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HEBCAL(1)		    General Commands Manual		     HEBCAL(1)

NAME
       hebcal -	a Jewish calendar generator

SYNOPSIS
       hebcal [	-8acdDehHiorsStTwy ]
		 [ -I input_file ]
		 [ -Y yahrtzeit_file ]
		 [ -C city ]
		 [ -l latitude -L longitude ]
		 [ -z timezone ]
		 [[ month [ day	] year ]
       hebcal help
       hebcal info
       hebcal cities
       hebcal copying
       hebcal warranty

DESCRIPTION
       With  no	arguments, hebcal will print to	stdout the dates of the	Jewish
       holidays	in the current secular year.  Each line	 is  prefixed  with  a
       Gregorian date of the form mm/dd/yyyy.

       By  specifying month, day, or year, output can be limited to a particu-
       lar month or date in a particular year.	Note that year	is  usually  a
       four-digit  integer,  so	 92  is	 during	the Roman period, not the late
       twentieth century.  If the Hebrew dates option is turned	on, this  num-
       ber represents the Jewish calendar year.	 month is a number from	1..12,
       or the name of a	Jewish calendar	month.	day is a number	from 1..31.

       For example, the	command

	    hebcal 10 1992

       will print out the holidays occurring in	October	of  1992  C.E.,	 while
       the command

	    hebcal Tish	5752

       will print dates	of interest in the month of Tishrei in Jewish calendar
       year 5752.

       Note: hebcal 92 is not the same as hebcal 1992.	The year is assumed to
       be  complete,  so  the  former calendar preceeds	the latter by nineteen
       centuries.

       A few other bells and whistles include the weekly sedra as well as  the
       day of the week,	the count of the omer, and the Hebrew date.

       Output  from  hebcal  can be used to drive calendar(1).	Day-to-day use
       for hebcal is provided for in the -T and	-t switches, which  print  out
       Jewish calendar entries for the current date.

       To get a	quick-reference	online help, type

	    hebcal help

       at the command prompt.

OPTIONS
       -8     Use 8-bit	Hebrew (ISO-8859-8-Logical).

       -a     Use Ashkenazi Hebrew.

       -b mins
	      Set candle-lighting to occur mins	minutes	before sundown

       -c     Add approximate candle-lighting times.  See below.

       -C city
	      Set  latitude,  longitude, and timezone according	to city.  This
	      option implies the -c option.

       -d     Print the	Hebrew date for	the entire date	range.

       -D     Print the	Hebrew date for	dates with some	events

       -e     Change the output	format to European-style dates:	dd.mm.yyyy

       -E     Output 24-hour times (e.g., 18:37	instead	of 6:37)

       -F     Output the Daf Yomi for the entire date range

       -h     Suppress holidays	in output.  User-defined calendar  events  are
	      unaffected by this switch.

       -H     When  the	 -H switch is used, all	dates specified	on the command
	      line are assumed to be Hebrew dates.  So for instance,

		   example% hebcal -H 5754

	      will print data for 5754,	starting in  Tishrei,  and  ending  in
	      Elul.  Hebcal is smart enough to detect a	Hebrew month and infer
	      that you want a Hebrew date range, so you	could type

		   example% hebcal tish	5754

	      The -H switch would be superfluous in this case.	Invoking  heb-
	      cal  with	 just  the -H switch by	itself will print data for the
	      current Hebrew year, starting in Tishrei.

       -i     Use the Israeli sedra scheme when	used in	conjunction with -S or
	      -s.  This	has no effect if the -S	or -s switches are unused.

       -I file
	      Read  extra  events from file.  These events are printed regard-
	      less of the -h suppress holidays switch.

	      There is one holiday per line in file, each with the format

		   month day description

	      where month is a string identifying the Jewish month in question
	      day  is a	number from 1 to 30, and description is	a newline-ter-
	      minated string describing	the holiday.  An example might be

		   Adar	1 Start	cleaning kitchen for Passover.
		   Adar	1 Start	cleaning kitchen for Passover.

       -l deg,min
	      Set the latitude for solar calculations to deg degrees  and  min
	      minutes.	Negative values	are south.

       -L deg,min
	      Set  the longitude for solar calculations	to deg degrees and min
	      minutes.	Note: Negative values are east.

       --lang lang
	      Display calendar in the lang language, which must	 be  specified
	      as one of	the ISO	639-1 codes of "he", "ru", or "pl"

       -m mins
	      Set havdalah to occur mins minutes after sundown

       -M     Print the	molad on shabbat mevorchim

       -o     Add the count of the omer	to the output.

