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GROPS(1)		    General Commands Manual		      GROPS(1)

       grops - PostScript driver for groff

       grops [ -glmv ] [ -bn ] [ -cn ] [ -Fdir ] [ -ppapersize ]
	     [ -Pprologue ] [ -wn ] [ files... ]

       It is possible to have whitespace between a command line	option and its

       grops translates	the output of GNU troff	to PostScript.	Normally grops
       should be invoked by using the groff command with a -Tps	option.	  (Ac-
       tually,	this  is the default for groff.)  If no	files are given, grops
       will read the standard input.  A	filename of - will also	cause grops to
       read  the standard input.  PostScript output is written to the standard
       output.	When grops is run by groff options can be passed to grops  us-
       ing the groff -P	option.

       -bn    Workaround  broken spoolers and previewers.  Normally grops pro-
	      duces output that	conforms the Document Structuring  Conventions
	      version  3.0.   Unfortunately some spoolers and previewers can't
	      handle such output.  The value of	n controls what	grops does  to
	      its output acceptable to such programs.  A value of 0 will cause
	      grops not	to employ any workarounds.  Add	1 if  no  %%BeginDocu-
	      mentSetup	 and  %%EndDocumentSetup comments should be generated;
	      this is needed for early versions	of TranScript  that  get  con-
	      fused  by	anything between the %%EndProlog comment and the first
	      %%Page comment.  Add 2 if	lines in included files	beginning with
	      %!   should  be  stripped	out; this is needed for	Sun's pageview
	      previewer.  Add 4	if %%Page, %%Trailer and %%EndProlog  comments
	      should  be  stripped  out	 of included files; this is needed for
	      spoolers that don't understand the %%BeginDocument and %%EndDoc-
	      ument  comments.	Add 8 if the first line	of the PostScript out-
	      put should be %!PS-Adobe-2.0 rather than %!PS-Adobe-3.0; this is
	      needed  when  using Sun's	Newsprint with a printer that requires
	      page reversal.  The default value	can be specified by a

		     broken n

	      command in the DESC file.	 Otherwise the default value is	0.

       -cn    Print n copies of	each page.

       -Fdir  Prepend directory	dir/devname to the search path	for  prologue,
	      font,  and device	description files; name	is the name of the de-
	      vice, usually ps.

       -g     Guess the	page length.   This  generates	PostScript  code  that
	      guesses  the page	length.	 The guess will	be correct only	if the
	      imageable	area is	vertically centered on the page.  This	option
	      allows  you  to  generate	 documents that	can be printed both on
	      letter (8.5x11) paper and	on A4 paper without change.

       -l     Print the	document in landscape format.

       -m     Turn manual feed on for the document.

	      Set physical dimension of	output medium.	This overrides the pa-
	      persize  and  paperlength	 commands in the DESC file; it accepts
	      the same arguments as the	papersize command.

	      Use the file prologue-file (in the font path)  as	 the  prologue
	      instead  of  the	default	 prologue  file	prologue.  This	option
	      overrides	the environment	variable GROPS_PROLOGUE.

       -wn    Lines should be drawn using a thickness of n thousandths	of  an
	      em.  If this option is not given,	the line thickness defaults to
	      0.04 em.

       -v     Print the	version	number.

       There are styles	called R, I, B,	and BI mounted	at  font  positions  1
       to  4.  The fonts are grouped into families A, BM, C, H,	HN, N, P and T
       having members in each of these styles:

	      AR     AvantGarde-Book

	      AI     AvantGarde-BookOblique

	      AB     AvantGarde-Demi

	      ABI    AvantGarde-DemiOblique

	      BMR    Bookman-Light

	      BMI    Bookman-LightItalic

	      BMB    Bookman-Demi

	      BMBI   Bookman-DemiItalic

	      CR     Courier

	      CI     Courier-Oblique

	      CB     Courier-Bold

	      CBI    Courier-BoldOblique

	      HR     Helvetica

	      HI     Helvetica-Oblique

	      HB     Helvetica-Bold

	      HBI    Helvetica-BoldOblique

	      HNR    Helvetica-Narrow

	      HNI    Helvetica-Narrow-Oblique

	      HNB    Helvetica-Narrow-Bold

	      HNBI   Helvetica-Narrow-BoldOblique

	      NR     NewCenturySchlbk-Roman

	      NI     NewCenturySchlbk-Italic

	      NB     NewCenturySchlbk-Bold

	      NBI    NewCenturySchlbk-BoldItalic

	      PR     Palatino-Roman

	      PI     Palatino-Italic

	      PB     Palatino-Bold

	      PBI    Palatino-BoldItalic

	      TR     Times-Roman

	      TI     Times-Italic

	      TB     Times-Bold

	      TBI    Times-BoldItalic

       There is	also the following font	which is not a member of a family:

	      ZCMI   ZapfChancery-MediumItalic

       There are also some special fonts called	SS and S.   Zapf  Dingbats  is
       available  as  ZD  and a	reversed version of ZapfDingbats (with symbols
       pointing	in the opposite	direction) is available	as ZDR;	 most  charac-
       ters in these fonts are unnamed and must	be accessed using \N.

       The  default  color  for	 \m and	\M is black; for colors	defined	in the
       `rgb' color space, setrgbcolor is used, for `cmy' and  `cmyk'  setcmyk-
       color, and for `gray' setgray.

       grops  understands  various X commands produced using the \X escape se-
       quence; grops will only interpret commands that begin with a ps:	tag.

       \X'ps: exec code'
	      This executes the	arbitrary PostScript commands  in  code.   The
	      PostScript  currentpoint	will  be set to	the position of	the \X
	      command before executing code.  The origin will be  at  the  top
	      left  corner  of	the page, and y	coordinates will increase down
	      the page.	 A procedure u will be	defined	 that  converts	 groff
	      units to the coordinate system in	effect.	 For example,

		     .nr x 1i
		     \X'ps: exec \nx u 0 rlineto stroke'

	      will  draw  a  horizontal	 line  one  inch  long.	 code may make
	      changes to the graphics state, but any changes will persist only
	      to the end of the	page.  A dictionary containing the definitions
	      specified	by the def and mdef will be on top of  the  dictionary
	      stack.   If  your	 code adds definitions to this dictionary, you
	      should allocate space for	them using \X'ps mdef n'.  Any defini-
	      tions  will  persist only	until the end of the page.  If you use
	      the \Y escape sequence with an argument that names a macro, code
	      can extend over multiple lines.  For example,

		     .nr x 1i
		     .de y
		     ps: exec
		     \nx u 0 rlineto

	      is another way to	draw a horizontal line one inch	long.

       \X'ps: file name'
	      This  is the same	as the exec command except that	the PostScript
	      code is read from	file name.

       \X'ps: def code'
	      Place a PostScript definition contained in code in the prologue.
	      There  should  be	 at  most one definition per \X	command.  Long
	      definitions can be split over several \X commands; all the  code
	      arguments	are simply joined together separated by	newlines.  The
	      definitions are placed in	a dictionary  which  is	 automatically
	      pushed on	the dictionary stack when an exec command is executed.
	      If you use the \Y	escape sequence	with an	argument that names  a
	      macro, code can extend over multiple lines.

       \X'ps: mdef n code'
	      Like  def,  except  that	code  may contain up to	n definitions.
	      grops needs to know how many definitions code contains  so  that
	      it  can  create  an appropriately	sized PostScript dictionary to
	      contain them.

