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       growisofs - combined mkisofs frontend/DVD recording program.

       growisofs   [-dry-run]	[-dvd-compat]  [-overburn]  [-speed=1]	-[Z|M]
       /dev/dvd	_mkisofs-options_

       growisofs was originally	designed as a frontend to mkisofs  to  facili-
       tate  appending	of  data  to ISO9660 volumes residing on random-access
       media such as DVD+RW, DVD-RAM, plain files, hard	 disk  partitions.  In
       the  course  of	development  general purpose DVD recording support was
       implemented, and	as of now growisofs supports  not  only	 random-access
       media,  but  even mastering of multisession DVD media such as DVD+R and
       DVD-R/-RW, as well as Blu-ray  Disc.  In	 addition  growisofs  supports
       first-/single-session  recording	 of arbitrary pre-mastered image (for-
       matted as UDF, ISO9660 or any other file	system,	if formatted  at  all)
       to all supported	DVD media types.

       -Z /dev/dvd
	      Burn  an	initial	session	to the selected	device.	A special form
	      of this option is	recognized to support burning of  pre-mastered
	      images. See EXAMPLES section for further details.

       -M /dev/dvd
	      Merge a new session to an	existing one.

	      Print version information	and invoke mkisofs, also with -version

	      Provide maximum  media  compatibility  with  DVD-ROM/-Video.  In
	      write-once  DVD+R	 or DVD-R context this results in unappendable
	      recording	(closed	disk). In DVD+RW context it instructs the log-
	      ical unit	to explicitly burn [otherwise optional]	lead-out.

	      At  dry-run  growisofs  performs	all  the  steps	 till, but not
	      including	the first write	 operation.  Most  notably  check  for
	      "overburn" condition is performed, which implies that mkisofs is
	      invoked and terminated prematurely.

	      Normally single layer DVD	media can accommodate up  to  approxi-
	      mately 4.700.000.000 bytes (in marketing speech 4.7GB). In other
	      words a DVD can contain about 4.377 GiB or 4482 MiB.  Same  kind
	      of   arithmetics	 applies   to	Blu-ray	  Disc	 capacity   of bytes. Anyway, growisofs won't start without this
	      option, if "overburn" condition appears to be unavoidable.

	      An  option  to  control recording	velocity. Most commonly	you'll
	      use -speed=1 with	"no-name"  media,  if  default	speed  setting
	      messes  up  the  media.  Keep in mind that N essentially denotes
	      speed closest to N*1385KBps in DVD or N*4496KBps in Blu-ray Disc
	      case  among  those  offered by unit for currently	mounted	media.
	      The list can be found  in	 dvd+rw-mediainfo  output.  Note  that
	      Blu-ray Disc recordings are commonly performed at	~1/2 of	adver-
	      tised speed, because of defect management	being in effect.

	      More options can be found	in the manpage for mkisofs.

       There  are  several  undocumented   options   commonly	denoted	  with
       -use-the-force-luke prefix. Some	of them	serve debugging	purposes. Some
       require certain knowledge about recording process  or  even  OS	kernel
       internals and as	being such can induce confusing	behaviour. Some	are to
       be used in very specific	situations better recognized by	front-ends  or
       automated  scripts. Rationale behind leaving these options undocumented
       is that those few users who would actually need to  use	them  directly
       can  as	well  consult  the source code or obtain specific instructions

       When using growisofs you	may not	use the	-o option for an output	 file.
       growisofs dumps the image directly to the media;

       You  don't  have	to specify the -C option to create a higher level ses-
       sion on a multisession disk, growisofs will construct one for you;

       Otherwise everything that  applies  to  [multisession]  mastering  with
       mkisofs applies to growisofs as well.  growisofs	needs at least mkisofs
       version 1.14, version  2.0  is  required	 for  multisession  write-once

       Actual  device  names vary from one operating system to another.	We use
       /dev/dvd	as a collective	name or	as symbolic link to the	actual	device
       if  you	wish.  Under  Linux  it	will most likely be an ide-scsi	device
       such as "/dev/scd0." Under NetBSD/OpenBSD it has	to be a	character SCSI
       CD-ROM  device  such as "/dev/rcd0c." Under Solaris it also has to be a
       character  SCSI/ATAPI  CD-ROM  device,  e.g.   "/dev/rdsk/c0t1d0s2"  or
       "/vol/dev/aliases/cdrom0."  And likewise	in HP-UX, IRIX and Mac OS X...

