLog-
	      file = /var/log/hiawatha.sys

       ThreadKillRate =	<amount>
	      At startup, Hiawatha starts the amount of	threads	 as  specified
	      by  ThreadPoolSize.  When	 more  threads	are required, Hiawatha
	      spawns them on the fly. When those extra threads are  no	longer
	      needed, max <amount> threads are killed per 10 seconds.
	      Default =	1     Example: ThreadKillRate =	10

       ThreadPoolSize =	<size>
	      Initial size of the thread pool.
	      Default =	25     Example:	ThreadPoolSize = 50

       Throttle	 =  (<main-mimetype>/[<sub-mimetype>]|.<extension>):<speed  in
	      Control the upload speed of certain files.
	      Example: Throttle	= audio/mpeg:30
		       Throttle	= .mp:50

       Tomahawk	= <port	number>, <MD5 hash of password>
	      The port and the password	for Tomahawk. You can  use  telnet  to
	      connect to Tomahawk (localhost:<port number>). Once connected to
	      Tomahawk,	type 'help' for	more information.
	      Example: Tomahawk	= 81,41d0c72bd73afaa2c207064d81d5a3d9

	      (requires	that Hiawatha was compiled with	-DENABLE_TOMAHAWK=on)

       TunnelSSH = <ip-address>[, <ip-address>,	...][; <authentication code>]
	      This option allows you to	connect	to  the	 SSH  daemon  on  your
	      server  when  port 22 is blocked by a firewall. The parameter of
	      this option is the IP address from where you want	to connect  to
	      your  server.  In	 PuTTY and WinSCP, use the HTTP	proxy type and
	      enable the 'Consider proxying local  host	 connections'  option.
	      Use  'localhost'	as  the	hostname and your server's hostname as
	      the proxy	hostname.  Optionally, you can set  an	authentication
	      code,  which  is base64(<username>:<password>). The username and
	      password are for in the PuTTY proxy page.	When set, you can con-
	      nect from	any IP address you want.
	      Example: TunnelSSH =

       UserDirectory = <directory>
	      The  name	 of  the web directory in a user's home	directory (see
	      UserWebsites for more information).
	      Default =	public_html	Example: UserDirectory = website

       WaitForCGI = yes|no
	      Lets Hiawatha wait for CGI processes to finish  after  receiving
	      the last output byte (via	waitpid() call)	or not (SIGCHLD	set to
	      Default =	yes	Example: WaitForCGI = no

       WorkDirectory = <path>
	      The directory where Hiawatha can temporarily store files for up-
	      loading and the Monitor. Note that Hiawatha will change the own-
	      ership and access	rights of this directory for security reasons.
	      So, don't	use existing direcories	like /tmp.
	      Default =	/var/db/hiawatha     Example: WorkDirectory = /tmp/hi-

       WrapUserCGI = yes|no
	      Always use the CGI-wrapper when handling	CGI  scripts  in  user
	      websites	(see UserWebsites for more information). The userid of
	      the owner	of the website will be used.
	      Default =	no     Example:	WrapUserCGI = yes

       A binding is where a client can connect to (a port on a network	inter-

       BindingId = <binding_id>
	      The  binding  ID can be used to hook a virtual host to a binding
	      (see RequiredBinding for more information).
	      Example: BindingId = LAN

       EnableAccf = yes|no
	      Enable the HTTP accept filter. This is only available  on	 Free-
	      BSD. This	requires the accf_http kernel module to	be loaded.
	      Default =	no     Example:	EnableAccf = yes

       EnableAlter = yes|no
	      Enable  the  PUT and DELETE HTTP request method for this binding
	      (see AlterList and UploadDirectory for more information).
	      Default =	no     Example:	EnableAlter = yes

       EnableTRACE = yes|no
	      Enable the TRACE HTTP request method for this binding.
	      Default =	no     Example:	EnableTRACE = yes

       Interface = <IP address>
	      The IP address of	the interface that must	be binded.
	      Default =	(IPv4)	   Example: Interface =

       MaxKeepAlive = <number>
	      Maximum number of	stay-alives after  the	first  request.	 After
	      that,  the connection will be closed. Of course, the browser can
	      reconnect. But this gives	other users a  chance  to  connect  in
	      case of a	'crowded' webserver.
	      Default =	50     Example:	MaxKeepAlive = 100

       MaxRequestSize =	<size>
	      The  maximum size	of a request in	kilobytes the webserver	is al-
	      lowed to receive.	This does not include PUT requests.  See  also
	      Default =	64     Example:	MaxRequestSize = 256

