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TAR(1)				GNU TAR	Manual				TAR(1)

       tar - an	archiving utility

   Traditional usage
       tar {A|c|d|r|t|u|x}[GnSkUWOmpsMBiajJzZhPlRvwo] [ARG...]

   UNIX-style usage

       tar -c [-f ARCHIVE] [OPTIONS] [FILE...]

       tar -d [-f ARCHIVE] [OPTIONS] [FILE...]

       tar -t [-f ARCHIVE] [OPTIONS] [MEMBER...]

       tar -r [-f ARCHIVE] [OPTIONS] [FILE...]

       tar -u [-f ARCHIVE] [OPTIONS] [FILE...]

       tar -x [-f ARCHIVE] [OPTIONS] [MEMBER...]

   GNU-style usage
       tar {--catenate|--concatenate} [OPTIONS]	ARCHIVE	ARCHIVE

       tar --create [--file ARCHIVE] [OPTIONS] [FILE...]

       tar {--diff|--compare} [--file ARCHIVE] [OPTIONS] [FILE...]

       tar --delete [--file ARCHIVE] [OPTIONS] [MEMBER...]

       tar --append [-f	ARCHIVE] [OPTIONS] [FILE...]

       tar --list [-f ARCHIVE] [OPTIONS] [MEMBER...]

       tar --test-label	[--file	ARCHIVE] [OPTIONS] [LABEL...]

       tar --update [--file ARCHIVE] [OPTIONS] [FILE...]

       tar --update [-f	ARCHIVE] [OPTIONS] [FILE...]

       tar {--extract|--get} [-f ARCHIVE] [OPTIONS] [MEMBER...]

       This manpage is a short description of GNU tar.	For a detailed discus-
       sion, including examples	and usage recommendations, refer  to  the  GNU
       Tar Manual available in texinfo format.	If the info reader and the tar
       documentation are properly installed on your system, the	command

	   info	tar

       should give you access to the complete manual.

       You can also view the manual using the info mode	in emacs(1),  or  find
       it in various formats online at

       If any discrepancies occur between this manpage and the GNU Tar Manual,
       the later shall be considered the authoritative source.

       GNU tar is an archiving program designed	to store multiple files	 in  a
       single file (an archive), and to	manipulate such	archives.  The archive
       can be either a regular file or a device	(e.g. a	tape drive, hence  the
       name  of	 the  program,	which  stands for tape archiver), which	can be
       located either on the local or on a remote machine.

   Option styles
       Options to GNU tar can be given in three	different styles.   In	tradi-
       tional style, the first argument	is a cluster of	option letters and all
       subsequent arguments supply arguments to	 those	options	 that  require
       them.   The arguments are read in the same order	as the option letters.
       Any command line	words that remain after	all options has	been processed
       are treated as non-optional arguments: file or archive member names.

       For  example,  the c option requires creating the archive, the v	option
       requests	the verbose operation, and the f option	takes an argument that
       sets  the  name of the archive to operate upon.	The following command,
       written in the traditional style, instructs tar to store	all files from
       the  directory /etc into	the archive file etc.tar verbosely listing the
       files being archived:

       tar cfv a.tar /etc

       In UNIX or short-option style, each option letter is  prefixed  with  a
       single  dash,  as  in other command line	utilities.  If an option takes
       argument, the argument follows it, either as a  separate	 command  line
       word,  or  immediately  following  the  option.	However, if the	option
       takes an	optional argument, the argument	must follow the	option	letter
       without any intervening whitespace, as in -g/tmp/snar.db.

       Any  number  of	options	not taking arguments can be clustered together
       after a single dash, e.g. -vkp.	Options	that take  arguments  (whether
       mandatory  or  optional), can appear at the end of such a cluster, e.g.
       -vkpf a.tar.

       The example command above written in the	short-option style could  look

       tar -cvf	a.tar /etc
       tar -c -v -f a.tar /etc

       In GNU or long-option style, each option	begins with two	dashes and has
       a meaningful name, consisting of	lower-case letters and	dashes.	  When
       used,  the  long	option can be abbreviated to its initial letters, pro-
       vided that this does not	create ambiguity.  Arguments to	 long  options
       are  supplied  either as	a separate command line	word, immediately fol-
       lowing the option, or separated from the	option by an equals sign  with
       no intervening whitespace.  Optional arguments must always use the lat-
       ter method.

