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TAR(1)				GNU TAR	Manual				TAR(1)

       tar - an	archiving utility

   Traditional usage
       tar {A|c|d|r|t|u|x}[GnSkUWOmpsMBiajJzZhPlRvwo] [ARG...]

   UNIX-style usage

       tar -c [-f ARCHIVE] [OPTIONS] [FILE...]

       tar -d [-f ARCHIVE] [OPTIONS] [FILE...]

       tar -t [-f ARCHIVE] [OPTIONS] [MEMBER...]

       tar -r [-f ARCHIVE] [OPTIONS] [FILE...]

       tar -u [-f ARCHIVE] [OPTIONS] [FILE...]

       tar -x [-f ARCHIVE] [OPTIONS] [MEMBER...]

   GNU-style usage
       tar {--catenate|--concatenate} [OPTIONS]	ARCHIVE	ARCHIVE

       tar --create [--file ARCHIVE] [OPTIONS] [FILE...]

       tar {--diff|--compare} [--file ARCHIVE] [OPTIONS] [FILE...]

       tar --delete [--file ARCHIVE] [OPTIONS] [MEMBER...]

       tar --append [-f	ARCHIVE] [OPTIONS] [FILE...]

       tar --list [-f ARCHIVE] [OPTIONS] [MEMBER...]

       tar --test-label	[--file	ARCHIVE] [OPTIONS] [LABEL...]

       tar --update [--file ARCHIVE] [OPTIONS] [FILE...]

       tar --update [-f	ARCHIVE] [OPTIONS] [FILE...]

       tar {--extract|--get} [-f ARCHIVE] [OPTIONS] [MEMBER...]

       This manpage is a short description of GNU tar.	For a detailed discus-
       sion, including examples	and usage recommendations, refer  to  the  GNU
       Tar Manual available in texinfo format.	If the info reader and the tar
       documentation are properly installed on your system, the	command

	   info	tar

       should give you access to the complete manual.

       You can also view the manual using the info mode	in emacs(1),  or  find
       it in various formats online at

       If any discrepancies occur between this manpage and the GNU Tar Manual,
       the later shall be considered the authoritative source.

       GNU tar is an archiving program designed	to store multiple files	 in  a
       single file (an archive), and to	manipulate such	archives.  The archive
       can be either a regular file or a device	(e.g. a	tape drive, hence  the
       name  of	 the  program,	which  stands for tape archiver), which	can be
       located either on the local or on a remote machine.

   Option styles
       Options to GNU tar can be given in three	different styles.   In	tradi-
       tional style, the first argument	is a cluster of	option letters and all
       subsequent arguments supply arguments to	 those	options	 that  require
       them.   The arguments are read in the same order	as the option letters.
       Any command line	words that remain after	all options has	been processed
       are treated as non-optional arguments: file or archive member names.

       For  example,  the c option requires creating the archive, the v	option
       requests	the verbose operation, and the f option	takes an argument that
       sets  the  name of the archive to operate upon.	The following command,
       written in the traditional style, instructs tar to store	all files from
       the  directory /etc into	the archive file etc.tar verbosely listing the
       files being archived:

       tar cfv a.tar /etc

       In UNIX or short-option style, each option letter is  prefixed  with  a
       single  dash,  as  in other command line	utilities.  If an option takes
       argument, the argument follows it, either as a  separate	 command  line
       word,  or  immediately  following  the  option.	However, if the	option
       takes an	optional argument, the argument	must follow the	option	letter
       without any intervening whitespace, as in -g/tmp/snar.db.

       Any  number  of	options	not taking arguments can be clustered together
       after a single dash, e.g. -vkp.	Options	that take  arguments  (whether
       mandatory  or  optional), can appear at the end of such a cluster, e.g.
       -vkpf a.tar.

       The example command above written in the	short-option style could  look

       tar -cvf	a.tar /etc or tar -c -v	-f a.tar /etc

       In GNU or long-option style, each option	begins with two	dashes and has
       a meaningful name, consisting of	lower-case letters and	dashes.	  When
       used,  the  long	option can be abbreviated to its initial letters, pro-
       vided that this does not	create ambiguity.  Arguments to	 long  options
       are  supplied  either as	a separate command line	word, immediately fol-
       lowing the option, or separated from the	option by an equals sign  with
       no intervening whitespace.  Optional arguments must always use the lat-
       ter method.