       MaxUploadSize = <size>
	      The  maximum  size of a PUT request entity in megabytes the web-
	      server  is  allowed  to  receive.	 The  maximum  size  is	  2047
	      Default =	1     Example: MaxUploadSize = 15

       Port = <port number>
	      The port number that will	be used	for the	binding. This is a re-
	      quired option.
	      Example: Port = 80

       RequiredCA = <CA	certificate file>[, <CA	CRL file>
	      Use the CA certificates in  this	file  to  authenticate	users.
	      Users  without a certificate from	one of the listed CAs will not
	      be allowed.
	      Example: RequiredCA = /etc/ssl/cacert.pem, /etc/ssl/cacrl.pem

	      (requires	that Hiawatha was not compiled with -DENABLE_TLS=off)

       TLScertFile = <TLS private key and certificate file>
	      Encrypt the connections of the current binding with the TLS pri-
	      vate  key	 and  certificate  in the specified file. Intermediate
	      certificates also	go in this file. Make sure the	order  matches
	      the  TLS	chain  order:  host  certificate first,	CA certificate
	      last. Use	the tool 'lefh'	(Let's Encrypt For Hiawatha) to	obtain
	      and maintain Let's Encrypt certificates.
	      Example: TLScertFile = my_domain.pem

	      (requires	that Hiawatha was not compiled with -DENABLE_TLS=off)

       TimeForRequest =	[<time1>, ]<time2>
	      Maximum  time  in	seconds	for a client to	send its HTTP request.
	      time1 is for the first request, time2 is for the	following  re-
	      quests (Keep-Alive time).	If time2 is omitted, time1 is used for
	      all requests. See	also RequestLimitMask.
	      Default =	5, 30	  Example: TimeForRequest = 2, 45

       The (virtual) hosts the webserver will be serving. The first host  must
       NOT  be	placed	inside a record. This is the default host and therefor
       not virtual. It is wise to have the IP-address of the webserver as  the
       Hostname	 of  the default host and give it a blank page.	Automated vul-
       nerable-website scanners	will not find your possible vulnerable website
       if you do so.

       AccessList = (allow|deny|pwd) <ip-address>[/netmask][, (allow|deny|pwd)
       <ip-address>[/netmask], ...]
	      Define which IPs have access to the website. If an IP  does  not
	      match an entry in	the list, access is granted. 'all' is an alias
	      for The IP address of the machine that	 connects  and
	      the  IP  address	specified  in the X-Forwarded-For header field
	      (deny only) will be used to find a match.	'allow'	gives  access,
	      'deny'  denies access and	'pwd' gives access if a	valid password
	      has been given (see PasswordFile for more	information).
	      Hiawatha	will  ignore  this  setting  for  files	  in   /.well-
	      known/acme-challenge/,  which are	used for authentication	in the
	      Let's Encrypt certificate	request	process.
	      Example: AccessList = deny,  allow,  deny

       AccessLogfile = <filename with full path>[,daily|monthly|weekly]|none
	      Logfile  for  the	 HTTP  requests. Hiawatha can rotate them on a
	      daily, weekly or monthly basis. Use 'none' to disable the	access
	      Default  =  /var/log/hiawatha/access.log	   Example: AccessLog-
	      file = /var/log/hiawatha.acc, weekly

       Alias = <softlink>:<directory>
	      An alias is a virtual softlink to	a directory. Every request  to
	      <websiteroot>/<softlink> will be rerouted	to <directory>.
	      Example: Alias = /doc:/usr/share/doc

       AllowDotFiles = <yes|no>
	      Allow  files that	start with a dot (hidden files for Unix) to be
	      downloaded by a client. Requests for .hiawatha files are	always
	      blocked.	A requests URI that start with /.well-known/ is	always
	      accepted,	as defined in RFC 5785.
	      Default =	no     Example:	AllowDotFiles =	yes

       AlterGroup = <groupname>[, <groupname>, ...]
	      The <groupname> is the name of the group a user must be a	member
	      of  to  use the PUT and DELETE HTTP method (see PasswordFile and
	      AlterList	for more information).
	      Example: AlterGroup = publishers

       AlterList = (allow|deny|pwd) <ip-address>[/netmask][,  (allow|deny|pwd)
       <ip-address>[/netmask], ...]
	      Define  which IPs	are allowed to use the PUT and DELETE HTTP re-
	      quest method. If an IP does not match an entry in	the list,  us-
	      age  is  denied. 'all' is	an alias for	The IP address
	      of the machine that connects and the IP address specified	in the
	      X-Forwarded-For  header field (deny only)	will be	used to	find a
	      match. Look out for the uploading	 of  CGI  scripts!  Use	 "Exe-
	      cuteCGI  =  no"  in  a Directory record to disable CGI execution
	      (see EnableAlter,	AlterGroup and	AlterMode  for	more  informa-
	      Example: AlterList = deny, allow, deny all

