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GZIP(1)			    General Commands Manual		       GZIP(1)

NAME
       gzip, gunzip, zcat - compress or	expand files

SYNOPSIS
       gzip [ -acdfhklLnNrtvV19	] [--rsyncable]	[-S suffix] [ name ...	]
       gunzip [	-acfhklLnNrtvV ] [-S suffix] [ name ...	 ]
       zcat [ -fhLV ] [	name ...  ]

DESCRIPTION
       Gzip  reduces  the  size	 of  the  named	 files using Lempel-Ziv	coding
       (LZ77).	Whenever possible, each	file is	replaced by one	with  the  ex-
       tension .gz, while keeping the same ownership modes, access and modifi-
       cation times.  (The default extension is	-gz for	VMS, z for MSDOS, OS/2
       FAT,  Windows  NT  FAT  and Atari.)  If no files	are specified, or if a
       file name is "-", the standard input is compressed to the standard out-
       put.  Gzip will only attempt to compress	regular	files.	In particular,
       it will ignore symbolic links.

       If the compressed file name is too long for its file system, gzip trun-
       cates  it.   Gzip  attempts to truncate only the	parts of the file name
       longer than 3 characters.  (A part is delimited by dots.) If  the  name
       consists	 of small parts	only, the longest parts	are truncated. For ex-
       ample, if file names are	limited	to 14  characters,  gzip.msdos.exe  is
       compressed to gzi.msd.exe.gz.  Names are	not truncated on systems which
       do not have a limit on file name	length.

       By default, gzip	keeps the original file	name and timestamp in the com-
       pressed	file.  These  are used when decompressing the file with	the -N
       option. This is useful when the compressed file name was	 truncated  or
       when the	time stamp was not preserved after a file transfer.

       Compressed  files  can be restored to their original form using gzip -d
       or gunzip or zcat.  If the original name	saved in the  compressed  file
       is not suitable for its file system, a new name is constructed from the
       original	one to make it legal.

       gunzip takes a list of files on its command line	and replaces each file
       whose  name ends	with .gz, -gz, .z, -z, or _z (ignoring case) and which
       begins with the correct magic number with an uncompressed file  without
       the  original extension.	 gunzip	also recognizes	the special extensions
       .tgz and	.taz as	shorthands for .tar.gz and .tar.Z respectively.	  When
       compressing, gzip uses the .tgz extension if necessary instead of trun-
       cating a	file with a .tar extension.

       gunzip can currently decompress files created by	gzip,  zip,  compress,
       compress	 -H  or	pack.  The detection of	the input format is automatic.
       When using the first two	formats, gunzip	checks a 32 bit	CRC. For  pack
       and gunzip checks the uncompressed length. The standard compress	format
       was not designed	to allow consistency checks. However gunzip  is	 some-
       times  able  to	detect	a bad .Z file. If you get an error when	uncom-
       pressing	a .Z file, do not assume that the .Z file  is  correct	simply
       because the standard uncompress does not	complain. This generally means
       that the	standard uncompress does not check its input, and happily gen-
       erates  garbage	output.	  The  SCO compress -H format (lzh compression
       method) does not	include	a CRC but also allows some consistency checks.

       Files created by	zip can	be uncompressed	by gzip	only if	 they  have  a
       single  member  compressed with the 'deflation' method. This feature is
       only intended to	help conversion	of tar.zip files to the	tar.gz format.
       To  extract  a zip file with a single member, use a command like	gunzip
       _foo.zip	or gunzip -S .zip foo.zip.  To extract zip files with  several
       members,	use unzip instead of gunzip.

       zcat  is	 identical  to	gunzip	-c.  (On some systems, zcat may	be in-
       stalled as gzcat	to preserve the	original link to compress.)  zcat  un-
       compresses  either  a list of files on the command line or its standard
       input and writes	the uncompressed data on standard output.   zcat  will
       uncompress files	that have the correct magic number whether they	have a
       .gz suffix or not.