       Here are	several	ways of	writing	the example command in this style:

       tar --create --file a.tar --verbose /etc
       or (abbreviating	some options):
       tar --cre --file=a.tar --verb /etc

       The options in all three	styles can be intermixed,  although  doing  so
       with old	options	is not encouraged.

   Operation mode
       The options listed in the table below tell GNU tar what operation it is
       to perform.  Exactly one	of  them  must	be  given.   Meaning  of  non-
       optional	arguments depends on the operation mode	requested.

       -A, --catenate, --concatenate
	      Append archive to	the end	of another archive.  The arguments are
	      treated as the names of archives to append.  All	archives  must
	      be  of the same format as	the archive they are appended to, oth-
	      erwise the resulting archive  might  be  unusable	 with  non-GNU
	      implementations of tar.  Notice also that	when more than one ar-
	      chive is given, the members from archives	other than  the	 first
	      one  will	 be  accessible	in the resulting archive only if using
	      the -i (--ignore-zeros) option.

	      Compressed archives cannot be concatenated.

       -c, --create
	      Create a new archive.  Arguments supply the names	of  the	 files
	      to  be  archived.	  Directories are archived recursively,	unless
	      the --no-recursion option	is given.

       -d, --diff, --compare
	      Find differences between archive and file	system.	 The arguments
	      are  optional  and  specify  archive members to compare.	If not
	      given, the current working directory is assumed.

	      Delete from the archive.	The arguments supply names of the  ar-
	      chive  members  to  be  removed.	 At least one argument must be

	      This option does not operate on compressed archives.   There  is
	      no short option equivalent.

       -r, --append
	      Append  files to the end of an archive.  Arguments have the same
	      meaning as for -c	(--create).

       -t, --list
	      List the contents	of an archive.	Arguments are optional.	  When
	      given, they specify the names of the members to list.

	      Test the archive volume label and	exit.  When used without argu-
	      ments, it	prints the volume label	(if any) and exits with	status
	      0.  When one or more command line	arguments are given.  tar com-
	      pares the	volume label with each argument.  It exits with	code 0
	      if  a  match  is found, and with code 1 otherwise.  No output is
	      displayed, unless	used together with the -v (--verbose) option.

	      There is no short	option equivalent for this option.

       -u, --update
	      Append files which are newer than	the corresponding copy in  the
	      archive.	 Arguments  have  the  same  meaning as	with -c	and -r

       -x, --extract, --get
	      Extract files from an archive.  Arguments	 are  optional.	  When
	      given,   they  specify  names  of	 the  archive  members	to  be

	      Show built-in defaults for various tar  options  and  exit.   No
	      arguments	are allowed.

       -?, --help
	      Display a	short option summary and exit.	No arguments allowed.

	      Display  a  list	of  available  options and exit.  No arguments

	      Print program version and	copyright information and exit.

   Operation modifiers
	      Check  device  numbers  when   creating	incremental   archives

       -g, --listed-incremental=FILE
	      Handle  new GNU-format incremental backups.  FILE	is the name of
	      a	snapshot file, where tar stores	additional  information	 which
	      is  used to decide which files changed since the previous	incre-
	      mental dump and, consequently, must be dumped  again.   If  FILE
	      does  not	exist when creating an archive,	it will	be created and
	      all files	will be	added to the resulting archive	(the  level  0
	      dump).  To create	incremental archives of	non-zero level N, cre-
	      ate a copy of the	snapshot file created during  the  level  N-1,
	      and use it as FILE.

	      When  listing  or	extracting, the	actual contents	of FILE	is not
	      inspected, it is needed only due	to  syntactical	 requirements.
	      It is therefore common practice to use /dev/null in its place.

	      Use METHOD to detect holes in sparse files.  This	option implies
	      --sparse.	 Valid values for METHOD are seek and raw.  Default is
	      seek with	fallback to raw	when not applicable.

       -G, --incremental
	      Handle old GNU-format incremental	backups.

	      Do not exit with nonzero on unreadable files.