       AlterMode = <filemode>
	      The  files  that	are created via	PUT will have the file permis-
	      sions set	to <filemode> (see AlterList for more information).
	      Default =	640	Example: AlterMode = 664

       BanByCGI	= yes|no[, <max	value>]
	      Allow a CGI application to ban a client via  a  'X-Hiawatha-Ban:
	      <value>'	CGI header. The	value is the maximum amount of seconds
	      a	CGI application	is allowed to ban a client.
	      Default =	no     Example:	BanByCGI = yes

       CustomHeaderClient = <key>: <value>
	      Set a custom HTTP	header for every response sent to the client.
	      Example: CustomHeaderClient = Access-Control-Allow-Origin: *

       CustomHeaderBackend = <key>: <value>
	      Set a custom HTTP	header for  every  request  forwarded  to  the
	      backend while acting as a	reverse	proxy.
	      Example: CustomHeaderBackend = X-Custom-Header: some_value

	      (requires	  that	 Hiawatha   was	  not	compiled   with	 -DEN-

       DenyBody	= <regular expression>
	      If the request body matches the case insensitive	POSIX  regular
	      expression, return a 403 Forbidden.
	      Example: DenyBody	= ^.*%3Cscript.*%3C%2Fscript%3E.*$

       EnablePathInfo =	yes|no
	      Accepts  URLs like /index.php/parameter if /index.php exists and
	      the extension .php has been configured as	a CGI  program.	 '/pa-
	      rameter' will be placed in the environment variable PATH_INFO.
	      Default =	no     Example:	EnablePathInfo = yes

       EnforceFirstHostname = yes|no
	      If the hostname used in the URL is not the same as the first one
	      in the list of the Hostname setting, then	Hiawatha will  send  a
	      301  redirect  with that hostname. This option is	ignored	if the
	      first hostname starts with a wildcard.
	      Default =	no     Example EnforceFirstHostname = yes

       ErrorHandler = <error code>:<filename>[?key=value&...]
	      When a 401, 403, 404, 501	or 503 error occures, this  file  will
	      be send to the browser. The WebsiteRoot and the ErrorHandler to-
	      gether must form the complete path to the	 file.	The  generated
	      errorcode	 can be	found via the environment variable HTTP_GENER-
	      ATED_ERROR. To override the returned HTTP	code in	a CGI  script,
	      use the HTTP Header "Status", for	example	"Status: 404".
	      Example: ErrorHandler = 404:/error.php?code=404

       ErrorLogfile = <filename	with full path>
	      Logfile for the messages that have been written to stdout	by CGI
	      Default =	/var/log/hiawatha/error.log	Example:  ErrorLogfile
	      =	/var/log/hiawatha.err

       ErrorXSLTfile = <XSLT file with full path>
	      In case of an error, use the specified XSLT file to generate the
	      error message. Upon any error, Hiawatha will fall	 back  to  the
	      hardcoded	 error	message.  An example of	the generated XML that
	      will be used can be found	in extra/error.xml inside  the	source
	      Example: ErrorXSLTfile = /usr/local/etc/hiawatha/error.xslt

	      (requires	that Hiawatha was not compiled with -DENABLE_XSLT=off)

       ExecuteCGI = yes|no
	      Allow execution of CGI programs.
	      Default =	no     Example:	ExecuteCGI = yes

       FileHashes = <file containing file hashes>
	      Points  Hiawatha	to  a  file containing SHA256 hashes for every
	      file in the webroot directory. Before serving a  file,  Hiawatha
	      checks  the  file	hash of	that file. If it doesn't match,	access
	      is denied. This protects against file changes  or	 uploading  of
	      malware.	FastCGI	scripts	are also checked if the	FastCGI	server
	      can be reached via a UNIX	socket.	The file hashes	 file  can  be
	      created via the -s option	of the wigwam(1) tool.
	      Example:	 FileHashes  =	/usr/local/etc/hiawatha/hashes/my_web-

       FollowSymlinks =	yes|no
	      Allow Hiawatha to	follow symlinks	to files and directories. Sym-
	      links  that stay inside the webroot or are owned by root are al-
	      ways followed. Note that this does not apply to CGI's which  are
	      executed	via  FastCGI, because Hiawatha is not able to look for
	      symlinks on remote FastCGI servers.
	      Default =	no     Example:	FollowSymlinks = yes

