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HASTD(8)                FreeBSD System Manager's Manual               HASTD(8)

     hastd - Highly Available Storage daemon

     hastd [-dFh] [-c config] [-P pidfile]

     The hastd daemon is responsible for managing highly available GEOM

     hastd allows to transparently store data on two physically separated
     machines connected over the TCP/IP network.  Only one machine (cluster
     node) can actively use storage provided by hastd.  This machine is called
     primary.  The hastd daemon operates on block level, which makes it
     transparent to file systems and applications.

     There is one main hastd daemon which starts new worker process as soon as
     a role for the given resource is changed to primary or as soon as a role
     for the given resource is changed to secondary and remote (primary) node
     will successfully connect to it.  Every worker process gets a new process
     title (see setproctitle(3)), which describes its role and resource it
     controls.  The exact format is:

           hastd: <resource name> (<role>)

     If (and only if) hastd operates in primary role for the given resource, a
     corresponding /dev/hast/_name_ disk-like device (GEOM provider) is
     created.  File systems and applications can use this provider to send I/O
     requests to.  Every write, delete and flush operation (BIO_WRITE,
     BIO_DELETE, BIO_FLUSH) is sent to the local component and replicated on
     the remote (secondary) node if it is available.  Read operations
     (BIO_READ) are handled locally unless an I/O error occurs or the local
     version of the data is not up-to-date yet (synchronization is in

     The hastd daemon uses the GEOM Gate class to receive I/O requests from
     the in-kernel GEOM infrastructure.  The geom_gate.ko module is loaded
     automatically if the kernel was not compiled with the following option:

           options GEOM_GATE

     The connection between two hastd daemons is always initiated from the one
     running as primary to the one running as secondary.  When the primary
     hastd is unable to connect or the connection fails, it will try to re-
     establish the connection every few seconds.  Once the connection is
     established, the primary hastd will synchronize every extent that was
     modified during connection outage to the secondary hastd.

     It is possible that in the case of a connection outage between the nodes
     the hastd primary role for the given resource will be configured on both
     nodes.  This in turn leads to incompatible data modifications.  Such a
     condition is called a split-brain and cannot be automatically resolved by
     the hastd daemon as this will lead most likely to data corruption or loss
     of important changes.  Even though it cannot be fixed by hastd itself, it
     will be detected and a further connection between independently modified
     nodes will not be possible.  Once this situation is manually resolved by
     an administrator, the resource on one of the nodes can be initialized
     (erasing local data), which makes a connection to the remote node
     possible again.  Connection of the freshly initialized component will
     trigger full resource synchronization.

     A hastd daemon never picks its role automatically.  The role has to be
     configured with the hastctl(8) control utility by additional software
     like ucarp or heartbeat that can reliably manage role separation and
     switch secondary node to primary role in case of the primary's failure.

     The hastd daemon can be started with the following command line

     -c config         Specify alternative location of the configuration file.
                       The default location is /etc/hast.conf.

     -d                Print or log debugging information.  This option can be
                       specified multiple times to raise the verbosity level.

     -F                Start the hastd daemon in the foreground.  By default
                       hastd starts in the background.

     -h                Print the hastd usage message.

     -P pidfile        Specify alternative location of a file where main
                       process PID will be stored.  The default location is

     /etc/hast.conf          The configuration file for hastd and hastctl(8).
     /var/run/hastctl        Control socket used by the hastctl(8) control
                             utility to communicate with hastd.
     /var/run/      The default location of the hastd PID file.

     Exit status is 0 on success, or one of the values described in
     sysexits(3) on failure.

     Launch hastd on both nodes.  Set role for resource shared to primary on
     nodeA and to secondary on nodeB.  Create file system on /dev/hast/shared
     provider and mount it.

           nodeB# hastd
           nodeB# hastctl role secondary shared

           nodeA# hastd
           nodeA# hastctl role primary shared
           nodeA# newfs -U /dev/hast/shared
           nodeA# mount -o noatime /dev/hast/shared /shared

     sysexits(3), geom(4), hast.conf(5), ggatec(8), ggated(8), ggatel(8),
     hastctl(8), mount(8), newfs(8), g_bio(9)

     The hastd was developed by Pawel Jakub Dawidek <> under
     sponsorship of the FreeBSD Foundation.

FreeBSD 11.0-PRERELEASE        February 1, 2010        FreeBSD 11.0-PRERELEASE


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