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hexpeek(1)		    General Commands Manual		    hexpeek(1)

NAME
       hexpeek - edit, dump, pack, and diff binary files in hex	and bits

SYNOPSIS
       hexpeek [OPTIONS] INFILE0 [INFILE1]
       hexview [OPTIONS] INFILE0 [INFILE1]
       hexDump [OPTIONS] INFILE0 [INFILE1]
       hexpack [OPTIONS] INFILE0 [INFILE1]
       hexdiff [OPTIONS] INFILE0 [INFILE1]

DESCRIPTION
       hexpeek	(TM)  is  a  binary editor designed for	efficient operation on
       huge files, but works on	any file. It is	not  plagued  by  size-related
       crashes,	freezes, and glitches because it does not attempt to map files
       into its	memory;	instead, it operates on	files directly to fulfill user
       commands.

       hexpeek	has  four  main	modes of operation: prompt, command, pack, and
       recovery. Prompt	mode is	entered	by default, subject to	OPTIONS.  When
       invoked	as  hexview,  hexDump, hexpack,	or hexdiff, hexpeek runs as if
       given one of the	flags -r, -dump, -pack,	or -diff respectively.

       Except when specifically	indicated otherwise, hexpeek input and	output
       are in unprefixed hexadecimal. This allows the user to work in hexadec-
       imal without needing to prefix every number with	"0x".

       Thank you for  trying  hexpeek.	Send  your  comments  to  hexpeek@hex-
       peek.com.

OPTIONS
       Flags starting with "+" invert the respective flags with	"-".

       -h	       Print  usage  text  about  commonly  used options; then
		       exit.

       -help	       Print more complete help	text; then exit.

       -v	       Print short version string; then	exit.

       -version	       Print long version string; then exit.

       -license	       Print license text; then	exit.

       -d <FD>	       Treat <FD>, a _decimal_	integer,  as  an  already-open
		       file  descriptor	and use	it as the next file. Function-
		       ality on	non-seekable files is limited (see LIMITATIONS
		       below).

       -r	       Open subsequent infiles read-only.

       -w	       Open subsequent infiles writeable.

       -W	       Like -w,	but do not creat infiles that do not exist.

       +ik	       Disable insert and kill commands.

       -x <CMDS>       Execute	semicolon-delimited commands (see COMMANDS be-
		       low).

       -dump	       Dump a whole single infile. Same	as "-x 0:max".

       -pack	       Treat infile as a hexpeek dump and pack	it  back  into
		       the  outfile  as	binary.	For best results, run with the
		       same option flags with which the	original dump was cre-
		       ated.

       -diff	       Diff two	files. Same as "-x '$0@0:max~$1@0:max'".

       -s <START>      With -dump or -diff, start output at given file offset.

       -l <LEN>	       Like  -s,  but  stop output after <LEN> octets are pro-
		       cessed.

       -o <OUTFILE>    Write output to the given file.

       [-|+]SET	[ARG]  Set the	given  setting	(for  all  applicable  display
		       modes).	 SET  may  be one of: endian, hex, bits, rlen,
		       slen, line, cols, group,	margin,	 scalar,  prefix,  au-
		       toskip, diffskip, text, and ruler. These	options	accept
		       the same	arguments and have the same effect as the com-
		       mands of	the same names (see COMMANDS below).

       -b , -c , -g    Synonyms	of -bits , -cols , and -group respectively.

       -p	       Output  data  in	plain mode, which is the equivalent of
		       "-c 0 -g	0 -margin 0 +autoskip +diffskip	+text +ruler".

       +lineterm       Skip line breaks	in output.

       -format <FMT>   Specify group delimiters. This both controls print out-
		       put and allows the delimiters to	be silently ignored in
		       data input. Default: "%_l? %_g",	which prints a leading
		       space  before  each  group  except the zeroth group (if
		       margin >	0, a space will	be printed as part of the mar-
		       gin separator).

       -unique	       Skip  uniqueness	check -	assume all infiles are unique.
		       See warning in LIMITATIONS.

       +tty	       Skip TTY	check -	assume standard	streams	are not	TTYs.

       -pedantic       Generate	a user-level error if filezone information  is
		       unspecified  or	ambiguous  (instead  of	auto-inferring
		       what to do) or if a print or diff (except with  ":max")
		       attempts	 to read beyond	end of file (instead of	print-
		       ing nothing).

       [-|+]strict     Toggle strict failure mode, which, when enabled,	causes
		       hexpeek to fail for user-level errors (like a malformed
		       command string).	This mode is enabled by	 default  when
		       hexpeek is run non-interactively.

       -backup <DEPTH> Backup  depth may be 0 (to disable), max	(0x20),	or any
		       number therebetween. The	default	depth is 8.

       -backup sync    Aggressively sync backup	to disk.