       Hostname	= <hostname>, [<hostname>, ...]
	      Name(s) of the host that Hiawatha	will  be  serving.  May	 start
	      with  a wildcard,	except the first hostname (a valid name	is re-
	      quired in	case of	a 301 error). Hostname is a required field.
	      Example:	 Hostname   =,    *,

       HTTPAuthToCGI = yes|no
	      Place the	HTTP Authorization header in the CGI's HTTP_AUTHORIZA-
	      TION environment variable.
	      Default =	no     Example:	HTTPAuthToCGI =	yes

       LoginMessage = <text>
	      Message that will	be displayed in	the login window  in  case  of
	      HTTP  authentication  (see  PasswordFile	for more information).
	      When using Digest	HTTP authentication, the  LoginMessage	should
	      not contain a ':'	sign.
	      Default  =  Private page	   Example: LoginMessage = My personal

       NoExtensionAs = <extension>
	      If the requested file has	no extension, treat it as if  the  ex-
	      tension was equal	to <extension>.
	      Example: NoExtensionAs = cgi

       PasswordFile = ((Basic|Digest):<passwordfile>)|none[, <groupfile>]
	      When this	option is set, HTTP authentication is enabled. Use the
	      full path	to the password	file when that	password  file	should
	      also  be used for	sub-directories. Entries for the password file
	      can be created via the wigwam(1) tool. The realm for Digest HTTP
	      authentication must be equal to the text set via LoginMessage.
	      The <groupfile> contains the groupnames followed by the names of
	      the users	that are a member of that group.  The  format  of  the
	      lines in the groupfile is:
		   <groupname>:<username>[ <username> ...]
	      Hiawatha	 will	ignore	this  setting  for  files  in  /.well-
	      known/acme-challenge/, which are used for	authentication in  the
	      Let's Encrypt certificate	request	process.
	      Example:	      PasswordFile	 =	 basic:/var/www/.pass-

       PreventCSRF = no|detect|prevent|block
	      Prevent Cross-Site Request Forgery attacks. The 'detect'	option
	      only detects and logs a CSRF attack, 'prevent' discards the POST
	      data and cookies and 'block' returns a 443 error.	 This  setting
	      can  cause  problems  for	users who use tools to hide/remove the
	      Referer HTTP header string while browsing.

	      Don't use	this as	a generic security feature.  Only  use	it  to
	      prevent  a  specific vulnerablility in an	application that can't
	      be taken offline while you wait for a patch.
	      Default =	no     Example:	PreventCSRF = block

       PreventSQLi = no|detect|prevent|block
	      Prevent SQL-injection attacks. The 'detect' option only  detects
	      and  logs	an SQL injection attack, 'prevent' returns a 404 error
	      and 'block' returns a 441	error. It is important	to  understand
	      that  the	 detection  of	SQL injections is done by best effort.
	      There is no 100% guarantee that all SQL injections are  blocked.
	      Note  that  using	this feature can have a	negative effect	on the
	      performance of your webserver and	can make the  exploit  logfile
	      grow very	large. See also	BanOnSQLi and RequestLimitMask.

	      Don't  use  this	as  a generic security feature.	Only use it to
	      prevent a	specific vulnerablility	in an application  that	 can't
	      be taken offline while you wait for a patch.
	      Default =	no     Example:	PreventSQLi = detect

       PreventXSS = no|detect|prevent|block
	      Prevent  Cross-Site  Scripting attacks. The 'detect' option only
	      detects and logs a XSS attack, 'prevent' disables	 the  <script>
	      tag in the input and 'block' returns a 442 error.

	      Don't  use  this	as  a generic security feature.	Only use it to
	      prevent a	specific vulnerablility	in an application  that	 can't
	      be taken offline while you wait for a patch.
	      Default =	no     Example:	PreventXSS = prevent

       PublicKeyPins = <public key file>[, max_age=<value>[d]]
	      Hiawatha will load public	keys from the <public key file>, which
	      will be used to calculate	the pin-sha256 values for the  Public-
	      Key-Pins	HTTP  header (HPKP). The <public key file> can contain
	      certificates, certificate	signing	requests and public keys,  all
	      in  PEM  format.	The optional max_age value is in seconds or in
	      days when	it ends	with a 'd'. The	default	value for  max_age  is
	      Example:	  PublicKeyPins	   =   /usr/local/etc/hiawatha/letsen-
	      crypt.pem, 60d

	      (requires	that Hiawatha was not compiled with -DENABLE_TLS=off)