	      Set  dump	 level	for  created listed-incremental	archive.  Cur-
	      rently only --level=0 is meaningful: it instructs	tar  to	 trun-
	      cate the snapshot	file before dumping, thereby forcing a level 0

       -n, --seek
	      Assume the archive is seekable.  Normally	tar  determines	 auto-
	      matically	whether	the archive can	be seeked or not.  This	option
	      is intended for use in cases when	such  recognition  fails.   It
	      takes  effect only if the	archive	is open	for reading (e.g. with
	      --list or	--extract options).

	      Do not check device numbers when creating	incremental archives.

	      Assume the archive is not	seekable.

	      Process only the Nth occurrence of each  file  in	 the  archive.
	      This  option  is	valid only when	used with one of the following
	      subcommands: --delete, --diff, --extract or --list  and  when  a
	      list  of files is	given either on	the command line or via	the -T
	      option.  The default N is	1.

	      Disable the use of some potentially harmful options.

	      Set version of the sparse	 format	 to  use  (implies  --sparse).
	      This  option  implies  --sparse.	Valid argument values are 0.0,
	      0.1, and 1.0.  For a  detailed  discussion  of  sparse  formats,
	      refer  to	 the  GNU  Tar	Manual,	 appendix D, "Sparse Formats".
	      Using info reader, it can	be accessed running the	following com-
	      mand: info tar 'Sparse Formats'.

       -S, --sparse
	      Handle  sparse files efficiently.	 Some files in the file	system
	      may have segments	which were actually never written (quite often
	      these  are database files	created	by such	systems	as DBM).  When
	      given this option, tar attempts to  determine  if	 the  file  is
	      sparse prior to archiving	it, and	if so, to reduce the resulting
	      archive size by not dumping empty	parts of the file.

   Overwrite control
       These options control tar actions when extracting a file	over an	exist-
       ing copy	on disk.

       -k, --keep-old-files
	      Don't replace existing files when	extracting.

	      Don't  replace  existing files that are newer than their archive

	      Preserve metadata	of existing directories.

	      Extract all files	into DIR, or, if used without argument,	into a
	      subdirectory  named by the base name of the archive (minus stan-
	      dard compression suffixes	recognizable by	--auto-compress).

	      Overwrite	existing files when extracting.

	      Overwrite	 metadata  of  existing	 directories  when  extracting

	      Recursively  remove all files in the directory prior to extract-
	      ing it.

	      Remove files from	disk after adding them to the archive.

	      Don't replace existing files when	extracting, silently skip over

       -U, --unlink-first
	      Remove each file prior to	extracting over	it.

       -W, --verify
	      Verify the archive after writing it.

   Output stream selection

       Ignore subprocess exit codes.

	      Treat non-zero exit codes	of children as error (default).

       -O, --to-stdout
	      Extract files to standard	output.

	      Pipe  extracted  files to	COMMAND.  The argument is the pathname
	      of an external program, optionally with command line  arguments.
	      The  program  will be invoked and	the contents of	the file being
	      extracted	supplied to it on  its	standard  output.   Additional
	      data will	be supplied via	the following environment variables:

		     Type  of the file.	It is a	single letter with the follow-
		     ing meaning:

			     f		 Regular file
			     d		 Directory
			     l		 Symbolic link
			     h		 Hard link
			     b		 Block device
			     c		 Character device

		     Currently only regular files are supported.

		     File mode,	an octal number.

		     The name of the file.

		     Name of the file as stored	in the archive.

		     Name of the file owner.

		     Name of the file owner group.

		     Time of last access. It is	a decimal number, representing
		     seconds  since  the Epoch.	 If the	archive	provides times
		     with nanosecond precision,	the nanoseconds	 are  appended
		     to	the timestamp after a decimal point.

		     Time of last modification.

		     Time of last status change.

		     Size of the file.

		     UID of the	file owner.

		     GID of the	file owner.

	      Additionally,  the following variables contain information about
	      tar operation mode and the archive being processed:

		     GNU tar version number.

		     The name of the archive tar is processing.

		     Current blocking factor, i.e. number of  512-byte	blocks
		     in	a record.

		     Ordinal  number  of  the volume tar is processing (set if
		     reading a multi-volume archive).