       Gzip uses the Lempel-Ziv	algorithm used in zip and PKZIP.   The	amount
       of  compression	obtained depends on the	size of	the input and the dis-
       tribution of common substrings.	Typically, text	such as	source code or
       English	is  reduced  by	 60-70%.  Compression is generally much	better
       than that achieved by LZW (as used in  compress),  Huffman  coding  (as
       used in pack), or adaptive Huffman coding (compact).

       Compression  is	always	performed,  even  if  the  compressed  file is
       slightly	larger than the	original. The worst case expansion  is	a  few
       bytes for the gzip file header, plus 5 bytes every 32K block, or	an ex-
       pansion ratio of	0.015% for large files.	Note that the actual number of
       used disk blocks	almost never increases.	 gzip preserves	the mode, own-
       ership and timestamps of	files when compressing or decompressing.

OPTIONS
       -a --ascii
	      Ascii text mode: convert end-of-lines using  local  conventions.
	      This  option is supported	only on	some non-Unix systems. For MS-
	      DOS, CR LF is converted to LF when compressing, and LF  is  con-
	      verted to	CR LF when decompressing.

       -c --stdout --to-stdout
	      Write  output on standard	output;	keep original files unchanged.
	      If there are several input files,	the output consists of	a  se-
	      quence  of  independently	 compressed  members. To obtain	better
	      compression, concatenate	all  input  files  before  compressing
	      them.

       -d --decompress --uncompress
	      Decompress.

       -f --force
	      Force compression	or decompression even if the file has multiple
	      links or the corresponding file already exists, or if  the  com-
	      pressed data is read from	or written to a	terminal. If the input
	      data is not in a format recognized by gzip, and  if  the	option
	      --stdout	is  also  given, copy the input	data without change to
	      the standard output: let zcat behave  as	cat.   If  -f  is  not
	      given,  and  when	not running in the background, gzip prompts to
	      verify whether an	existing file should be	overwritten.

       -h --help
	      Display a	help screen and	quit.

       -k --keep
	      Keep (don't delete) input	files during compression or decompres-
	      sion.

       -l --list
	      For each compressed file,	list the following fields:

		  compressed size: size	of the compressed file
		  uncompressed size: size of the uncompressed file
		  ratio: compression ratio (0.0% if unknown)
		  uncompressed_name: name of the uncompressed file

	      The  uncompressed	size is	given as -1 for	files not in gzip for-
	      mat, such	as compressed .Z files.	To get the  uncompressed  size
	      for such a file, you can use:

		  zcat file.Z |	wc -c

	      In  combination  with the	--verbose option, the following	fields
	      are also displayed:

		  method: compression method
		  crc: the 32-bit CRC of the uncompressed data
		  date & time: time stamp for the uncompressed file

	      The compression methods currently	supported  are	deflate,  com-
	      press,  lzh  (SCO	 compress  -H)	and pack.  The crc is given as
	      ffffffff for a file not in gzip format.

	      With --name, the uncompressed name,  date	and  time   are	 those
	      stored within the	compress file if present.

	      With  --verbose,	the  size totals and compression ratio for all
	      files is also displayed, unless some  sizes  are	unknown.  With
	      --quiet, the title and totals lines are not displayed.

       -L --license
	      Display the gzip license and quit.

       -n --no-name
	      When  compressing,  do  not save the original file name and time
	      stamp by default.	(The original name is always saved if the name
	      had  to  be  truncated.)	When decompressing, do not restore the
	      original file name if present (remove only the gzip suffix  from
	      the  compressed  file name) and do not restore the original time
	      stamp if present (copy it	from the compressed file). This	option
	      is the default when decompressing.

       -N --name
	      When  compressing,  always  save the original file name and time
	      stamp; this is the  default.  When  decompressing,  restore  the
	      original	file  name  and	 time stamp if present.	This option is
	      useful on	systems	which have a limit on file name	length or when
	      the time stamp has been lost after a file	transfer.

       -q --quiet
	      Suppress all warnings.