       To master and burn an ISO9660 volume with Joliet	and Rock-Ridge	exten-
       sions on	a DVD or Blu-ray Disc:

	    growisofs -Z /dev/dvd -R -J	/some/files

       To append more data to same media:

	    growisofs -M /dev/dvd -R -J	/more/files

       Make  sure  to  use  the	same options for both initial burning and when
       appending data.

       To finalize the multisession DVD	maintaining maximum compatibility:

	    growisofs -M /dev/dvd=/dev/zero

       To use growisofs	to write a pre-mastered	ISO-image to a DVD:

	    growisofs -dvd-compat -Z /dev/dvd=image.iso

       where image.iso represents an arbitrary object in the filesystem,  such
       as  file,  named	pipe or	device entry. Nothing is growing here and com-
       mand name is not	intuitive in this context.

       If executed under sudo(8) growisofs refuses to start. This is done  for
       the following reason. Naturally growisofs has to	access the data	set to
       be recorded to optical media, either indirectly by letting mkisofs gen-
       erate  ISO9660 layout on-the-fly	or directly if a pre-mastered image is
       to be recorded. Being executed  under  sudo(8),	growisofs  effectively
       grants  sudoers	read access to any file	in the file system. The	situa-
       tion is intensified by the fact that growisofs parses MKISOFS  environ-
       ment  variable  in  order to determine alternative path to mkisofs exe-
       cutable image. This means that being executed under sudo(8),  growisofs
       effectively  grants  sudoers  right  to execute program of their	choice
       with elevated privileges. If you	for any	reason still  find  the	 above
       acceptable and are willing to take the consequences, then consider run-
       ning following wrapper script under sudo(8) in place for	real growisofs

	    unset SUDO_COMMAND
	    export MKISOFS=/path/to/trusted/mkisofs
	    exec growisofs "$@"

       But  note that the recommended alternative to the above "workaround" is
       actually	to install growisofs set-root-uid, in which case it will  drop
       privileges  prior  accessing data or executing mkisofs in order to pre-
       clude unauthorized access to the	data.

       If the media already carries isofs and growisofs	 is  invoked  with  -Z
       option non-interactively, e.g. through cron, it shall fail with "FATAL:
       /dev/dvd	already	carries	isofs!"	Note that only ISO9660 is  recognized,
       you  can	perfectly zap e.g. an UDF filesystem non-interactively.	Recom-
       mendation is to prepare media for unattended usage by re-formatting  or
       nullifying first	64KB in	advance.

       "Overburn"  protection  in  pre-mastered	 image context works only with
       plain files and ISO9660 formatted volumes. E.g. [given  that  /dev/root
       is  an ext2 formatted file system larger	than 4.7GB] /dev/dvd=/dev/root
       is bound	to produce corrupted recording.

       Note that DVD+RW	re-formatting procedure	does not substitute for	blank-
       ing.  If	you want to nullify the	media, e.g. for	privacy	reasons, do it
       explicitly with 'growisofs -Z /dev/dvd=/dev/zero'.

       Playback	of re-writable DVD media, both DVD+RW  and  DVD-RW,  might  be
       limited	in  legacy  DVD-ROM/-Video units. In most cases	this is	due to
       lower reflectivity of such media.

       Even though growisofs supports it, playback of multisession  write-once
       DVD might be limited to the first session for two reasons:

       o      not  all DVD-ROM players are capable of multi-border DVD-R play-
	      back, even less are aware	of DVD+R multisessioning, burner  unit
	      therefore	 might	be  the	 only  one in your vicinity capable of
	      accessing	files written at different occasions;

       o      OS might fail to mount multisession DVD for various reasons;

       The above is not	applicable to  DVD+RW,	DVD-RW	Restricted  Overwrite,
       DVD-RAM	or Blu-ray Disc, as volumes are	grown within a single session.

       When growisofs "runs into" blank	Blu-ray	Disc media, BD-RE or BD-R,  it
       gets pre-formatted with minimal spare area size of 256MB.

       Most   up-to-date   information	 on   dvd+rw-tools   is	 available  at

       The manpage for mkisofs.

       Andy Polyakov <> stands for programming and on-line

       This  manpage  is  currently  maintained	 by Huub Reuver	<h_reuver@man->.

       growisofs is distributed	under GNU GPL.

growisofs 7.1			  1 Mar	2008			 GROWISOFS(1m)


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