		     Format of the archive  being  processed.	One  of:  gnu,
		     oldgnu,  posix, ustar, v7.	 TAR_SUBCOMMAND	A short	option
		     (with a leading dash) describing  the  operation  tar  is

   Handling of file attributes
	      Preserve	access	times on dumped	files, either by restoring the
	      times after reading (METHOD=replace, this	is the default)	or  by
	      not setting the times in the first place (METHOD=system)

	      Delay  setting  modification  times and permissions of extracted
	      directories until	the end	of extraction.	Use this  option  when
	      extracting from an archive which has unusual member ordering.

	      Force  NAME  as  group for added files.  If GID is not supplied,
	      NAME can be either a user	name or	numeric	GID.  In this case the
	      missing  part  (GID  or  name) will be inferred from the current
	      host's group database.

	      When used	with --group-map=FILE, affects only those files	 whose
	      owner group is not listed	in FILE.

	      Read  group translation map from FILE.  Empty lines are ignored.
	      Comments are introduced with # sign and extend  to  the  end  of
	      line.   Each  non-empty  line  in	FILE defines translation for a
	      single group.  It	must consist of	two fields, delimited  by  any
	      amount of	whitespace:


	      OLDGRP  is  either  a valid group	name or	a GID prefixed with +.
	      Unless NEWGID is supplied, NEWGRP	must also be  either  a	 valid
	      group  name  or  a +GID.	Otherwise, both	NEWGRP and NEWGID need
	      not be listed in the system group	database.

	      As a result, each	input file with	owner  group  OLDGRP  will  be
	      stored in	archive	with owner group NEWGRP	and GID	NEWGID.

	      Force symbolic mode CHANGES for added files.

	      Set  mtime  for added files.  DATE-OR-FILE is either a date/time
	      in almost	arbitrary format, or the name of an existing file.  In
	      the latter case the mtime	of that	file will be used.

       -m, --touch
	      Don't extract file modified time.

	      Cancel the effect	of the prior --delay-directory-restore option.

	      Extract files as yourself	(default for ordinary users).

	      Apply  the user's	umask when extracting permissions from the ar-
	      chive (default for ordinary users).

	      Always use numbers for user/group	names.

	      Force NAME as owner for added files.  If UID  is	not  supplied,
	      NAME can be either a user	name or	numeric	UID.  In this case the
	      missing part (UID	or name) will be  inferred  from  the  current
	      host's user database.

	      When  used with --owner-map=FILE,	affects	only those files whose
	      owner is not listed in FILE.

	      Read owner translation map from FILE.  Empty lines are  ignored.
	      Comments	are  introduced	 with  # sign and extend to the	end of
	      line.  Each non-empty line in FILE  defines  translation	for  a
	      single  UID.   It	 must  consist of two fields, delimited	by any
	      amount of	whitespace:


	      OLDUSR is	either a valid user name or a  UID  prefixed  with  +.
	      Unless  NEWUID  is  supplied, NEWUSR must	also be	either a valid
	      user name	or a +UID.  Otherwise, both NEWUSR and NEWUID need not
	      be listed	in the system user database.

	      As  a  result, each input	file owned by OLDUSR will be stored in
	      archive with owner name NEWUSR and UID NEWUID.

       -p, --preserve-permissions, --same-permissions
	      extract information about	file permissions  (default  for	 supe-

	      Same as both -p and -s.

	      Try  extracting  files  with the same ownership as exists	in the
	      archive (default for superuser).

       -s, --preserve-order, --same-order
	      Sort names to extract to match archive

	      When creating an archive,	sort directory	entries	 according  to
	      ORDER, which is one of none, name, or inode.

	      The  default is --sort=none, which stores	archive	members	in the
	      same order as returned by	the operating system.

	      Using --sort=name	ensures	the member ordering in the created ar-
	      chive is uniform and reproducible.

	      Using  --sort=inode  reduces  the	number of disk seeks made when
	      creating the archive and thus can	considerably speed up archiva-
	      tion.   This  sorting  order is supported	only if	the underlying
	      system provides the necessary information.

   Extended file attributes
       --acls Enable POSIX ACLs	support.

	      Disable POSIX ACLs support.

