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GS(1)				  Ghostscript				 GS(1)

       gs  -  Ghostscript  (PostScript	and  PDF language interpreter and pre-

       gs [ options ] [	files ]	... (Unix, VMS)
       gswin32c	[ options ] [ files ] ... (MS Windows)
       gswin32 [ options ] [ files ] ... (MS Windows 3.1)
       gsos2 [ options ] [ files ] ... (OS/2)

       The gs (gswin32c, gswin32, gsos2) command invokes Ghostscript,  an  in-
       terpreter of Adobe Systems' PostScript(tm) and Portable Document	Format
       (PDF) languages.	 gs reads "files" in sequence  and  executes  them  as
       Ghostscript programs. After doing this, it reads	further	input from the
       standard	input stream (normally the keyboard), interpreting  each  line
       separately.  The	 interpreter  exits  gracefully	when it	encounters the
       "quit" command (either in a file	or from	the keyboard), at end-of-file,
       or at an	interrupt signal (such as Control-C at the keyboard).

       The  interpreter	recognizes many	option switches, some of which are de-
       scribed below. Please see the usage documenation	for complete  informa-
       tion. Switches may appear anywhere in the command line and apply	to all
       files thereafter.  Invoking Ghostscript with the	-h or -?  switch  pro-
       duces  a	 message  which	shows several useful switches, all the devices
       known to	that executable, and the search	path for  fonts;  on  Unix  it
       also shows the location of detailed documentation.

       Ghostscript  may	be built to use	many different output devices.	To see
       which devices your executable includes, run "gs -h".  Unless you	 spec-
       ify  a  particular  device, Ghostscript normally	opens the first	one of
       those and directs output	to it, so if the first one in the list is  the
       one you want to use, just issue the command


       You  can	 also  check  the  set of available devices from within	Ghost-
       script: invoke Ghostscript and type

	    devicenames	==

       but the first device on the resulting list may not be the  default  de-
       vice  you  determine  with "gs -h".  To specify "AbcXyz"	as the initial
       output device, include the switch


       For example, for	output to an Epson printer you might use the command

	    gs -sDEVICE=epson

       The "-sDEVICE=" switch must precede the first  mention  of  a  file  to
       print, and only the switch's first use has any effect.

       Finally,	 you  can specify a default device in the environment variable
       GS_DEVICE.  The order of	precedence for these alternatives from highest
       to lowest (Ghostscript uses the device defined highest in the list) is:

       Some devices can	support	different resolutions (densities).  To specify
       the resolution on such a	printer, use the "-r" switch:

	    gs -sDEVICE=<device> -r<xres>x<yres>

       For example, on a 9-pin Epson-compatible	printer, you get  the  lowest-
       density (fastest) mode with

	    gs -sDEVICE=epson -r60x72

       and the highest-density (best output quality) mode with

	    gs -sDEVICE=epson -r240x72.

       If  you	select a printer as the	output device, Ghostscript also	allows
       you to choose where Ghostscript sends the output	--  on	Unix  systems,
       usually	to  a temporary	file.  To send the output to a file "",
       use the switch

       You might want to print each page separately.  To  do  this,  send  the
       output to a series of files ",,	..." using the "-sOut-
       putFile=" switch	with "%d" in a filename	template:

       Each resulting file receives one	page of	output,	and the	files are num-
       bered in	sequence.  "%d"	is a printf format specification; you can also
       use a variant like "%02d".

       On Unix and MS Windows systems you can also send	output to a pipe.  For
       example,	 to pipe output	to the "lpr" command (which, on	many Unix sys-
       tems, directs it	to a printer), use the option


       Note that the '%' characters need to be doubled on MS Windows to	 avoid
       mangling	by the command interpreter.

       You can also send output	to standard output:


       In  this	 case  you must	also use the -q	switch,	to prevent Ghostscript
       from writing messages to	standard output.

       To select a specific paper size,	use the	command	line switch


       for instance


       Most ISO	and US paper sizes are recognized. See the  usage  documenata-
       tion  for  a  full  list, or the	definitions in the initialization file

       Ghostscript can do many things other than print or view PostScript  and
       PDF  files.   For  example,  if	you want to know the bounding box of a
       PostScript (or EPS) file, Ghostscript provides a	special	"device"  that
       just prints out this information.

       For  example,  using  one  of the example files distributed with	Ghost-

	    gs -sDEVICE=bbox

       prints out

	    %%BoundingBox: 0 25	583 732
	    %%HiResBoundingBox:	0.808497 25.009496 582.994503 731.809445

       -- filename arg1	...
	      Takes the	next argument as a file	name as	usual, but  takes  all
	      remaining	 arguments  (even  if  they have the syntactic form of
	      switches)	and defines the	name "ARGUMENTS"  in  "userdict"  (not
	      "systemdict")  as	 an array of those strings, before running the
	      file.  When Ghostscript finishes executing the  file,  it	 exits
	      back to the shell.

	      Define  a	 name  in "systemdict" with the	given definition.  The
	      token must be exactly one	token (as defined by the "token" oper-
	      ator) and	may contain no whitespace.

       -dname Define a name in "systemdict" with value=null.

	      Define  a	 name  in  "systemdict"	 with a	given string as	value.
	      This is different	from -d.  For example, -dname=35 is equivalent
	      to the program fragment
		   /name 35 def
	      whereas -sname=35	is equivalent to
		   /name (35) def

       -q     Quiet startup: suppress normal startup messages, and also	do the
	      equivalent of -dQUIET.

	      Equivalent to -dDEVICEWIDTH=number1 and  -dDEVICEHEIGHT=number2.
	      This  is	for  the benefit of devices (such as X11 windows) that
	      require (or allow) width and height to be	specified.