       Here are	several	ways of	writing	the example command in this style:

       tar  --create  --file  a.tar  --verbose	/etc  or  (abbreviating	  some
       options): tar --cre --file=a.tar	--verb /etc

       The  options  in	 all three styles can be intermixed, although doing so
       with old	options	is not encouraged.

   Operation mode
       The options listed in the table below tell GNU tar what operation it is
       to  perform.   Exactly  one  of	them  must  be given.  Meaning of non-
       optional	arguments depends on the operation mode	requested.

       -A, --catenate, --concatenate
	      Append archive to	the end	of another archive.  The arguments are
	      treated  as  the names of	archives to append.  All archives must
	      be of the	same format as the archive they	are appended to,  oth-
	      erwise  the  resulting  archive  might  be unusable with non-GNU
	      implementations of tar.  Notice also that	when more than one ar-
	      chive  is	 given,	the members from archives other	than the first
	      one will be accessible in	the resulting archive  only  if	 using
	      the -i (--ignore-zeros) option.

	      Compressed archives cannot be concatenated.

       -c, --create
	      Create  a	 new archive.  Arguments supply	the names of the files
	      to be archived.  Directories are	archived  recursively,	unless
	      the --no-recursion option	is given.

       -d, --diff, --compare
	      Find differences between archive and file	system.	 The arguments
	      are optional and specify archive members	to  compare.   If  not
	      given, the current working directory is assumed.

	      Delete  from the archive.	 The arguments supply names of the ar-
	      chive members to be removed.  At	least  one  argument  must  be

	      This  option  does not operate on	compressed archives.  There is
	      no short option equivalent.

       -r, --append
	      Append files to the end of an archive.  Arguments	have the  same
	      meaning as for -c	(--create).

       -t, --list
	      List  the	contents of an archive.	 Arguments are optional.  When
	      given, they specify the names of the members to list.

	      Test the archive volume label and	exit.  When used without argu-
	      ments, it	prints the volume label	(if any) and exits with	status
	      0.  When one or more command line	arguments are given.  tar com-
	      pares the	volume label with each argument.  It exits with	code 0
	      if a match is found, and with code 1 otherwise.	No  output  is
	      displayed,  unless used together with the	-v (--verbose) option.

	      There is no short	option equivalent for this option.

       -u, --update
	      Append files which are newer than	the corresponding copy in  the
	      archive.	 Arguments  have  the  same  meaning as	with -c	and -r

       -x, --extract, --get
	      Extract files from an archive.  Arguments	 are  optional.	  When
	      given,   they  specify  names  of	 the  archive  members	to  be

	      Show built-in defaults for various tar options and  exit.
	      No arguments are allowed.

       -?, --help
	      Display  a  short	 option	summary	and exit.  No arguments

	      Display a	list of	available options and exit.   No  argu-
	      ments allowed.

	      Print program version and	copyright information and exit.

   Operation modifiers
	      Check device numbers when	creating  incremental  archives

       -g, --listed-incremental=FILE
	      Handle  new  GNU-format incremental backups.  FILE is the
	      name of a	snapshot  file,	 where	tar  stores  additional
	      information  which  is used to decide which files	changed
	      since the	previous incremental  dump  and,  consequently,
	      must be dumped again.  If	FILE does not exist when creat-
	      ing an archive, it will be created and all files will  be
	      added  to	 the  resulting	archive	(the level 0 dump).  To
	      create incremental archives of non-zero level N, create a
	      copy  of	the snapshot file created during the level N-1,
	      and use it as FILE.

	      When listing or extracting, the actual contents  of  FILE
	      is  not  inspected,  it is needed	only due to syntactical
	      requirements.  It	is therefore  common  practice	to  use
	      /dev/null	in its place.

	      Use  METHOD to detect holes in sparse files.  This option
	      implies --sparse.	 Valid values for METHOD are  seek  and
	      raw.   Default  is  seek	with  fallback	to raw when not

       -G, --incremental
	      Handle old GNU-format incremental	backups.

	      Do not exit with nonzero on unreadable files.