	      Enable SELinux context support.

	      Disable SELinux context support.

	      Enable extended attributes support.

	      Disable extended attributes support.

	      Specify the exclude pattern for xattr keys.  PATTERN is a	 POSIX
	      regular  expression,  e.g. --xattrs-exclude='^user.', to exclude
	      attributes from the user namespace.

	      Specify the include pattern for xattr keys.  PATTERN is a	 POSIX
	      regular expression.

   Device selection and	switching
       -f, --file=ARCHIVE
	      Use  archive  file  or  device  ARCHIVE.	 If this option	is not
	      given, tar will first examine the	environment  variable  `TAPE'.
	      If  it is	set, its value will be used as the archive name.  Oth-
	      erwise, tar will assume the compiled-in  default.	  The  default
	      value  can be inspected either using the --show-defaults option,
	      or at the	end of the tar --help output.

	      An archive name that has a colon	in  it	specifies  a  file  or
	      device  on a remote machine.  The	part before the	colon is taken
	      as the machine name or IP	address, and the part after it as  the
	      file or device pathname, e.g.:


	      An  optional username can	be prefixed to the hostname, placing a
	      @	sign between them.

	      By default, the remote host is accessed via the rsh(1)  command.
	      Nowadays	it  is common to use ssh(1) instead.  You can do so by
	      giving the following command line	option:


	      The remote machine should	have the rmt(8)	command	installed.  If
	      its  pathname  does  not match tar's default, you	can inform tar
	      about the	correct	pathname using the --rmt-command option.

	      Archive file is local even if it has a colon.

       -F, --info-script=COMMAND, --new-volume-script=COMMAND
	      Run COMMAND at the end of	each tape (implies -M).	  The  command
	      can  include  arguments.	 When  started,	 it will inherit tar's
	      environment plus the following variables:

		     GNU tar version number.

		     The name of the archive tar is processing.

		     Current blocking factor, i.e. number of  512-byte	blocks
		     in	a record.

		     Ordinal  number  of  the volume tar is processing (set if
		     reading a multi-volume archive).

		     Format of the archive  being  processed.	One  of:  gnu,
		     oldgnu, posix, ustar, v7.

		     A short option (with a leading dash) describing the oper-
		     ation tar is executing.

	      TAR_FD File descriptor which can be used to communicate the  new
		     volume name to tar.

	      If  the info script fails, tar exits; otherwise, it begins writ-
	      ing the next volume.

       -L, --tape-length=N
	      Change tape after	writing	Nx1024 bytes.  If N is followed	 by  a
	      size suffix (see the subsection Size suffixes below), the	suffix
	      specifies	the multiplicative factor to be	used instead of	1024.

	      This option implies -M.

       -M, --multi-volume
	      Create/list/extract multi-volume archive.

	      Use COMMAND instead of rmt when accessing	remote archives.   See
	      the description of the -f	option,	above.

	      Use  COMMAND instead of rsh when accessing remote	archives.  See
	      the description of the -f	option,	above.

	      When this	option is used in conjunction with --multi-volume, tar
	      will  keep track of which	volume of a multi-volume archive it is
	      working in FILE.

   Device blocking
       -b, --blocking-factor=BLOCKS
	      Set record size to BLOCKSx512 bytes.

       -B, --read-full-records
	      When listing or  extracting,  accept  incomplete	input  records
	      after end-of-file	marker.

       -i, --ignore-zeros
	      Ignore  zeroed  blocks  in  archive.   Normally  two consecutive
	      512-blocks filled	with zeroes mean EOF  and  tar	stops  reading
	      after  encountering them.	 This option instructs it to read fur-
	      ther and is useful when reading archives	created	 with  the  -A

	      Set  record size.	 NUMBER	is the number of bytes per record.  It
	      must be multiple of 512.	It can can be  suffixed	 with  a  size
	      suffix,  e.g. --record-size=10K, for 10 Kilobytes.  See the sub-
	      section Size suffixes, for a list	of valid suffixes.

   Archive format selection
       -H, --format=FORMAT
	      Create archive of	the given format.  Valid formats are:

	      gnu    GNU tar 1.13.x format

	      oldgnu GNU format	as per tar <= 1.12.

	      pax, posix
		     POSIX 1003.1-2001 (pax) format.

	      ustar  POSIX 1003.1-1988 (ustar) format.

	      v7     Old V7 tar	format.