	      Equivalent to -dDEVICEXRESOLUTION=number1	 and  -dDEVICEYRESOLU-
	      TION=number2.  This is for the benefit of	devices	such as	print-
	      ers that support multiple	X and Y	resolutions.  If only one num-
	      ber is given, it is used for both	X and Y	resolutions.

	      Adds  the	 designated  list  of  directories  at the head	of the
	      search path for library files.

       -      This is not really a switch, but indicates to  Ghostscript  that
	      standard	input is coming	from a file or a pipe and not interac-
	      tively from the command line.  Ghostscript reads	from  standard
	      input  until it reaches end-of-file, executing it	like any other
	      file, and	then continues with processing the command line.  When
	      the  command line	has been entirely processed, Ghostscript exits
	      rather than going	into its interactive mode.

       Note that the normal initialization file	 ""  makes  "system-
       dict"  read-only, so the	values of names	defined	with -D, -d, -S, or -s
       cannot be changed (although, of course, they can	be superseded by defi-
       nitions in "userdict" or	other dictionaries.)

	      Causes  individual character outlines to be loaded from the disk
	      the first	time  they  are	 encountered.	(Normally  Ghostscript
	      loads  all  the  character outlines when it loads	a font.)  This
	      may allow	loading	more fonts into	RAM, at	the expense of	slower

	      Disables character caching.  Useful only for debugging.

	      Disables the "bind" operator.  Useful only for debugging.

	      Suppresses the normal initialization of the output device.  This
	      may be useful when debugging.

	      Disables the prompt and pause at the end of each page.  This may
	      be  desirable  for applications where another program is driving

	      Disables the use of fonts	supplied by  the  underlying  platform
	      (for  instance  X	 Windows).  This may be	needed if the platform
	      fonts look undesirably different from the	scalable fonts.

	      Disables the "deletefile"	and  "renamefile"  operators  and  the
	      ability  to  open	 files in any mode other than read-only.  This
	      strongly recommended for spoolers, conversion scripts  or	 other
	      sensitive	 environments where a badly written or malicious Post-
	      Script program code must be prevented  from  changing  important

	      Leaves  "systemdict"  writable.	This is	necessary when running
	      special utility programs such as font2c and pcharstr, which must
	      bypass normal PostScript access protection.

	      Selects an alternate initial output device, as described above.

	      Selects  an alternate output file	(or pipe) for the initial out-
	      put device, as described above.

       The locations of	many Ghostscript run-time files	are compiled into  the
       executable  when	 it  is	 built.	  On Unix these	are typically based in
       /usr/local, but this may	be different on	your system.  Under  DOS  they
       are  typically  based in	C:\GS, but may be elsewhere, especially	if you
       install Ghostscript with	GSview.	 Run "gs -h" to	find the  location  of
       Ghostscript  documentation  on your system, from	which you can get more

	      Startup files, utilities,	and basic font definitions

	      More font	definitions

	      Ghostscript demonstration	files

	      Diverse document files

       When looking for	the initialization files "gs_*.ps", the	files  related
       to  fonts,  or the file for the "run" operator, Ghostscript first tries
       to open the file	with the name as given,	using the current working  di-
       rectory if no directory is specified.  If this fails, and the file name
       doesn't specify an explicit directory or	drive (for  instance,  doesn't
       contain	"/" on Unix systems or "\" on MS Windows systems), Ghostscript
       tries directories in this order:

       1.  the directories specified by	the -I switches	in  the	 command  line
	   (see	below),	if any;

       2.  the	directories  specified	by the GS_LIB environment variable, if

       3.  the directories specified by	the GS_LIB_DEFAULT macro in the	Ghost-
	   script makefile when	the executable was built.  When	gs is built on
	   Unix,   GS_LIB_DEFAULT    is	   usually    "/usr/local/share/ghost-
	   script/#.##:/usr/local/share/ghostscript/fonts" where "#.##"	repre-
	   sents the Ghostscript version number.

       Each of these (GS_LIB_DEFAULT, GS_LIB, and -I parameter)	may be	either
       a single	directory or a list of directories separated by	":".

	      String  of  options  to be processed before the command line op-

	      Used to specify an output	device

	      Path names used to search	for fonts

       GS_LIB Path names for initialization files and fonts

       TEMP   Where temporary files are	made

       Ghostscript, or more properly the X11 display  device,  looks  for  the
       following resources under the program name "Ghostscript":

	      The border width in pixels (default = 1).

	      The name of the border color (default = black).

	      The window size and placement, WxH+X+Y (default is NULL).

	      The  number  of  x  pixels  per  inch  (default is computed from
	      WidthOfScreen and	WidthMMOfScreen).

	      The number of y  pixels  per  inch  (default  is	computed  from
	      HeightOfScreen and HeightMMOfScreen).

	      Determines  whether  backing store is to be used for saving dis-
	      play window (default = true).

       See the usage document for a more complete list of resources.   To  set
       these  resources	on Unix, put them in a file such as "~/.Xresources" in
       the following form:

	    Ghostscript*geometry:     612x792-0+0
	    Ghostscript*xResolution: 72
	    Ghostscript*yResolution: 72

       Then merge these	resources into the X server's resource database:

	    % xrdb -merge ~/.Xresources

       The various Ghostscript document	files (above), especially Use.htm.

       See the Usenet news group comp.lang.postscript.

       This document was last revised for Ghostscript version 8.15.

       artofcode LLC and Artifex Software, bug-gs at, are  the
       primary	maintainers of Ghostscript.  Russell J.	Lang, gsview at	ghost-, is the author of most of the	 MS  Windows  code  in	Ghost-

8.15			       22 September 2004			 GS(1)


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