	      Set dump level for  created  listed-incremental  archive.
	      Currently	 only --level=0	is meaningful: it instructs tar
	      to truncate the snapshot	file  before  dumping,	thereby
	      forcing a	level 0	dump.

       -n, --seek
	      Assume  the archive is seekable.	Normally tar determines
	      automatically whether the	archive	can be seeked  or  not.
	      This option is intended for use in cases when such recog-
	      nition fails.  It	takes effect only  if  the  archive  is
	      open   for   reading   (e.g.  with  --list  or  --extract

	      Do not check device numbers when creating	incremental ar-

	      Assume the archive is not	seekable.

	      Process  only  the Nth occurrence	of each	file in	the ar-
	      chive.  This option is valid only	when used with	one  of
	      the following subcommands: --delete, --diff, --extract or
	      --list and when a	list of	files is given	either	on  the
	      command line or via the -T option.  The default N	is 1.

	      Disable the use of some potentially harmful options.

	      Set   version  of	 the  sparse  format  to  use  (implies
	      --sparse).  This option implies --sparse.	 Valid argument
	      values  are 0.0, 0.1, and	1.0.  For a detailed discussion
	      of sparse	formats, refer to the GNU Tar Manual,  appendix
	      D,  "Sparse  Formats".   Using  info  reader,  it	 can be
	      accessed running the following command: info tar	'Sparse

       -S, --sparse
	      Handle  sparse files efficiently.	 Some files in the file
	      system may have segments which were actually never  writ-
	      ten (quite often these are database files	created	by such
	      systems as DBM).	When given this	option,	tar attempts to
	      determine	 if  the  file is sparse prior to archiving it,
	      and if so, to reduce the resulting archive  size	by  not
	      dumping empty parts of the file.

   Overwrite control
       These options control tar actions when extracting a file	over an
       existing	copy on	disk.

       -k, --keep-old-files
	      Don't replace existing files when	extracting.

	      Don't replace existing files that	are  newer  than  their
	      archive copies.

	      Preserve metadata	of existing directories.

	      Extract all files	into DIR, or, if used without argument,
	      into a subdirectory named	by the base name of the	archive
	      (minus  standard	compression  suffixes  recognizable  by

	      Overwrite	existing files when extracting.

	      Overwrite	metadata of existing directories when  extract-
	      ing (default).

	      Recursively  remove  all	files in the directory prior to
	      extracting it.

	      Remove files from	disk after adding them to the  archive.

	      Don't  replace  existing	files when extracting, silently
	      skip over	them.

       -U, --unlink-first
	      Remove each file prior to	extracting over	it.

       -W, --verify
	      Verify the archive after writing it.

   Output stream selection

       Ignore subprocess exit codes.

	      Treat non-zero exit codes	of children as error (default).

       -O, --to-stdout
	      Extract files to standard	output.

	      Pipe  extracted  files  to  COMMAND.  The	argument is the
	      pathname of an external program, optionally with	command
	      line arguments.  The program will	be invoked and the con-
	      tents of the file	being extracted	supplied to it	on  its
	      standard	output.	  Additional  data will	be supplied via
	      the following environment	variables:

		     Type of the file. It is a single letter  with  the
		     following meaning:

			     f		 Regular file
			     d		 Directory
			     l		 Symbolic link
			     h		 Hard link
			     b		 Block device
			     c		 Character device

		     Currently only regular files are supported.

		     File mode,	an octal number.

		     The name of the file.

		     Name of the file as stored	in the archive.

		     Name of the file owner.

		     Name of the file owner group.

		     Time  of last access. It is a decimal number, rep-
		     resenting seconds since the Epoch.	 If the	archive
		     provides  times  with  nanosecond	precision,  the
		     nanoseconds are appended to the timestamp after  a
		     decimal point.

		     Time of last modification.

		     Time of last status change.

		     Size of the file.

		     UID of the	file owner.

		     GID of the	file owner.

	      Additionally, the	following variables contain information
	      about tar	operation mode and the archive being processed:

		     GNU tar version number.

		     The name of the archive tar is processing.

		     Current  blocking	factor,	i.e. number of 512-byte
		     blocks in a record.

		     Ordinal number of the  volume  tar	 is  processing
		     (set if reading a multi-volume archive).