       --old-archive, --portability
	      Same as --format=v7.

	      Control pax keywords when	creating PAX archives (-H pax).	  This
	      option is	equivalent to the -o option of the pax(1)utility.

	      Same as --format=posix.

       -V, --label=TEXT
	      Create archive with volume name TEXT.  If	listing	or extracting,
	      use TEXT as a globbing pattern for volume	name.

   Compression options
       -a, --auto-compress
	      Use archive suffix to determine the compression program.

       -I, --use-compress-program=COMMAND
	      Filter data through COMMAND.  It must accept the -d option,  for
	      decompression.  The argument can contain command line options.

       -j, --bzip2
	      Filter the archive through bzip2(1).

       -J, --xz
	      Filter the archive through xz(1).

       --lzip Filter the archive through lzip(1).

       --lzma Filter the archive through lzma(1).

       --lzop Filter the archive through lzop(1).

	      Do not use archive suffix	to determine the compression program.

       -z, --gzip, --gunzip, --ungzip
	      Filter the archive through gzip(1).

       -Z, --compress, --uncompress
	      Filter the archive through compress(1).

   Local file selection
	      Add FILE to the archive (useful if its name starts with a	dash).

	      Backup  before removal.  The CONTROL argument, if	supplied, con-
	      trols the	backup policy.	Its valid values are:

	      none, off
		     Never make	backups.

	      t, numbered
		     Make numbered backups.

	      nil, existing
		     Make numbered backups if numbered backups	exist,	simple
		     backups otherwise.

	      never, simple
		     Always make simple	backups

	      If  CONTROL  is  not  given,  the	 value	is taken from the VER-
	      SION_CONTROL environment variable.  If it	is not	set,  existing
	      is assumed.

       -C, --directory=DIR
	      Change  to DIR before performing any operations.	This option is
	      order-sensitive, i.e. it affects all options that	follow.

	      Exclude files matching PATTERN, a	 glob(3)-style	wildcard  pat-

	      Exclude backup and lock files.

	      Exclude  contents	 of  directories containing file CACHEDIR.TAG,
	      except for the tag file itself.

	      Exclude directories containing file CACHEDIR.TAG	and  the  file

	      Exclude everything under directories containing CACHEDIR.TAG

	      Before  dumping  a  directory,  see if it	contains FILE.	If so,
	      read exclusion patterns from this	 file.	 The  patterns	affect
	      only the directory itself.

	      Same  as --exclude-ignore, except	that patterns from FILE	affect
	      both the directory and all its subdirectories.

	      Exclude contents of directories containing FILE, except for FILE

	      Exclude directories containing FILE.

	      Exclude everything under directories containing FILE.

	      Exclude version control system directories.

	      Exclude  files that match	patterns read from VCS-specific	ignore
	      files.  Supported	files are: .cvsignore, .gitignore, .bzrignore,
	      and .hgignore.

       -h, --dereference
	      Follow symlinks; archive and dump	the files they point to.

	      Follow hard links; archive and dump the files they refer to.

       -K, --starting-file=MEMBER
	      Begin at the given member	in the archive.

	      Work on files whose data changed after the DATE.	If DATE	starts
	      with / or	. it is	taken to be a file name;  the  mtime  of  that
	      file is used as the date.

	      Disable the effect of the	previous --null	option.

	      Avoid descending automatically in	directories.

	      Do not unquote input file	or member names.

	      Treat  each line read from a file	list as	if it were supplied in
	      the command line.	 I.e.,	leading	 and  trailing	whitespace  is
	      removed  and,  if	the resulting string begins with a dash, it is
	      treated as tar command line option.

	      This is  the  default  behavior.	 The  --no-verbatim-files-from
	      option  is  provided  as	a  way	to  restore  it	after --verba-
	      tim-files-from option.

	      This option is positional: it affects all	 --files-from  options
	      that  occur  after  it in, until --verbatim-files-from option or
	      end of line, whichever occurs first.

	      It is implied by the --no-null option.