       \X'ps: import file llx lly urx ury width	[ height ]'
	      Import a PostScript graphic from file.  The arguments llx,  lly,
	      urx, and ury give	the bounding box of the	graphic	in the default
	      PostScript coordinate system; they should	all be	integers;  llx
	      and  lly are the x and y coordinates of the lower	left corner of
	      the graphic; urx and ury are the x and y coordinates of the  up-
	      per  right  corner of the	graphic; width and height are integers
	      that give	the desired width and height in	 groff	units  of  the
	      graphic.	 The  graphic will be scaled so	that it	has this width
	      and height and translated	so that	the lower left corner  of  the
	      graphic  is  located at the position associated with \X command.
	      If the height argument is	omitted	it will	be scaled uniformly in
	      the x and	y directions so	that it	has the	specified width.  Note
	      that the contents	of the	\X  command  are  not  interpreted  by
	      troff;  so  vertical  space for the graphic is not automatically
	      added, and the width and height arguments	 are  not  allowed  to
	      have  attached  scaling indicators.  If the PostScript file com-
	      plies with the Adobe Document Structuring	Conventions  and  con-
	      tains  a %%BoundingBox comment, then the bounding	box can	be au-
	      tomatically extracted from within	groff by using	the  psbb  re-

	      The  -mps	 macros	 (which	are automatically loaded when grops is
	      run by the groff command)	include	a PSPIC	macro which  allows  a
	      picture to be easily imported.  This has the format

		     .PSPIC [-L|-R|-I n] file [width [height]]

	      file  is the name	of the file containing the illustration; width
	      and height give the desired width	and  height  of	 the  graphic.
	      The  width  and height arguments may have	scaling	indicators at-
	      tached; the default scaling indicator is	i.   This  macro  will
	      scale the	graphic	uniformly in the x and y directions so that it
	      is no more than width wide and height  high.   By	 default,  the
	      graphic  will be horizontally centered.  The -L and -R cause the
	      graphic to be left-aligned and right-aligned respectively.   The
	      -I option	causes the graphic to be indented by n.

       \X'ps: invis'
       \X'ps: endinvis'
	      No  output  will be generated for	text and drawing commands that
	      are bracketed with these \X commands.  These  commands  are  in-
	      tended  for  use when output from	troff will be previewed	before
	      being processed with grops; if the previewer is unable  to  dis-
	      play  certain characters or other	constructs, then other substi-
	      tute characters or constructs can	 be  used  for	previewing  by
	      bracketing them with these \X commands.

	      For  example,  gxditview	is  not	 able to display a proper \(em
	      character	because	the standard X11 fonts do not provide it; this
	      problem can be overcome by executing the following request

		     .char \(em	\X'ps: invis'\
		     \Z'\v'-.25m'\h'.05m'\D'l .9m 0'\h'.05m''\
		     \X'ps: endinvis'\(em

	      In this case, gxditview will be unable to	display	the \(em char-
	      acter and	will draw the line, whereas grops will print the  \(em
	      character	and ignore the line.

       The  input  to grops must be in the format output by troff(1).  This is
       described in groff_out(5).  In addition the device and font description
       files  for  the device used must	meet certain requirements.  The	device
       and font	description files supplied for ps device meet  all  these  re-
       quirements.   afmtodit(1)  can  be  used	 to create font	files from AFM
       files.  The resolution must be an integer  multiple  of	72  times  the
       sizescale.  The ps device uses a	resolution of 72000 and	a sizescale of
       1000.  The device description file should contain a command

	      paperlength n

       which says that output should be	generated which	is suitable for	print-
       ing  on	a  page	 whose	length	is n machine units.  Common values are
       792000 for letter paper and 841890 for paper in	A4  format.   Alterna-
       tively, it can contain

	      papersize	string

       to  specify a paper size; see groff_font(5) for more information.  Each
       font description	file must contain a command

	      internalname psname

       which says that the PostScript name of the font is psname.  It may also
       contain a command

	      encoding enc_file

       which  says  that the PostScript	font should be reencoded using the en-
       coding described	in enc_file; this file should consist of a sequence of
       lines of	the form:

	      pschar code

       where  pschar  is the PostScript	name of	the character, and code	is its
       position	in the encoding	expressed as a decimal integer.	 Lines	start-
       ing  with  #  and blank lines are ignored.  The code for	each character
       given in	the font file must correspond to the code for the character in
       encoding	 file,	or to the code in the default encoding for the font if
       the PostScript font is not to be	reencoded.  This code can be used with
       the  \N	escape	sequence in troff to select the	character, even	if the
       character does not have a groff name.  Every character in the font file
       must  exist  in	the  PostScript	font, and the widths given in the font
       file must match the widths used in the PostScript font.	grops will as-
       sume  that  a  character	 with a	groff name of space is blank (makes no
       marks on	the page); it can make use of such  a  character  to  generate
       more efficient and compact PostScript output.