		     Format  of	 the  archive being processed.	One of:
		     gnu, oldgnu, posix, ustar,	v7.   TAR_SUBCOMMAND  A
		     short  option (with a leading dash) describing the
		     operation tar is executing.

   Handling of file attributes
	      Preserve access times on dumped files, either by	restor-
	      ing  the times after reading (METHOD=replace, this is the
	      default) or by not setting the times in the  first  place

	      Delay  setting  modification  times  and	permissions  of
	      extracted	directories until the end of  extraction.   Use
	      this  option  when  extracting  from an archive which has
	      unusual member ordering.

	      Force NAME as group for added files.  If GID is not  sup-
	      plied, NAME can be either	a user name or numeric GID.  In
	      this case	the missing part (GID or name) will be inferred
	      from the current host's group database.

	      When used	with --group-map=FILE, affects only those files
	      whose owner group	is not listed in FILE.

	      Read group translation map from FILE.   Empty  lines  are
	      ignored.	 Comments are introduced with #	sign and extend
	      to the end of line.  Each	non-empty line in FILE	defines
	      translation  for	a single group.	 It must consist of two
	      fields, delimited	by any amount of whitespace:


	      OLDGRP is	either a valid group name  or  a  GID  prefixed
	      with  +.	 Unless	NEWGID is supplied, NEWGRP must	also be
	      either a valid group name	or  a  +GID.   Otherwise,  both
	      NEWGRP  and NEWGID need not be listed in the system group

	      As a result, each	input file with	owner group OLDGRP will
	      be  stored  in  archive  with  owner group NEWGRP	and GID

	      Force symbolic mode CHANGES for added files.

	      Set mtime	for added  files.   DATE-OR-FILE  is  either  a
	      date/time	 in  almost arbitrary format, or the name of an
	      existing file.  In the latter case the mtime of that file
	      will be used.

       -m, --touch
	      Don't extract file modified time.

	      Cancel  the effect of the	prior --delay-directory-restore

	      Extract files as yourself	(default for ordinary users).

	      Apply the	user's umask when extracting  permissions  from
	      the archive (default for ordinary	users).

	      Always use numbers for user/group	names.

	      Force  NAME as owner for added files.  If	UID is not sup-
	      plied, NAME can be either	a user name or numeric UID.  In
	      this case	the missing part (UID or name) will be inferred
	      from the current host's user database.

	      When used	with --owner-map=FILE, affects only those files
	      whose owner is not listed	in FILE.

	      Read  owner  translation	map from FILE.	Empty lines are
	      ignored.	Comments are introduced	with # sign and	 extend
	      to  the end of line.  Each non-empty line	in FILE	defines
	      translation for a	single UID.  It	 must  consist	of  two
	      fields, delimited	by any amount of whitespace:


	      OLDUSR is	either a valid user name or a UID prefixed with
	      +.  Unless NEWUID	is supplied, NEWUSR must also be either
	      a	 valid user name or a +UID.  Otherwise,	both NEWUSR and
	      NEWUID need not be listed	in the system user database.

	      As a result, each	input file  owned  by  OLDUSR  will  be
	      stored  in archive with owner name NEWUSR	and UID	NEWUID.

       -p, --preserve-permissions, --same-permissions
	      extract information about	file permissions  (default  for

	      Same as both -p and -s.

	      Try extracting files with	the same ownership as exists in
	      the archive (default for superuser).

       -s, --preserve-order, --same-order
	      Sort names to extract to match archive

	      When creating an archive,	sort directory entries	accord-
	      ing to ORDER, which is one of none, name,	or inode.

	      The  default is --sort=none, which stores	archive	members
	      in the same order	as returned by the operating system.

	      Using --sort=name	ensures	the member ordering in the cre-
	      ated archive is uniform and reproducible.

	      Using  --sort=inode reduces the number of	disk seeks made
	      when creating the	archive	and thus can considerably speed
	      up  archivation.	This sorting order is supported	only if
	      the underlying system provides the necessary information.

   Extended file attributes
       --acls Enable POSIX ACLs	support.

	      Disable POSIX ACLs support.

	      Enable SELinux context support.

	      Disable SELinux context support.