       -r --recursive
	      Travel  the  directory structure recursively. If any of the file
	      names specified on the command line are directories,  gzip  will
	      descend  into  the directory and compress	all the	files it finds
	      there (or	decompress them	in the case of gunzip ).

       --rsyncable
	      While compressing, synchronize the output	occasionally based  on
	      the  input.   This  increases  size  by less than	1 percent most
	      cases, but means that the	rsync(1) program can take advantage of
	      similarities  in	the  uncompressed input	when synchronizing two
	      files compressed with this flag.	gunzip cannot tell the differ-
	      ence between a compressed	file created with this option, and one
	      created without it.

       -S .suf --suffix	.suf
	      When compressing,	use suffix .suf	instead	of .gz.	 Any non-empty
	      suffix  can  be given, but suffixes other	than .z	and .gz	should
	      be avoided to avoid confusion  when  files  are  transferred  to
	      other systems.

	      When  decompressing,  add	 .suf  to the beginning	of the list of
	      suffixes to try, when deriving an	output file name from an input
	      file name.

       -t --test
	      Test. Check the compressed file integrity.

       -v --verbose
	      Verbose. Display the name	and percentage reduction for each file
	      compressed or decompressed.

       -V --version
	      Version. Display the version number and compilation options then
	      quit.

       -# --fast --best
	      Regulate	the  speed of compression using	the specified digit #,
	      where -1 or --fast  indicates  the  fastest  compression	method
	      (less  compression)  and -9 or --best indicates the slowest com-
	      pression method (best  compression).   The  default  compression
	      level is -6 (that	is, biased towards high	compression at expense
	      of speed).

ADVANCED USAGE
       Multiple	compressed files can be	concatenated.  In  this	 case,	gunzip
       will extract all	members	at once. For example:

	     gzip -c file1  > foo.gz
	     gzip -c file2 >> foo.gz

       Then

	     gunzip -c foo

       is equivalent to

	     cat file1 file2

       In  case	of damage to one member	of a .gz file, other members can still
       be recovered (if	the damaged member is removed).	However, you  can  get
       better compression by compressing all members at	once:

	     cat file1 file2 | gzip > foo.gz

       compresses better than

	     gzip -c file1 file2 > foo.gz

       If you want to recompress concatenated files to get better compression,
       do:

	     gzip -cd old.gz | gzip > new.gz

       If a compressed file consists of	several	members, the uncompressed size
       and  CRC	reported by the	--list option applies to the last member only.
       If you need the uncompressed size for all members, you can use:

	     gzip -cd file.gz |	wc -c

       If you wish to create a single archive file with	 multiple  members  so
       that members can	later be extracted independently, use an archiver such
       as tar or zip. GNU tar supports the -z option to	invoke gzip  transpar-
       ently. gzip is designed as a complement to tar, not as a	replacement.

ENVIRONMENT
       The  environment	 variable  GZIP	 can hold a set	of default options for
       gzip.  These options are	interpreted first and can  be  overwritten  by
       explicit	command	line parameters. For example:
	     for sh:	GZIP="-8v --name"; export GZIP
	     for csh:	setenv GZIP "-8v --name"
	     for MSDOS:	set GZIP=-8v --name

       On  Vax/VMS, the	name of	the environment	variable is GZIP_OPT, to avoid
       a conflict with the symbol set for invocation of	the program.

SEE ALSO
       znew(1),	zcmp(1), zmore(1), zforce(1), gzexe(1),	zip(1),	unzip(1), com-
       press(1)

       The gzip	file format is specified in P. Deutsch,	GZIP file format spec-
       ification version 4.3, <http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc1952.txt>,  Internet
       RFC  1952  (May	1996).	 The  zip  deflation format is specified in P.
       Deutsch,	DEFLATE	Compressed  Data  Format  Specification	 version  1.3,
       <http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc1951.txt>, Internet RFC 1951	(May 1996).

DIAGNOSTICS
       Exit  status  is	normally 0; if an error	occurs,	exit status is 1. If a
       warning occurs, exit status is 2.