       RequiredBinding = <binding_id>[,	<binding_id>, ...]
	      By default, a virtual host can be	visited	via all	bindings.  Via
	      this  opion,  you	 can specify via which bindings	a virtual host
	      can be visited (see chapter BINDING CONFIGURATION	for  more  in-
	      Example: RequiredBinding = LAN

       RandomHeader = <length>
	      Adds  an	X-Random HTTP header to	the response for HTTPS connec-
	      tions. The header	contains a random string. The length  of  that
	      string  is  a  random  value between 1 and <length>. This	header
	      helps to prevent attackers from guessing what file was requested
	      based  on	 the  response length. <length>	must be	between	10 and
	      Example: RandomHeader = 250

       RequiredCA = <CA	certificate file>[, <CA	CRL file>
	      Use the CA certificates in  this	file  to  authenticate	users.
	      Users  without a certificate from	one of the listed CAs will not
	      be allowed.

       RequiredGroup = <groupname>[, <groupname>, ...]
	      The <groupname> is the name of the group a user must be a	member
	      of to have access	(see PasswordFile for more information).
	      Example: RequiredGroup = webadmins,staff

       RequireTLS = yes|no[, <HSTS time>[d]][; includeSubDomains][; preload]
	      Specify  that a domain must be visited with a TLS	connection. If
	      it is visited via	HTTP, Hiawatha will send a redirect (301) with
	      an  HTTPS	 URL.  The  <HSTS  time>  is  the max-age value	of the
	      Strict-Transport-Security	HTTP header in seconds or in days when
	      it ends with a 'd'.
	      Hiawatha	 will	ignore	this  setting  for  files  in  /.well-
	      known/acme-challenge/, which are used for	authentication in  the
	      Let's Encrypt certificate	request	process.
	      Default =	no     Example:	RequireTLS = yes, 2678400

	      (requires	that Hiawatha was not compiled with -DENABLE_TLS=off)

       ReverseProxy   =	 [!]<pattern>  [<skip  directories>]  http[s]://<host-
       name>[:<port>][/<path>]|<unix-socket> [<timeout>] [keep-alive]
	      Forward the request with URLs that match the POSIX  regular  ex-
	      pression	<pattern> to another webserver,	where <path> is	placed
	      before the original URL. When <hostname> is an IP	 address,  the
	      value of the Host	HTTP header is unchanged. Otherwise, it	is re-
	      placed with the value of <hostname>. The optional	<skip directo-
	      ries>  is	 a  number  that indicates how many directories	in the
	      original URL should be skipped when sending it to	the final web-
	      server.  The connection is closed	after <timeout>	seconds, which
	      is set to	5 seconds by default. By default, Hiawatha doesn't use
	      keep-alive  connections  to  the final webserver.	You can	enable
	      this by adding 'keep-alive'  to  the  configuration  line.  When
	      specifying  multiple reverse proxies for one (virtual) host, Hi-
	      awatha prefers reverse proxies with a scheme (HTTP/HTTPS)	match-
	      ing the one of the client	connection. See	also CAcertificates.
	      Example: ReverseProxy = ^/icons/ 1 http://resources.lan/images

	      (requires	  that	 Hiawatha   was	  not	compiled   with	 -DEN-

       RunOnAlter = <path to program>
	      Run a program after a client has sent a PUT or a DELETE request.
	      Information  about  the  request	is placed in environment vari-
	      ables, just like CGI
	      Example: RunOnAlter = /usr/local/sbin/alter-script

       Setenv <key> = <value>
	      Define environment settings for CGI programs.
	      Example: Setenv PHPRC = /var/www/conf

       ScriptAlias = <softlink>:<script>
	      A	script alias is	a virtual softlink to a	CGI script. Every  re-
	      quest to <websiteroot>/<softlink>	will be	rerouted to <script>.
	      Example: ScriptAlias = /script.cgi:/usr/lib/script.cgi

       ShowIndex = yes|no|<XSLT	file with full path>|xml
	      Return  a	 directory  listing in HTML format for a directory re-
	      quest when the startfile does not	exist. If you want  to	change
	      the index	layout completely, specify the path of a XSLT file. If
	      the XSLT file is not found or 'xml' is used, Hiawatha will  out-
	      put the XML of the directory index. An example of	the XML	output
	      can be found in extra/index.xml inside the source	package.
	      Default  =  no	  Example:  ShowIndex	=   /usr/local/etc/hi-

	      (requires	that Hiawatha was not compiled with -DENABLE_XSLT=off)

       SkipCacheCookie = <cookie name>[, <cookie name>,	...]
	      Skip  the	 internal cache	for requests for GGI scripts that con-
	      tain one of the mentioned	cookies.
	      Example: SkipCacheCookie = banshee_login_id

       TLScertFile = <TLS private key and certificate file>
	      Use this option inside a virtualhost block if you	want  to  make
	      use of the SNI capabilities of Hiawatha. See the TLScertFile op-
	      tion in the BINDING CONFIGURATION	chapter	for more information.