	      Enable extended attributes support.

	      Disable extended attributes support.

	      Specify the exclude pattern for xattr keys.  PATTERN is a
	      POSIX regular expression,	e.g. --xattrs-exclude='^user.',
	      to exclude attributes from the user namespace.

	      Specify the include pattern for xattr keys.  PATTERN is a
	      POSIX regular expression.

   Device selection and	switching
       -f, --file=ARCHIVE
	      Use archive file or device ARCHIVE.  If  this  option  is
	      not  given,  tar will first examine the environment vari-
	      able `TAPE'.  If it is set, its value will be used as the
	      archive name.  Otherwise,	tar will assume	the compiled-in
	      default.	The default value can be inspected either using
	      the  --show-defaults  option,  or	 at  the end of	the tar
	      --help output.

	      An archive name that has a colon in it specifies	a  file
	      or device	on a remote machine.  The part before the colon
	      is taken as the machine name or IP address, and the  part
	      after it as the file or device pathname, e.g.:


	      An  optional  username  can  be prefixed to the hostname,
	      placing a	@ sign between them.

	      By default, the remote host is accessed  via  the	 rsh(1)
	      command.	 Nowadays  it  is common to use	ssh(1) instead.
	      You can do  so  by  giving  the  following  command  line


	      The   remote  machine  should  have  the	rmt(8)	command
	      installed.  If its pathname does not match tar's default,
	      you  can	inform tar about the correct pathname using the
	      --rmt-command option.

	      Archive file is local even if it has a colon.

       -F, --info-script=COMMAND, --new-volume-script=COMMAND
	      Run COMMAND at the end of	each tape  (implies  -M).   The
	      command  can  include  arguments.	  When started,	it will
	      inherit tar's environment	plus the following variables:

		     GNU tar version number.

		     The name of the archive tar is processing.

		     Current blocking factor, i.e. number  of  512-byte
		     blocks in a record.

		     Ordinal  number  of  the  volume tar is processing
		     (set if reading a multi-volume archive).

		     Format of the archive being  processed.   One  of:
		     gnu, oldgnu, posix, ustar,	v7.

		     A	short  option  (with a leading dash) describing
		     the operation tar is executing.

	      TAR_FD File descriptor which can be used	to  communicate
		     the new volume name to tar.

	      If the info script fails,	tar exits; otherwise, it begins
	      writing the next volume.

       -L, --tape-length=N
	      Change tape after	writing	Nx1024 bytes.  If N is followed
	      by  a  size  suffix  (see	 the  subsection  Size suffixes
	      below), the suffix specifies the multiplicative factor to
	      be used instead of 1024.

	      This option implies -M.

       -M, --multi-volume
	      Create/list/extract multi-volume archive.

	      Use  COMMAND  instead  of	 rmt  when accessing remote ar-
	      chives.  See the description of the -f option, above.

	      Use COMMAND instead of  rsh  when	 accessing  remote  ar-
	      chives.  See the description of the -f option, above.

	      When this	option is used in conjunction with --multi-vol-
	      ume, tar will keep track of which	volume of a  multi-vol-
	      ume archive it is	working	in FILE.

   Device blocking
       -b, --blocking-factor=BLOCKS
	      Set record size to BLOCKSx512 bytes.

       -B, --read-full-records
	      When  listing  or	 extracting,  accept  incomplete  input
	      records after end-of-file	marker.

       -i, --ignore-zeros
	      Ignore zeroed blocks in archive.	Normally  two  consecu-
	      tive 512-blocks filled with zeroes mean EOF and tar stops
	      reading after encountering them.	This  option  instructs
	      it  to  read  further and	is useful when reading archives
	      created with the -A option.

	      Set record size.	NUMBER	is  the	 number	 of  bytes  per
	      record.	It must	be multiple of 512.  It	can can	be suf-
	      fixed with a size	suffix,	e.g. --record-size=10K,	for  10
	      Kilobytes.   See the subsection Size suffixes, for a list
	      of valid suffixes.

   Archive format selection
       -H, --format=FORMAT
	      Create archive of	the given format.  Valid formats are:

	      gnu    GNU tar 1.13.x format

	      oldgnu GNU format	as per tar <= 1.12.

	      pax, posix
		     POSIX 1003.1-2001 (pax) format.

	      ustar  POSIX 1003.1-1988 (ustar) format.

	      v7     Old V7 tar	format.