       -recover	       Prompt to revert	operations recorded in backup files.

       -trace <FILE>   Trace to	the given file.

       --	       Denote end of option flags.

COMMANDS
       q[uit]	       Quit the	program.

       stop	       Exit without unlinking backup files.

       h[elp] [TOPIC]  Show general or specific	helptext.

       files	       List open files with their paths	(with  C  escapes  for
		       non-printable  characters),  writeability, lengths, and
		       current offsets.

       reset [$FILE]   Reset the current offset	of FILE	if  specified,	other-
		       wise reset the current offsets of all open infiles.

       settings	       List the	values of various settings.

       endian<b|l>     Set big-	(default) or little-endian mode. Little-endian
		       mode is not compatible with zero	group width.

       hex[l|u]	       Switch to hexadecimal display mode. The	optional  last
		       character  may  be used to set the case of hex numerals
		       to lower	(default) or upper.

       bits	       Switch to bits display mode.  This  affects  file  data
		       only, not scalar	(control) information.

       rlen <WIDTH>    Set default read	length for the current display mode.

       slen <WIDTH>    Set  search  print length for the current display mode.
		       If 0, print only	address	of search match.

       line <WIDTH>    Set line	width for the current  display	mode;  0  dis-
		       ables.

       cols <WIDTH>    Set rlen, slen, and line.

       group <WIDTH>   Set  group  width  for the current display mode;	0 dis-
		       ables.	This  option  controls	how  many  octets  are
		       printed	between	 spaces	(or other delimiters specified
		       by -format).

       margin <WIDTH>  Set octet width of printed  file	 offset;  0  disables;
		       "full" sets to maximum available	width (default).

       scalar <BASE>   Interpret  scalar  input	according to the given <BASE>.
		       Valid arguments are 0x10	(default) and 0. If 0,	scalar
		       input  are  interpreted as decimal unless prefixed with
		       "0x" (hex) or "0" (octal). This flag  does  not	affect
		       scalar output.

       [+]prefix       Print scalars with a "0x" prefix	(default off).

       [+]autoskip     Toggle autoskip mode. If	on (default when interactive),
		       repeated	lines in dumps are replaced with "*".

       [+]diffskip     Toggle diffskip mode. If	on, identical lines  in	 diffs
		       are skipped.

       [+]text[=CODE]  Toggle dump of text characters in a column to the right
		       of print	output.	The  optional  argument	 controls  the
		       character  encoding  and	should be ascii	or ebcdic. De-
		       faults on when interactive and line width is non-zero.

       [+]ruler	       Toggle octet ruler.

       Numeric	       [+][$FILE@][HEXOFF][,HEXLEN][+][SUBCOMMAND]
		       [+][$FILE@][HEXOFF][:HEXLIM][+][SUBCOMMAND]
			  ^--------filezone-------^

	   Execute a subcommand	over a given filezone. If specified, FILE must
	   be a	numeric	index; otherwise, file $0 will be used.	HEXOFF may  be
	   used	 to  specify  an  absolute file	offset if positive, a relative
	   offset from file end	if negative, or	the current offset if "@@"  or
	   not given.

	   HEXLEN  is  an  optional length argument to the subcommand.	HEXLIM
	   specifies a length of HEXLIM	- HEXOFF, or may be "max".

	   SUBCOMMAND may be one of: p,	/, ~, r, i, k, their long  forms,  and
	   offset. If no subcommand is specified, an implicit print is done.

	   If  "+"  precedes the filezone, file	offset will be incremented be-
	   fore	subcommand is run by the number	of octets to be	processed.  If
	   instead  "+"	follows, file offset will be incremented after subcom-
	   mand	is run by the number of	octets processed.

	   An empty line at the	prompt is equivalent to	"+", and may  be  used
	   to page through a file.

       p[rint][v] , v

	   Output  data	 starting at file offset. If HEXLEN is specified, that
	   many	octets are read; otherwise, the	default	number of  octets  are
	   read.  The  output includes a left margin with file offset informa-
	   tion. When "p" is given explicitly, offset start is	outputted  be-
	   fore	file data.

	   Including  "v"  prints  verbosely:  each output line	shows the file
	   offset and data for just one	octet with hexadecimal,	 decimal,  oc-
	   tal,	 bits,	high  bit/low  bit/bit	count,	and text formats shown
	   side-by-side.

	   If autoskip is enabled, repeated lines are replaced with  a	single
	   "*".

       offset

	   Seek	to the filezone	offset and print it. Useful in scripts.

       search <PATTERN>	, /<PATTERN>

	   Search  for	the argument data within the specified filezone	(or to
	   file	end if unspecified). A valid  PATTERN  is  either:  (1)	 fully
	   specified  octets  in  hexadecimal or bits (depending on mode), any
	   number of spaces between octets,  and  the  "."   character	(which
	   matches  any	value);	or (2) a filezone of the form described	above,
	   in which case data from that	zone is	used as	search input. If file-
	   zone	length is unspecified, the default length of 1 is used.