       -r     Use  a  tab-delineated format, and somewhat terser strings.  In-
	      stead of saying "	13th day of the	omer " hebcal will say " Omer:
	      13 "

       -s     Add the weekly sedra to the output on Saturdays.	See -i.

       -S     Add  the weekly sedra to the output every	day.  When this	option
	      is invoked, every	time a day is printed, the torah  reading  for
	      the  Saturday  on	or immediately following that date is printed.
	      If there is no reading for the next Saturday,  then  nothing  is
	      printed.	See -i.

       -t     Print calendar information for today's date only.	 -d and	-o are
	      asserted with this option.

       -T     Same as -t, only without the Gregorian  date.   This  option  is
	      useful  in  login	scripts, just to see what's happening today in
	      the Jewish calendar.

       -w     Add the day of the week to the output.

       -W     Weekly view.  Omer, dafyomi, and non-date-specific  zemanim  are
	      shown once a week, on the	day which corresponds to the first day
	      in the range.

       -x     Suppress Rosh Chodesh

       -y     Print only the last two digits of	the year.

       --years	n
	      Generate events for n years (default 1)

       -Y file
	      Read a table of yahrtzeit	dates from  file.   These  events  are
	      printed regardless of the	-h suppress holidays switch.

	      There is one death-date per line in file,	each with the format

		   month day year description

	      where  month,  day  and  year form the  Gregorian	date of	death.
	      description is a newline-terminated string to be printed on  the
	      yahrtzeit.  An example might be

		   12 29 1957 Menachem Mendel's	yahrtzeit.
		   5 15	1930 Benjamin's	yahrtzeit.

       -z timezone
	      Use the specified	timezone, overriding the -C (localize to city)
	      switch

       -Z     (Experimental) Add zemanim (Alot	HaShachar;  Misheyakir;	 Kriat
	      Shema,  sof  zeman;  Tefilah,  sof  zeman; Chatzot hayom;	Mincha
	      Gedolah; Mincha Ketanah; Plag HaMincha; Tzait HaKochavim)

       --help Show help	text

       --version
	      Show version number

CANDLE-LIGHTING	TIMES
       Hebcal's	candlelighting times are only  approximations.	 If  you  ever
       have any	doubts about its times,	consult	your local halachic authority.
       If you enter geographic coordinates above the artic circle or below the
       antarctic circle, the times are guaranteed to be	wrong.

       Hebcal  contains	 a small database of cities with their associated geo-
       graphic information and time-zone information.  The geographic and time
       information necessary to	calculate sundown times	can come to hebcal any
       of three	ways:

       1)     The default: the system manager sets a  default  city  when  the
	      program is compiled.

       2)     Hebcal  looks  in	 the  environment variable HEBCAL_CITY for the
	      name of a	city in	hebcal's database, and if it finds one,	hebcal
	      will make	that the new default city.

       3)     1	 and  2	may be overridden by command line arguments, including
	      those specified in the HEBCAL_OPTS  environment  variable.   The
	      most natural way to do this is to	use the	-c city	command.  This
	      will localize hebcal to city.  A list of the cities hebcal knows
	      about can	be obtained by typing

		   hebcal cities

	      at the command prompt.  If the city you want isn't on that list,
	      you can directly control hebcal's	 geographic  information  with
	      the -l, -L -z switches.  Note that changing the geographic coor-
	      dinates causes the timezone to default to	UTC.

       For a status report on customizations, type type

	    hebcal info

       at the command prompt.

EXAMPLES
       To find the days	of the omer in 1997, printing the days of the week:

	      example% hebcal -how 1997
	      4/23/97 Wed, 1st day of the Omer
	      4/24/97 Thu, 2nd day of the Omer
	      4/25/97 Fri, 3rd day of the Omer
	       .
	       .
	       .
	      6/9/97 Mon, 48th day of the Omer
	      6/10/97 Tue, 49th	day of the Omer

       To print	only the weekly	sedrot of Nisan	5770

	      example% hebcal -hs Nisan	5770
	      3/20/2010	Parashat Vayikra
	      3/27/2010	Parashat Tzav
	      4/10/2010	Parashat Shmini

       To find out what's happening in the Jewish calendar today, use

	      example% hebcal -TS
	      19 of Nisan, 5752
	      Parshat Achrei Mot
	      Pesach V (CH"M)
	      4th day of the Omer

ENVIRONMENT
       Hebcal uses two environment variables:

       HEBCAL_CITY
	      Hebcal uses this value as	the default city for  sunset  calcula-
	      tions.  A	list of	available cities is available with from	hebcal
	      with the command:

		   hebcal cities

       HEBCAL_OPTS
	      The value	of this	variable is automatically processed as	if  it
	      were  typed at the command line before any other actual command-
	      line arguments.