       --old-archive, --portability
	      Same as --format=v7.

	      Control pax keywords when	creating PAX archives (-H pax).
	      This  option  is	equivalent  to	the  -o	 option	 of the

	      Same as --format=posix.

       -V, --label=TEXT
	      Create archive with volume  name	TEXT.	If  listing  or
	      extracting,  use	TEXT  as  a globbing pattern for volume

   Compression options
       -a, --auto-compress
	      Use archive suffix to determine the compression  program.

       -I, --use-compress-program=COMMAND
	      Filter  data  through  COMMAND.	It  must  accept the -d
	      option, for decompression.  The argument can contain com-
	      mand line	options.

       -j, --bzip2
	      Filter the archive through bzip2(1).

       -J, --xz
	      Filter the archive through xz(1).

       --lzip Filter the archive through lzip(1).

       --lzma Filter the archive through lzma(1).

       --lzop Filter the archive through lzop(1).

	      Do  not  use  archive suffix to determine	the compression

       -z, --gzip, --gunzip, --ungzip
	      Filter the archive through gzip(1).

       -Z, --compress, --uncompress
	      Filter the archive through compress(1).

   Local file selection
	      Add FILE to the archive (useful if its name starts with a

	      Backup  before  removal.	 The  CONTROL argument,	if sup-
	      plied, controls the backup policy.  Its valid values are:

	      none, off
		     Never make	backups.

	      t, numbered
		     Make numbered backups.

	      nil, existing
		     Make  numbered  backups if	numbered backups exist,
		     simple backups otherwise.

	      never, simple
		     Always make simple	backups

	      If CONTROL is not	given, the value is taken from the VER-
	      SION_CONTROL  environment	 variable.   If	 it is not set,
	      existing is assumed.

       -C, --directory=DIR
	      Change to	DIR before  performing	any  operations.   This
	      option  is  order-sensitive,  i.e. it affects all	options
	      that follow.

	      Exclude files matching PATTERN, a	glob(3)-style  wildcard

	      Exclude backup and lock files.

	      Exclude	contents   of	directories   containing   file
	      CACHEDIR.TAG, except for the tag file itself.

	      Exclude directories containing file CACHEDIR.TAG and  the
	      file itself.

	      Exclude	 everything    under   directories   containing

	      Before dumping a directory, see if it contains FILE.   If
	      so, read exclusion patterns from this file.  The patterns
	      affect only the directory	itself.

	      Same as --exclude-ignore,	except that patterns from  FILE
	      affect both the directory	and all	its subdirectories.

	      Exclude  contents	 of directories	containing FILE, except
	      for FILE itself.

	      Exclude directories containing FILE.

	      Exclude everything under directories containing FILE.

	      Exclude version control system directories.

	      Exclude files that match patterns	read from  VCS-specific
	      ignore  files.   Supported files are: .cvsignore,	.gitig-
	      nore, .bzrignore,	and .hgignore.

       -h, --dereference
	      Follow symlinks; archive and dump	the  files  they  point

	      Follow  hard links; archive and dump the files they refer

       -K, --starting-file=MEMBER
	      Begin at the given member	in the archive.

	      Work on files whose data changed after the DATE.	If DATE
	      starts  with  /  or  . it	is taken to be a file name; the
	      mtime of that file is used as the	date.

	      Disable the effect of the	previous --null	option.

	      Avoid descending automatically in	directories.

	      Do not unquote input file	or member names.

	      Treat each line read from	a file list as if it were  sup-
	      plied  in	 the  command line.  I.e., leading and trailing
	      whitespace is removed and, if the	resulting string begins
	      with a dash, it is treated as tar	command	line option.

	      This   is	  the	default	  behavior.    The  --no-verba-
	      tim-files-from option is provided	as a way to restore  it
	      after --verbatim-files-from option.

	      This  option  is	positional: it affects all --files-from
	      options  that  occur  after   it	 in,   until   --verba-
	      tim-files-from  option  or  end of line, whichever occurs

	      It is implied by the --no-null option.