       StartFile = <filename>
	      The file which will be send to the browser when a	 directory  is
	      Default =	index.html     Example:	StartFile = start.php

       TimeForCGI = <time>
	      Maximum time in seconds for a CGI-process	to finish its job.
	      Default =	5     Example: TimeForCGI = 15

       TriggerOnCGIstatus = yes|no
	      Print  an	 HTTP  error message or	invoke the ErrorHandler	when a
	      CGI outputs a Status HTTP	header line.
	      Default =	no     Example:	TriggerOnCGIstatus = yes

       UseDirectory = <directory_id>[, <directory_id>, ...]
	      The Directory records to use for this virtual host. See  chapter
	      DIRECTORY	CONFIGURATION for more information.
	      Example: UseDirectory = my_dir

       UseLocalConfig =	yes|no
	      Tell Hiawatha to use or ignore .hiawatha files.
	      Default =	no     Example:	UseLocalConfig = yes

       UseFastCGI = <fcgi_server_id>[, <fcgi_server_id>, ...]
	      The  FastCGI  server  to	use  for  this virtual host. The first
	      FastCGI server record that matches (including  extension),  will
	      be used. See chapter FASTCGI CONFIGURATION for more information.
	      This option sets ExecuteCGI to 'yes' for this host.
	      Example: UseFastCGI = PHP7

       UserWebsites = yes|no
	      Activates	user websites for this	(virtual)  host	 (the  /~user/
	      URL's) (see UserDirectory	for more information).
	      Default =	no     Example:	UserWebsites = yes

       UseToolkit = <toolkit_id>[, <toolkit_id>, ...]
	      Perform  special	operations, like rewriting via regular expres-
	      sions, on	the URL. See chapter URL TOOLKIT for more information.
	      Example: UseToolkit = my_toolkit

	      (requires	that Hiawatha was  not	compiled  with	-DENABLE_TOOL-

       UseXSLT = yes|no
	      Activate XSL transformations (see	chapter	XSLT for more informa-
	      Default =	no     Example:	UseXSLT	= yes

	      (requires	that Hiawatha was not compiled with -DENABLE_XSLT=off)

       WebDAVapp = <yes|no>
	      Enables support for WebDAV applications.
	      Default: WebDAVapp = no	  Example: WebDAVapp = yes

       WebsiteRoot = <directory>
	      Root directory for this virtual host. It's not  allowed  to  use
	      the root of a disk as the	website	root directory.
	      Example: WebsiteRoot = /home/webmaster/website

       WebSocket = ws[s]://<IP address>:<port> <request	uri>[,...] [connection
	      This setting will	make Hiawatha forward the connection to	a web-
	      socket  for  every  request  where  the URL starts with <request
	      uri>. A wildcard request URI will	forward	every request for this
	      host.  The  connection  timeout is in minutes and	the default is
	      10. See also CAcertificates.
	      Example: WebSocket = ws:// /chat 30

       WrapCGI = <wrap_id>
	      Specify a	CGI-wrapper id for this	virtual	 host  (see  cgi-wrap-
	      per(1) for more information).
	      Example: WrapCGI = test

       This  chapter  explains	which options can be set for a specific	direc-
       tory. These options will	override (virtual) host	settings.

       DirectoryId = <directory_id>
	      A	unique ID for a	directory record. Use this Id with the	UseDi-
	      rectory setting in a virtual host.
	      Example: DirectoryId = my_dir

       ExpirePeriod   <time>   seconds|minutes|hours|days|weeks|months[,  pub-
	      Adds an Expires HTTP header with current timestamp + <time>. The
	      public/private  (default is private) option defines the value of
	      the Cache-Control	header.
	      Example: ExpirePeriod = 2	weeks, public

       Extensions = <extension>[, <extension>, ...]
	      When set,	settings that affect files will	only be	used when  the
	      extension	of the requested file matches with the supplied	list.
	      Example: Extensions = png, jpg, gif

       Path = <path>[, <path>, ...]
	      The path to the subdirectory, which may be virtual (not existing
	      on disk).	This is	a required setting.
	      Example: Path = /files

       RunOnDownload = <path to	program>
	      Run a program when a client requests  a  static  resource.  This
	      does  not	include	CGI programs. Information about	the request is
	      placed in	environment variables, just like CGI.
	      Example: RunOnDownload = /var/www/log_download

       UploadSpeed = <speed>, <maximum number of connections>
	      Set the uploadspeed in kB/s for all the files in	the  directory
	      regardless  of  the  extension  or mimetype. The uploadspeed per
	      connection will be divided by the	number of connections.
	      Example: UploadSpeed = 20,4

       AccessList ,
       AlterGroup ,
       AlterList ,
       AlterMode ,
       ExecuteCGI ,
       WrapCGI ,
       FollowSymlinks ,
       PasswordFile ,
       RequiredGroup ,
       Setenv ,
       ShowIndex ,
       StartFile and

       This chapter explains how to use	one or more FastCGI servers.