       --null Instruct subsequent -T options  to  read	null-terminated	 names
	      verbatim	(disables  special handling of names that start	with a

	      See also --verbatim-files-from.

       -N, --newer=DATE, --after-date=DATE
	      Only store files newer than DATE.	 If DATE starts	with / or . it
	      is  taken	 to  be	a file name; the ctime of that file is used as
	      the date.

	      Stay in local file system	when creating archive.

       -P, --absolute-names
	      Don't strip leading slashes from file names  when	 creating  ar-

	      Recurse into directories (default).

	      Backup before removal, override usual suffix.  Default suffix is
	      ~, unless	overridden by environment variable  SIMPLE_BACKUP_SUF-

       -T, --files-from=FILE
	      Get names	to extract or create from FILE.

	      Unless  specified	 otherwise,  the  FILE	must contain a list of
	      names separated by ASCII LF (i.e.	one name per line).  The names
	      read  are	 handled the same way as command line arguments.  They
	      undergo quote removal and	word splitting,	and  any  string  that
	      starts with a - is handled as tar	command	line option.

	      If  this behavior	is undesirable,	it can be turned off using the
	      --verbatim-files-from option.

	      The --null option	instructs tar that the names in	FILE are sepa-
	      rated  by	 ASCII	NUL character, instead of LF.  It is useful if
	      the list is generated by find(1) -print0 predicate.

	      Unquote file or member names (default).

	      Treat each line obtained from a file list	as a file  name,  even
	      if  it  starts  with  a  dash.  File lists are supplied with the
	      --files-from (-T)	option.	 The default  behavior	is  to	handle
	      names  supplied  in file lists as	if they	were typed in the com-
	      mand line, i.e. any names	starting with a	dash  are  treated  as
	      tar  options.   The  --verbatim-files-from  option disables this

	      This option affects all --files-from options that	occur after it
	      in  the command line.  Its effect	is reverted by the --no-verba-
	      tim-files-from} option.

	      This option is implied by	the --null option.

	      See also --add-file.

       -X, --exclude-from=FILE
	      Exclude files matching patterns listed in	FILE.

   File	name transformations
	      Strip NUMBER leading components from file	names on extraction.

       --transform=EXPRESSION, --xform=EXPRESSION
	      Use sed replace EXPRESSION to transform file names.

   File	name matching options
       These options affect both exclude and include patterns.

	      Patterns match file name start.

	      Ignore case.

	      Patterns match after any / (default for exclusion).

	      Case sensitive matching (default).

	      Verbatim string matching.

	      Wildcards	do not match /.

	      Use wildcards (default for exclusion).

	      Wildcards	match /	(default for exclusion).

   Informative output
	      Display progress messages	every Nth record (default 10).

	      Run ACTION on each checkpoint.

	      Only set time when the file is more recent than what  was	 given
	      with --mtime.

	      Print file time to its full resolution.

	      Send verbose output to FILE.

       -l, --check-links
	      Print a message if not all links are dumped.

	      Disable quoting for characters from STRING.

	      Additionally quote characters from STRING.

	      Set  quoting  style for file and member names.  Valid values for
	      STYLE are	literal,  shell,  shell-always,	 c,  c-maybe,  escape,
	      locale, clocale.

       -R, --block-number
	      Show block number	within archive with each message.

	      When  listing  or	 extracting, list each directory that does not
	      match search criteria.

       --show-transformed-names, --show-stored-names
	      Show file	or archive names after transformation by  --strip  and
	      --transform options.

	      Print  total  bytes  after processing the	archive.  If SIGNAL is
	      given, print total bytes when this signal	is delivered.  Allowed
	      signals are: SIGHUP, SIGQUIT, SIGINT, SIGUSR1, and SIGUSR2.  The
	      SIG prefix can be	omitted.

       --utc  Print file modification times in UTC.

       -v, --verbose
	      Verbosely	list files processed.

	      Enable or	disable	warning	messages identified by	KEYWORD.   The
	      messages	are  suppressed	 if  KEYWORD  is prefixed with no- and
	      enabled otherwise.

	      Multiple --warning messages accumulate.

	      Keywords controlling general tar operation:

	      all    Enable all	warning	messages.  This	is the default.

	      none   Disable all warning messages.

