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GROUP(5)		    BSD	File Formats Manual		      GROUP(5)

     group -- format of	the group permissions file

     The file /etc/group consists of newline separated ASCII records, one per
     group, containing four colon (`:')	separated fields.  These fields	are as

	   group     Name of the group.
	   passwd    Group's encrypted password.
	   gid	     The group's decimal ID.
	   member    Group members.

     The group field is	the group name used for	granting file access to	users
     who are members of	the group.  The	gid field is the number	associated
     with the group name.  They	should both be unique across the system	(and
     often across a group of systems) since they control file access.  The
     passwd field is an	optional encrypted password.  This field is rarely
     used and an asterisk is normally placed in	it rather than leaving it
     blank.  The member	field contains the names of users granted the privi-
     leges of group.  The member names are separated by	commas without spaces
     or	newlines.  A user is automatically in a	group if that group was	speci-
     fied in their passwd(5) entry and does not	need to	be added to that group
     in	the group file.

     If	YP is active, the group	file also supports YP exclusions and inclu-

     Lines beginning with a `-'	(minus sign) are entries marked	as being ex-
     cluded from any following inclusions, which are marked with a `+' (plus

     Lines of the format


     cause the specified group to be included from the group.byname YP map.
     If	no group name is specified, or the `+' (plus sign) appears alone on a
     line, all groups are included from	the YP map.

     YP	references may appear anywhere in the file, but	the single `+' form
     should be on the last line, for historical	reasons.  Only the first group
     with a specific name encountered, whether in the group file itself, or
     included via YP, will be used.

     Proper YP group support requires consistent group.byname, group.bygid and
     netid.byname YP maps.  See	getgrent(3) and	getgrouplist(3)	for details.

     When YP is	enabled	but temporarily	unavailable, login becomes impossible
     for all users except those	having an entry	in the netid(5)	file.


     passwd(1),	setgroups(2), crypt(3),	initgroups(3), netid(5), passwd(5),

     The group file format first appeared in Version 6 AT&T UNIX.

     The YP file format	first appeared in SunOS.

     The passwd(1) command does	not change the group passwords.

     Lines in /etc/group are limited to	1024 characters.  YP groups are	not
     affected by this limit.

     Groups are	limited	to a maximum of	200 members per	group.

BSD				 June 20, 2012				   BSD


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