       ConnectTo = <ip-address>:<port number>|<path>[, <ip-address>:<port num-
       ber>|<path>, ...]
	      The IP-address and TCP port or UNIX socket Hiawatha must connect
	      to to reach the FastCGI server.
	      Example: ConnectTo = (IPv4)
		       ConnectTo = [::1]:2004 /	::1.2004 (IPv6)
		       ConnectTo = /tmp/hiawatha.sock (UNIX socket)

       Extension = <extension>[, <extension>, ...]
	      The extension of the script the FastCGI server is	able to	inter-
	      pret. If no extension is specified, all requests will be sent to
	      the FastCGI server.
	      Example: Extension = php

       FastCGIid = <fcgi_server_id>
	      Give each	FastCGI	server an unique Id. Use this Id with the Use-
	      FastCGI setting in a virtual host.
	      Example: FastCGIid = PHP7

       ServerRoot = <path>
	      If  the  FastCGI server is running in a chroot, use this setting
	      to specify that chroot directory.
	      Example: ServerRoot = /var/www/chroot

       SessionTimeout =	<time in minutes>
	      The maximum duration of a	CGI session for	this  FastCGI  server.
	      Will only	be used	when specifing multiple	ConnectTo's.
	      Default =	15     Example:	SessionTimeout = 30

       How  to	use  the  URL toolkit is explained in this chapter. To use URL
       toolkits, Hiawatha should not have been	compiled  with	-DENABLE_TOOL-
       KIT=off.	The main toolkit commands are:

       Do <action>
	      Perform an action, where <action>	can be one of the following:
	      Ban,  Call, DenyAccess, Exit, Goto, OmitRequestLog, Return, Skip
	      or Use.
	      Example: Do Call other_rule_set

       Header <key> [!]<pattern> <action>
	      Perform an action	when the HTTP header <key> matches  the	 POSIX
	      regular  expresion  <pattern>,  where <action> can be one	of the
	      Ban, Call, DenyAccess, Exit, Goto, OmitRequestLog, Return,  Skip
	      or Use.
	      A	negative pattern (leading exclamation mark) can't be used with
	      the redirect action. The <key> can  be  *	 to  test  every  HTTP
	      header.  Note  that  the wildcard	means 'any header', not	'every

       Match [!]<pattern> <action>
	      Perform an action	when the URL matches the POSIX regular expres-
	      sion <pattern>, where <action> can be one	of the following:
	      Ban,  Call,  DenyAccess,	Exit, Goto, Redirect, Return, Rewrite,
	      Skip or UseFastCGI.
	      Use MatchCI to perform case insensitive URL matching. A negative
	      pattern  (leading	exclamation mark) can't	be used	with the redi-
	      rect and rewrite action.

       Method [!]<request method> <action>
	      Perform an  action  when	the  request  method  equals  <request
	      method>, where <action> can be one of the	following:
	      Call, DenyAccess,	Exit, Goto, Return, Skip or Use
	      Example: Method POST Return

       RequestURI exists|isfile|isdir|notfound <action>
	      Perform  an  action based	on the presence	of the requested file,
	      where <action> can be one	of the following:
	      Call, Return, Exit or Skip.
	      Example: RequestURI isfile Return

       ToolkitId = <toolkit_id>
	      The toolkit ID can be used to bind toolkit rules	to  a  virtual
	      host. See	also UseToolkit.
	      Example: ToolkitId = my_toolkit

       TotalConnections	<value>	<action>
	      Perform an action	if the total amount of connections is equal to
	      or higher	than <value>, where <action> can be one	of the follow-
	      Call, Goto, OmitRequestLog, Redirect or Skip
	      Example: TotalConnections	1000 Call CheckUserAgent

       UseTLS <action>
	      Perform  an  action  when	the client is connection via a TLS se-
	      cured connection,	where <action> can be one of the following:
	      Call, Exit, Goto,	Return or Skip.