	   If  the search succeeds, the	file offset is set to the beginning of
	   the first found match; unless "+" follows the  filezone,  in	 which
	   case	 the file offset is set	to immediately _after_ the first found
	   match or to immediately _after_ the search area  if	there  was  no
	   match.

       ~[ ][FILEZONE]

	   Perform  a  diff  of	two filezones. If no argument is given and two
	   files are open, the diff is done between  the  two  files.  If  two
	   octets at a given relative offset are the same, they	are printed as
	   underscores.	 If diffskip  is  enabled,  identical  lines  are  not
	   printed.

       /~[ ][FILEZONE]

	   Search for the next difference between two filezones.

       r[eplace	]<PATTERN>

	   Replace octets in the filezone with the argument data. The argument
	   is of the same form as for the search command, but the "." matching
	   character  is not recognized. If HEXLEN is specified	and is greater
	   than	the octet length of the	input data, the	data will be  repeated
	   to fill HEXLEN octets.

       i[nsert ]<PATTERN>

	   Like	replace, but expand file at file offset	by number of octets to
	   be written, thus preserving existing	data.

       k[ill] ,	delete

	   Remove the data in the specified filezone. If  HEXLEN  is  unspeci-
	   fied,  one octet will be removed. Note that a space is required be-
	   tween any numeric portion of	the command and	delete.

       ops

	   Show	operations available to	be  undone.  For  each	operation  the
	   depth, operation number, and	command	string are printed.

       u[ndo] [DEPTH]

	   Undo	the number of operations specified by DEPTH (defaults to 1).

EXAMPLES
       0	       From beginning of file, print default number of octets.

       10,40	       Print 40	octets starting	at the 10th octet in the file.

       ,2p	       Print two octets	starting at current file offset.

       7:C/.1	       Within domain starting at file offset 7 and ending at B
		       inclusively, search for the first octet the second nib-
		       ble of which is 1.

       0:100 r 00      Zero out	the first 100 octets.

       100 r 1122      Replace	the  100th  octet  with	value 11 and the 101st
		       octet with value	22.

       -1r33	       Replace the last	octet in the file with the value 33.

       i 44	       Insert one octet	with value 44 before the current  off-
		       set.

       -0i 5566	       Append two octets to the	end of file with values	55 and
		       66.

       k	       Remove one octet	at the current file offset.

       1:3k	       Remove the first	and second octets of the file.

       20:60 r @30,3   Replace the 40 octet chunk starting at 20 with the val-
		       ues located in 30:33 repeated.

DEFAULTS
       Unless  set  on the command line, column	width defaults to the greatest
       power of	2 number of octets that	fit in an 80 character terminal.

LIMITATIONS
       hexpeek requires	(and attempts to enforce) that each infile refers to a
       unique  file.  Data corruption may result if the	same file is opened as
       multiple	infiles	during a hexpeek run.

       Functionality on	non-seekable files is inherently limited because  hex-
       peek operates on	them with a one-way seek. Thus,	you can	not seek back-
       wards and post-incrementation for reads is always in effect.  Moreover,
       the  current offset has no impact on write operations (a	duplex connec-
       tion is assumed).  Finally, the backup  function	 does  not  work  with
       non-seekable files for obvious reasons.

       The  insert  and	 kill commands are inherently inefficient because they
       must move all the data after the	point of insertion or  deletion.  Con-
       sider combining repeated	insertions (or kills) into one large operation
       to limit	the amount of time spent in file rearrangement.

       Maximum line, group, and	search argument	octet width are	0x10000.

BACKUP AND RECOVERY
       When in write mode, unless backup depth is 0, hexpeek creates 2	hidden
       backup  files  with file	extension hexpeek-backup. Before executing any
       writeable command, hexpeek writes information to	a backup file which is
       sufficient to recover previous data file	state in case of program crash
       or user error.

       When an error occurs, use the undo command to revert it;	 or  use  stop
       and then	invoke 'hexpeek	-recover'. Otherwise, on successful exit, hex-
       peek automatically unlinks the backup files. A redo  can	 be  performed
       with the	command	line history functionality (if built with support).

VERSION
       hexpeek version 1.0.20200804

AUTHOR
       Copyright 2020 Michael Reilly. ALL WARRANTIES DISCLAIMED.

       hexpeek is a trademark of Michael Reilly.

SEE ALSO
       https://www.hexpeek.com

version	1.0.20200804		  2020-08-04			    hexpeek(1)

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | OPTIONS | COMMANDS | EXAMPLES | DEFAULTS | LIMITATIONS | BACKUP AND RECOVERY | VERSION | AUTHOR | SEE ALSO

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