       --null Instruct subsequent -T options  to  read	null-terminated
	      names  verbatim  (disables special handling of names that
	      start with a dash).

	      See also --verbatim-files-from.

       -N, --newer=DATE, --after-date=DATE
	      Only store files newer than DATE.	 If DATE starts	with  /
	      or  .  it	 is  taken to be a file	name; the ctime	of that
	      file is used as the date.

	      Stay in local file system	when creating archive.

       -P, --absolute-names
	      Don't strip leading slashes from file names when creating

	      Recurse into directories (default).

	      Backup  before  removal,	override usual suffix.	Default
	      suffix is	~, unless overridden  by  environment  variable

       -T, --files-from=FILE
	      Get names	to extract or create from FILE.

	      Unless  specified	otherwise, the FILE must contain a list
	      of names separated by ASCII LF (i.e. one name per	 line).
	      The  names  read are handled the same way	as command line
	      arguments.  They undergo quote removal  and  word	 split-
	      ting,  and  any string that starts with a	- is handled as
	      tar command line option.

	      If this behavior is undesirable, it  can	be  turned  off
	      using the	--verbatim-files-from option.

	      The  --null  option  instructs tar that the names	in FILE
	      are separated by ASCII NUL character, instead of LF.   It
	      is  useful  if  the  list	is generated by	find(1)	-print0

	      Unquote file or member names (default).

	      Treat each line obtained from a file list	as a file name,
	      even  if	it starts with a dash.	File lists are supplied
	      with the --files-from (-T) option.  The default  behavior
	      is to handle names supplied in file lists	as if they were
	      typed in the command line, i.e. any names	starting with a
	      dash   are   treated   as	  tar  options.	  The  --verba-
	      tim-files-from option disables this behavior.

	      This option affects all --files-from options  that  occur
	      after  it	in the command line.  Its effect is reverted by
	      the --no-verbatim-files-from} option.

	      This option is implied by	the --null option.

	      See also --add-file.

       -X, --exclude-from=FILE
	      Exclude files matching patterns listed in	FILE.

   File	name transformations
	      Strip  NUMBER  leading  components  from	file  names  on

       --transform=EXPRESSION, --xform=EXPRESSION
	      Use sed replace EXPRESSION to transform file names.

   File	name matching options
       These options affect both exclude and include patterns.

	      Patterns match file name start.

	      Ignore case.

	      Patterns match after any / (default for exclusion).

	      Case sensitive matching (default).

	      Verbatim string matching.

	      Wildcards	do not match /.

	      Use wildcards (default for exclusion).

	      Wildcards	match /	(default for exclusion).

   Informative output
	      Display  progress	messages every Nth record (default 10).

	      Run ACTION on each checkpoint.

	      Only set time when the file is more recent than what  was
	      given with --mtime.

	      Print file time to its full resolution.

	      Send verbose output to FILE.

       -l, --check-links
	      Print a message if not all links are dumped.

	      Disable quoting for characters from STRING.

	      Additionally quote characters from STRING.

	      Set  quoting style for file and member names.  Valid val-
	      ues for STYLE are	literal,  shell,  shell-always,	 c,  c-
	      maybe, escape, locale, clocale.

       -R, --block-number
	      Show block number	within archive with each message.

	      When listing or extracting, list each directory that does
	      not match	search criteria.

       --show-transformed-names, --show-stored-names
	      Show  file  or  archive  names  after  transformation  by
	      --strip and --transform options.

	      Print  total bytes after processing the archive.	If SIG-
	      NAL is given, print  total  bytes	 when  this  signal  is
	      delivered.  Allowed signals are: SIGHUP, SIGQUIT,	SIGINT,
	      SIGUSR1, and SIGUSR2.  The SIG prefix can	be omitted.

       --utc  Print file modification times in UTC.

       -v, --verbose
	      Verbosely	list files processed.

	      Enable or	disable	warning	messages identified by KEYWORD.
	      The  messages  are suppressed if KEYWORD is prefixed with
	      no- and enabled otherwise.

	      Multiple --warning messages accumulate.

	      Keywords controlling general tar operation:

	      all    Enable all	warning	messages.  This	is the default.

	      none   Disable all warning messages.