       An exclamation mark in front of a pattern (negative  pattern  matching)
       makes  Hiawatha perform the action when the pattern does	not match. The
       <action>	statements mentioned above are described here:

       Ban <seconds>
	      Ban the client for <seconds> seconds.

       Call <toolkit_id>
	      Execute toolkit record <toolkit_id> and continue in the  current
	      record afterwards.

	      Deny  access  to the requested file (results in a	403 error) and
	      terminate	toolkit	processing.

	      Terminate	toolkit	processing.

       Goto <toolkit_id>
	      Execute <toolkit_id> and terminate  the  current	URL  rewriting

	      Don't  log  the current request in the file specified by Access-

       Redirect	[301..308] <url>
	      Redirect the browser to the specified URL	and terminate  toolkit
	      processing. The default status code is 301.

	      Return from the current UrlToolkit record.

       Rewrite <replacement> [<max_loop>] [Continue|Return]
	      Rewrite the current URL using <replacement>. Examples:
	      "Match	^/pics/(.*)    Rewrite	  /images/$1"	 will	change
	      "/pics/logo.gif" into "/images/logo.gif".
	      "Match a Rewrite b  3"  will  change  "/aaaaa.html"  into	 "/bb-
	      baa.html". Default value of <max_loop> is	1, maximum is 20.
	      Rewrite  will  terminate	toolkit	processing, unless Continue or
	      Return has been given.

       Skip <number>
	      Skip the next following <number> lines (ToolkitId	excluded).

       Use <url>
	      Replace the current URL with <url> and  terminate	 toolkit  pro-

       UseFastCGI <fcgi_id>
	      Use  FastCGI server with id <fcgi_id> and	terminate toolkit pro-

       The original URL	is stored in the environment variable REQUEST_URI. Be-
       fore  using  URL	toolkit	rules, use the tool 'wigwam' to	verify the re-
       sult of your rules (see wigwam(1) for more information).

	      VirtualHost {
		   UseToolkit =	clean_url

	      UrlToolkit {
		   ToolkitId = clean_url
		   Match ^/(css|images|js)(/|$)	Return
		   RequestURI exists Return
		   Match ^/.*\?(.*) Rewrite /index.php?$1
		   Match ^/.* Rewrite /index.php

       If a XML	file is	requested, Hiawatha can	do a XSL transformation	when a
       XSLT  sheet  is	present.  For  the  requested  XML  file (<name>.xml),
       '<name>.xslt', 'index.xslt' in the current directory or 'index.xslt' in
       the  WebsiteRoot	 needs	to  be present.	Otherwise, the XML file	itself
       will be uploaded. The environment variables which are available	during
       CGI  execution  are  available  as XSLT parameters. URL variables start
       with 'GET_', POST variables start with 'POST_' and cookies  start  with

       Hiawatha	 can  cache  the  output of CGI	applications. When and for how
       long is determined by the application itself. It	can use	the  following
       CGI headers to control the caching of its output. This feature requires
       that Hiawatha was not compiled with -DENABLE_CACHE=off.

       X-Hiawatha-Cache: <seconds>
	      The output can be	cached	for  <seconds>	seconds.  The  minimum
	      value is 2, the maximum value is 3600 (one hour).
	      Example: X-Hiawatha-Cache: 600

       X-Hiawatha-Cache-Remove:	<url>
	      The  output  of <url> should be removed from the cache. Use this
	      when you update a	cached page in your CMS. Use 'all' as the  URL
	      to clear the cache for the current website.
	      Example: X-Hiawatha-Cache-Remove:	/about

       A  user can override the	settings listed	below for a certain directory.
       This can	be done	by placing one or more of those	 settings  in  a  .hi-
       awatha  file  in	that directory.	Hiawatha will not look for a .hiawatha
       file in the root	directory of the disk.

       AccessList ,
       AlterGroup ,
       AlterList ,
       AlterMode ,
       ErrorHandler ,
       LoginMessage ,
       PasswordFile ,
       RequiredGroup ,
       ShowIndex ,
       StartFile and
       UseToolkit (only	valid in the root directory of a website)

       Specify	the  mimetypes	of  files   in	 /usr/local/etc/hiawatha/mime-

       <mimetype> <extension> [<extension> ...]
	      Example: image/jpeg jpg jpeg jpe

       TERM   Shutdown the webserver.

       HUP    Close all	open logfiles.

       USR1   Unban all	IP addresses.

       USR2   Clear  the  internal  cache (requires that Hiawatha was not com-
	      piled with -DENABLE_CACHE=off).


       cgi-wrapper(1), ssi-cgi(1), wigwam(1)

       Hugo Leisink <> -  https://www.hiawatha-web-



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