       Usage: gzip [-cdfhklLnNrtvV19] [-S suffix] [file	...]
	      Invalid options were specified on	the command line.

       file: not in gzip format
	      The file specified to gunzip has not been	compressed.

       file: Corrupt input. Use	zcat to	recover	some data.
	      The compressed file has been damaged. The	data up	to  the	 point
	      of failure can be	recovered using

		    zcat file >	recover

       file: compressed	with xx	bits, can only handle yy bits
	      File  was	 compressed  (using  LZW) by a program that could deal
	      with more	bits than the decompress code on this machine.	Recom-
	      press  the file with gzip, which compresses better and uses less
	      memory.

       file: already has .gz suffix -- no change
	      The file is assumed to be	already	compressed.  Rename  the  file
	      and try again.

       file already exists; do you wish	to overwrite (y	or n)?
	      Respond  "y"  if you want	the output file	to be replaced;	"n" if
	      not.

       gunzip: corrupt input
	      A	SIGSEGV	violation was detected which usually  means  that  the
	      input file has been corrupted.

       xx.x% Percentage	of the input saved by compression.
	      (Relevant	only for -v and	-l.)

       -- not a	regular	file or	directory: ignored
	      When  the	input file is not a regular file or directory, (e.g. a
	      symbolic link, socket, FIFO, device file), it is left unaltered.

       -- has xx other links: unchanged
	      The input	file has links;	it is left unchanged.  See  ln(1)  for
	      more information.	Use the	-f flag	to force compression of	multi-
	      ply-linked files.

CAVEATS
       When writing compressed data to a tape, it is  generally	 necessary  to
       pad  the	 output	 with  zeroes up to a block boundary. When the data is
       read and	the whole block	is passed to gunzip for	decompression,	gunzip
       detects	that there is extra trailing garbage after the compressed data
       and emits a warning by default. You have	to use the --quiet  option  to
       suppress	 the  warning.	This option can	be set in the GZIP environment
       variable	as in:
	 for sh:  GZIP="-q"  tar -xfz --block-compress /dev/rst0
	 for csh: (setenv GZIP -q; tar -xfz --block-compr /dev/rst0

       In the above example, gzip is invoked implicitly	by the	-z  option  of
       GNU  tar. Make sure that	the same block size (-b	option of tar) is used
       for reading and writing compressed data on tapes.   (This  example  as-
       sumes you are using the GNU version of tar.)

BUGS
       The  gzip  format  represents the input size modulo 2^32, so the	--list
       option reports incorrect	uncompressed sizes and compression ratios  for
       uncompressed  files  4 GB and larger.  To work around this problem, you
       can use the following command to	discover a large  uncompressed	file's
       true size:

	     zcat file.gz | wc -c

       The  --list  option reports sizes as -1 and crc as ffffffff if the com-
       pressed file is on a non	seekable media.

       In some rare cases, the --best option gives worse compression than  the
       default	compression  level  (-6). On some highly redundant files, com-
       press compresses	better than gzip.

COPYRIGHT NOTICE
       Copyright (C) 1998, 1999, 2001, 2002, 2012  Free	 Software  Foundation,
       Inc.
       Copyright (C) 1992, 1993	Jean-loup Gailly

       Permission  is  granted	to make	and distribute verbatim	copies of this
       manual provided the copyright notice and	 this  permission  notice  are
       preserved on all	copies.

       Permission  is granted to copy and distribute modified versions of this
       manual under the	conditions for verbatim	copying, provided that the en-
       tire resulting derived work is distributed under	the terms of a permis-
       sion notice identical to	this one.

       Permission is granted to	copy and distribute translations of this  man-
       ual into	another	language, under	the above conditions for modified ver-
       sions, except that this permission notice may be	stated in  a  transla-
       tion approved by	the Foundation.

				     local			       GZIP(1)

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | OPTIONS | ADVANCED USAGE | ENVIRONMENT | SEE ALSO | DIAGNOSTICS | CAVEATS | BUGS | COPYRIGHT NOTICE

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