		     "%s: file name read contains nul character"

		     "A	lone zero block	at %s"

	      Keywords applicable for tar --create:

		     "%s: contains a cache directory tag %s; %s"

		     "%s: File shrank by %s bytes; padding with	zeros"

	      xdev   "%s:  file	 is  on	 a  different  filesystem;  not

		     "%s: Unknown file type; file ignored"
		     "%s: socket ignored"
		     "%s: door ignored"

		     "%s: file is unchanged; not dumped"

		     "%s: file is the archive; not dumped"

		     "%s: File removed before we read it"

		     "%s: file changed as we read it"

	      Keywords applicable for tar --extract:

		     "%s: skipping existing file"

		     "%s: implausibly old time stamp %s"
		     "%s: time stamp %s	is %s s	in the future"

		     "Extracting contiguous files as regular files"

		     "Attempting extraction of symbolic	links  as  hard

		     "%s:  Unknown  file type '%c', extracted as normal

		     "Current %s is newer or same age"

		     "Ignoring unknown extended	header keyword '%s'"

		     Controls verbose description of failures occurring
		     when  trying  to run alternative decompressor pro-
		     grams.   This  warning  is	 disabled  by	default
		     (unless  --verbose	 is used).  A common example of
		     what you can get when using this warning is:

		     $ tar --warning=decompress-program	-x -f archive.Z
		     tar  (child): cannot run compress:	No such	file or
		     directory tar (child): trying gzip

		     This means	that tar first tried to	decompress  ar-
		     chive.Z  using  compress,	and,  when that	failed,
		     switched to gzip.

		     "Record size = %lu	blocks"

	      Keywords controlling incremental extraction:

		     "%s: Directory has	been renamed from %s"
		     "%s: Directory has	been renamed"

		     "%s: Directory is new"

	      xdev   "%s: directory is on a different device: not purg-

		     "Malformed	dumpdir: 'X' never used"

       -w, --interactive, --confirmation
	      Ask for confirmation for every action.

   Compatibility options
       -o     When  creating,  same as --old-archive.  When extracting,
	      same as --no-same-owner.

   Size	suffixes
	       Suffix	 Units			 Byte Equivalent
	       b	 Blocks			 SIZE x	512
	       B	 Kilobytes		 SIZE x	1024
	       c	 Bytes			 SIZE
	       G	 Gigabytes		 SIZE x	1024^3
	       K	 Kilobytes		 SIZE x	1024
	       k	 Kilobytes		 SIZE x	1024
	       M	 Megabytes		 SIZE x	1024^2
	       P	 Petabytes		 SIZE x	1024^5
	       T	 Terabytes		 SIZE x	1024^4
	       w	 Words			 SIZE x	2

       Tar exit	code indicates whether it was able to successfully per-
       form  the  requested  operation,	 and if	not, what kind of error

       0      Successful termination.

       1      Some files differ.  If tar was invoked with the --compare
	      (--diff,	-d)  command  line option, this	means that some
	      files in the archive differ from their disk counterparts.
	      If  tar  was  given  one	of  the	 --create,  --append or
	      --update options,	this exit code means  that  some  files
	      were  changed  while  being archived and so the resulting
	      archive does not contain the exact copy of the file  set.

       2      Fatal  error.   This means that some fatal, unrecoverable
	      error occurred.

       If a subprocess that had	been  invoked  by  tar	exited	with  a
       nonzero	exit  code,  tar  itself  exits	with that code as well.
       This can	happen,	for example, if	a compression option (e.g.  -z)
       was  used  and  the external compressor program failed.	Another
       example is rmt failure during backup to a remote	device.

       bzip2(1), compress(1), gzip(1), lzma(1),	lzop(1),  rmt(8),  sym-
       link(7),	tar(5),	xz(1).

       Complete	 tar  manual: run info tar or use emacs(1) info	mode to
       read it.

       Online copies of	GNU tar	documentation in various formats can be
       found at:

       Report bugs to <>.

       Copyright (C) 2013 Free Software	Foundation, Inc.
       License GPLv3+: GNU GPL version 3 or later
       This is free software: you are free to change  and  redistribute
       it.  There is NO	WARRANTY, to the extent	permitted by law.

TAR				March 23, 2016				TAR(1)


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