AUTHORS
       Danny Sadinoff
       Michael J. Radwin

SEE ALSO
       calendar(1), emacs(1), hcal(1), hdate(1), omer(1), remind(1), rise(1)

       The   latest   version	of   the   code	  will	 be   available	  from
       https://github.com/hebcal/hebcal

       The  original motivation	for the	algorithms in this program was the Tur
       Shulchan	Aruch.

       For version 3, much of the program was rewritten	using Emacs 19's  cal-
       endar routines by Edward	M. Reingold and	Nachum Dershowitz.  Their pro-
       gram is extremely clear and provides many instructive examples of  fine
       calendar	code in	emacs LISP.

       A  well	written	treatment of the Jewish	calendar for the layman	can be
       found in	Understanding the Jewish Calendar by Rabbi Nathan Bushwick.  A
       more  complete bibliography on the topic	can be found there, as well as
       in the Encyclopedia Judaica entry on the	calendar.

DIAGNOSTICS
       hebcal help
	      Prints a shorter version of this manpage,	with comments on  each
	      option.

       hebcal info
	      Prints the version number	and default values of the program.

       hebcal cities
	      Prints  a	 list  of cities which hebcal knows about, suitable as
	      arguments	to the -C city option.	If your	city does  not	appear
	      on this list, put	the necessary defaults in the HEBCAL_OPTS  en-
	      vironment	variable.

       hebcal copying
	      Prints the GNU license, with information about copying the  pro-
	      gram.  See below.

       hebcal warranty
	      Tells you	how there's NO WARRANTY	for hebcal.

DISCLAIMER
       This  is	just a program I wrote during summer school and	while avoiding
       my senior project.  It should not be invested with any sort of halachic
       authority.

BUGS
       Hebrew  dates  are  only	valid before sundown on	that secular date.  An
       option to control this will be added in a later release.

       Negative	longitudes are east of Greenwich.

       Some combinations of options produce weird results, e.g.	,

	    hebcal -dH nisan 5744
	    hebcal -dH 5744

       This comes into play when you use the HEBCAL_OPTS environment variable.

       The sunup/sundown routines aren't accurate enough.  If you  enter  geo-
       graphic	coordinates above the artic circle or below the	antarctic cir-
       cle, the	times are guaranteed to	be wrong.

       Hebcal only translates between the Gregorian calendar  and  the	Jewish
       calendar.  This	means that the results will be at least	partly useless
       where and when the Gregorian calendar was not used, e.g.	before 1752 in
       Britain	and  before circa 1918 in Russia.  See the Wikipedia entry for
       "Daylight  saving  time"	 for  a	 splendid  chart  depicting  when  the
       changeover from the Julian to the Gregorian calendars occurred in vari-
       ous places.

       Hebcal cannot handle date computations before 2 C.E.  Sorry.

BUG REPORTS TO
       Danny Sadinoff
       danny@sadinoff.com

COPYING
       Copyright (C) 1994-2006 Danny Sadinoff
       Portions	Copyright (C) 2010 Michael J. Radwin. All Rights Reserved.

       Permission is granted to	make and distribute verbatim  copies  of  this
       manual  provided	 the  copyright	 notice	and this permission notice are
       preserved on all	copies.

       Permission is granted to	copy and distribute modified versions of  this
       manual under the	conditions for verbatim	copying, provided that the en-
       tire resulting derived work is distributed under	the terms of a permis-
       sion notice identical to	this one.

       Permission  is granted to copy and distribute translations of this man-
       ual into	another	language, under	the above conditions for modified ver-
       sions,  except  that this permission notice may be included in transla-
       tions approved by the Free Software Foundation instead of in the	origi-
       nal English.

       For a full text of the copyright	and lack of warranty information, type

	    hebcal copying

       or

	    hebcal warranty

       at the command line.

Danny Sadinoff		      Hebcal Version 4.13		     HEBCAL(1)

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | OPTIONS | CANDLE-LIGHTING TIMES | EXAMPLES | ENVIRONMENT | AUTHORS | SEE ALSO | DIAGNOSTICS | DISCLAIMER | BUGS | BUG REPORTS TO | COPYING

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