       grops  can  automatically  include  the downloadable fonts necessary to
       print the document.  Any	downloadable  fonts  which  should,  when  re-
       quired,	 be   included	 by   grops   must   be	 listed	 in  the  file
       /usr/share/groff_font/devps/download; this should consist of  lines  of
       the form

	      font filename

       where font is the PostScript name of the	font, and filename is the name
       of the file containing the font;	lines beginning	with # and blank lines
       are  ignored;  fields may be separated by tabs or spaces; filename will
       be searched for using the same mechanism	that is	used  for  groff  font
       metric files.  The download file	itself will also be searched for using
       this mechanism; currently, only the first found file in the  font  path
       is used.

       If  the	file  containing a downloadable	font or	imported document con-
       forms to	the Adobe Document Structuring Conventions,  then  grops  will
       interpret any comments in the files sufficiently	to ensure that its own
       output is conforming.  It will also supply any  needed  font  resources
       that  are  listed  in  the download file	as well	as any needed file re-
       sources.	 It is also able to handle inter-resource  dependencies.   For
       example,	suppose	that you have a	downloadable font called Garamond, and
       also a downloadable font	called Garamond-Outline	which depends on Gara-
       mond (typically it would	be defined to copy Garamond's font dictionary,
       and change the PaintType), then it is necessary for Garamond to be  ap-
       pear  before  Garamond-Outline  in the PostScript document.  grops will
       handle this automatically provided that the downloadable	font file  for
       Garamond-Outline	 indicates  its	dependence on Garamond by means	of the
       Document	Structuring Conventions, for example  by  beginning  with  the
       following lines

	      %!PS-Adobe-3.0 Resource-Font
	      %%DocumentNeededResources: font Garamond
	      %%IncludeResource: font Garamond

       In this case both Garamond and Garamond-Outline would need to be	listed
       in the download file.  A	downloadable font should not include  its  own
       name in a %%DocumentSuppliedResources comment.

       grops will not interpret	%%DocumentFonts	comments.  The %%DocumentNeed-
       edResources, %%DocumentSuppliedResources, %%IncludeResource, %%BeginRe-
       source  and %%EndResource comments (or possibly the old %%DocumentNeed-
       edFonts,	%%DocumentSuppliedFonts, %%IncludeFont,	%%BeginFont and	%%End-
       Font comments) should be	used.

   TrueType fonts
       TrueType	 fonts	can  be	 used with grops if converted first to Type 42
       format, an especial PostScript wrapper equivalent  to  the  PFA	format
       mentioned in pfbtops(1).	 There are several different methods to	gener-
       ate a type42 wrapper and	most of	them involve the use of	 a  PostScript
       interpreter  such as Ghostscript	-- see gs(1).  Yet, the	easiest	method
       involves	the use	 of  the  application  ttftot42.   This	 program  uses
       freetype(3)  (version 1.3.1) to generate	type42 font wrappers and well-
       formed AFM files	that can be fed	to the afmtodit(1)  script  to	create
       appropriate  metric files.  The resulting font wrappers should be added
       to the download file.  ttftot42 source code can be downloaded from <

	      If this is set to	foo, then grops	will use the file foo (in  the
	      font  path)  instead of the default prologue file	prologue.  The
	      option -P	overrides this environment variable.

	      Device description file.

	      Font description file for	font F.

	      List of downloadable fonts.

	      Encoding used for	text fonts.

	      Macros for use with grops; automatically loaded by troffrc

	      Definition of PSPIC macro, automatically loaded by ps.tmac.

	      Macros to	disable	use of characters not present in  older	 Post-
	      Script printers (e.g. `eth' or `thorn').

	      Temporary	file.

       afmtodit(1),  groff(1), troff(1), psbb(1), groff_out(5),	groff_font(5),

Groff Version 1.18.1	       14 February 2003			      GROPS(1)


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