		     "%s: file name read contains nul character"

		     "A	lone zero block	at %s"

	      Keywords applicable for tar --create:

		     "%s: contains a cache directory tag %s; %s"

		     "%s: File shrank by %s bytes; padding with	zeros"

	      xdev   "%s: file is on a different filesystem; not dumped"

		     "%s: Unknown file type; file ignored"
		     "%s: socket ignored"
		     "%s: door ignored"

		     "%s: file is unchanged; not dumped"

		     "%s: file is the archive; not dumped"

		     "%s: File removed before we read it"

		     "%s: file changed as we read it"

	      Keywords applicable for tar --extract:

		     "%s: skipping existing file"

		     "%s: implausibly old time stamp %s"
		     "%s: time stamp %s	is %s s	in the future"

		     "Extracting contiguous files as regular files"

		     "Attempting extraction of symbolic	links as hard links"

		     "%s: Unknown file type '%c', extracted as normal file"

		     "Current %s is newer or same age"

		     "Ignoring unknown extended	header keyword '%s'"

		     Controls verbose description of failures  occurring  when
		     trying  to	 run  alternative decompressor programs.  This
		     warning is	 disabled  by  default	(unless	 --verbose  is
		     used).   A	 common	example	of what	you can	get when using
		     this warning is:

		     $ tar --warning=decompress-program	-x -f archive.Z
		     tar (child): cannot run compress: No such file or directory
		     tar (child): trying gzip

		     This means	that tar first tried to	 decompress  archive.Z
		     using compress, and, when that failed, switched to	gzip.

		     "Record size = %lu	blocks"

	      Keywords controlling incremental extraction:

		     "%s: Directory has	been renamed from %s"
		     "%s: Directory has	been renamed"

		     "%s: Directory is new"

	      xdev   "%s: directory is on a different device: not purging"

		     "Malformed	dumpdir: 'X' never used"

       -w, --interactive, --confirmation
	      Ask for confirmation for every action.

   Compatibility options
       -o     When  creating, same as --old-archive.  When extracting, same as

   Size	suffixes
	       Suffix	 Units			 Byte Equivalent
	       b	 Blocks			 SIZE x	512
	       B	 Kilobytes		 SIZE x	1024
	       c	 Bytes			 SIZE
	       G	 Gigabytes		 SIZE x	1024^3
	       K	 Kilobytes		 SIZE x	1024
	       k	 Kilobytes		 SIZE x	1024
	       M	 Megabytes		 SIZE x	1024^2
	       P	 Petabytes		 SIZE x	1024^5
	       T	 Terabytes		 SIZE x	1024^4
	       w	 Words			 SIZE x	2

       Tar exit	code indicates whether it was able to successfully perform the
       requested operation, and	if not,	what kind of error occurred.

       0      Successful termination.

       1      Some  files  differ.   If	 tar  was  invoked  with the --compare
	      (--diff, -d) command line	option,	this means that	some files  in
	      the  archive  differ  from  their	disk counterparts.  If tar was
	      given one	of the --create, --append or  --update	options,  this
	      exit  code  means	 that  some  files  were  changed  while being
	      archived and so the resulting archive does not contain the exact
	      copy of the file set.

       2      Fatal  error.   This  means that some fatal, unrecoverable error

       If a subprocess that had	been invoked by	tar exited with	a nonzero exit
       code,  tar  itself  exits with that code	as well.  This can happen, for
       example,	if a compression option	(e.g. -z) was used  and	 the  external
       compressor  program  failed.   Another  example	is  rmt	failure	during
       backup to a remote device.

       bzip2(1), compress(1), gzip(1), lzma(1),	lzop(1),  rmt(8),  symlink(7),
       tar(5), xz(1).

       Complete	tar manual: run	info tar or use	emacs(1) info mode to read it.

       Online  copies of GNU tar documentation in various formats can be found

       Report bugs to <>.

       Copyright (C) 2013 Free Software	Foundation, Inc.
       License GPLv3+: GNU GPL version 3 or later
       This  is	 free  software:  you  are free	to change and redistribute it.
       There is	NO WARRANTY, to	the extent permitted by	law.

TAR				March 23, 2016				TAR(1)


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