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GROPS(1)		    General Commands Manual		      GROPS(1)

NAME
       grops - PostScript driver for groff

SYNOPSIS
       grops [ -glmv ] [ -bn ] [ -cn ] [ -wn ] [ -Fdir ] [ -Pprologue ]
	     [ files...	]

       It is possible to have whitespace between a command line	option and its
       parameter.

DESCRIPTION
       grops translates	the output of GNU troff	to PostScript.	Normally grops
       should be invoked by using the groff command with a -Tps	option.	  (Ac-
       tually,	this  is the default for groff.)  If no	files are given, grops
       will read the standard input.  A	filename of - will also	cause grops to
       read  the standard input.  PostScript output is written to the standard
       output.	When grops is run by groff options can be passed to grops  us-
       ing the groff -P	option.

OPTIONS
       -bn    Workaround  broken spoolers and previewers.  Normally grops pro-
	      duces output that	conforms the Document Structuring  Conventions
	      version  3.0.   Unfortunately some spoolers and previewers can't
	      handle such output.  The value of	n controls what	grops does  to
	      its output acceptable to such programs.  A value of 0 will cause
	      grops not	to employ any workarounds.  Add	1 if  no  %%BeginDocu-
	      mentSetup	 and  %%EndDocumentSetup comments should be generated;
	      this is needed for early versions	of TranScript  that  get  con-
	      fused  by	anything between the %%EndProlog comment and the first
	      %%Page comment.  Add 2 if	lines in included files	beginning with
	      %!   should  be  stripped	out; this is needed for	Sun's pageview
	      previewer.  Add 4	if %%Page, %%Trailer and %%EndProlog  comments
	      should  be  stripped  out	 of included files; this is needed for
	      spoolers that don't understand the %%BeginDocument and %%EndDoc-
	      ument  comments.	Add 8 if the first line	of the PostScript out-
	      put should be %!PS-Adobe-2.0 rather than %!PS-Adobe-3.0; this is
	      needed  when  using Sun's	Newsprint with a printer that requires
	      page reversal.  The default value	can be specified by a

		     broken n

	      command in the DESC file.	 Otherwise the default value is	0.

       -cn    Print n copies of	each page.

       -g     Guess the	page length.   This  generates	PostScript  code  that
	      guesses  the page	length.	 The guess will	be correct only	if the
	      imageable	area is	vertically centered on the page.  This	option
	      allows  you  to  generate	 documents that	can be printed both on
	      letter (8.5x11) paper and	on A4 paper without change.

       -l     Print the	document in landscape format.

       -m     Turn manual feed on for the document.

       -Fdir  Prepend directory	dir/devname to the search path	for  prologue,
	      font,  and device	description files; name	is the name of the de-
	      vice, usually ps.

       -Pprologue-file
	      Use the file prologue-file (in the font path)  as	 the  prologue
	      instead  of  the	default	 prologue  file	prologue.  This	option
	      overrides	the environment	variable GROPS_PROLOGUE.

       -wn    Lines should be drawn using a thickness of n thousandths	of  an
	      em.

       -v     Print the	version	number.

USAGE
       There  are styles called	R, I, B, and BI	mounted	at font	positions 1 to
       4.  The fonts are grouped into families A, BM, C, H, HN,	 N,  P	and  T
       having members in each of these styles:

       AR     AvantGarde-Book

       AI     AvantGarde-BookOblique

       AB     AvantGarde-Demi

       ABI    AvantGarde-DemiOblique

       BMR    Bookman-Light

       BMI    Bookman-LightItalic

       BMB    Bookman-Demi

       BMBI   Bookman-DemiItalic

       CR     Courier

       CI     Courier-Oblique

       CB     Courier-Bold

       CBI    Courier-BoldOblique

       HR     Helvetica

       HI     Helvetica-Oblique

       HB     Helvetica-Bold

       HBI    Helvetica-BoldOblique

       HNR    Helvetica-Narrow

       HNI    Helvetica-Narrow-Oblique

       HNB    Helvetica-Narrow-Bold

       HNBI   Helvetica-Narrow-BoldOblique

       NR     NewCenturySchlbk-Roman

       NI     NewCenturySchlbk-Italic

       NB     NewCenturySchlbk-Bold

       NBI    NewCenturySchlbk-BoldItalic

       PR     Palatino-Roman

       PI     Palatino-Italic

       PB     Palatino-Bold

       PBI    Palatino-BoldItalic

       TR     Times-Roman

       TI     Times-Italic

       TB     Times-Bold

       TBI    Times-BoldItalic

       There is	also the following font	which is not a member of a family:

       ZCMI   ZapfChancery-MediumItalic

       There  are  also	 some special fonts called SS and S.  Zapf Dingbats is
       available as ZD and a reversed version of  ZapfDingbats	(with  symbols
       pointing	 in  the opposite direction) is	available as ZDR; most charac-
       ters in these fonts are unnamed and must	be accessed using \N.

       grops understands various X commands produced using the \X  escape  se-
       quence; grops will only interpret commands that begin with a ps:	tag.

       \X'ps: exec code'
	      This  executes  the  arbitrary PostScript	commands in code.  The
	      PostScript currentpoint will be set to the position  of  the  \X
	      command  before  executing  code.	 The origin will be at the top
	      left corner of the page, and y coordinates  will	increase  down
	      the  page.   A  procedure	 u will	be defined that	converts groff
	      units to the coordinate system in	effect.	 For example,

		     .nr x 1i
		     \X'ps: exec \nx u 0 rlineto stroke'

	      will draw	a horizontal  line  one	 inch  long.   code  may  make
	      changes to the graphics state, but any changes will persist only
	      to the end of the	page.  A dictionary containing the definitions
	      specified	 by  the def and mdef will be on top of	the dictionary
	      stack.  If your code adds	definitions to	this  dictionary,  you
	      should allocate space for	them using \X'ps mdef n'.  Any defini-
	      tions will persist only until the	end of the page.  If  you  use
	      the \Y escape sequence with an argument that names a macro, code
	      can extend over multiple lines.  For example,

		     .nr x 1i
		     .de y
		     ps: exec
		     \nx u 0 rlineto
		     stroke
		     ..
		     \Yy

	      is another way to	draw a horizontal line one inch	long.

       \X'ps: file name'
	      This is the same as the exec command except that the  PostScript
	      code is read from	file name.

       \X'ps: def code'
	      Place a PostScript definition contained in code in the prologue.
	      There should be at most one definition  per  \X  command.	  Long
	      definitions  can be split	over several \X	commands; all the code
	      arguments	are simply joined together separated by	newlines.  The
	      definitions  are	placed	in a dictionary	which is automatically
	      pushed on	the dictionary stack when an exec command is executed.
	      If  you use the \Y escape	sequence with an argument that names a
	      macro, code can extend over multiple lines.

       \X'ps: mdef n code'
	      Like def,	except that code may  contain  up  to  n  definitions.
	      grops  needs  to know how	many definitions code contains so that
	      it can create an appropriately sized  PostScript	dictionary  to
	      contain them.

       \X'ps: import file llx lly urx ury width	[ height ]'
	      Import  a	PostScript graphic from	file.  The arguments llx, lly,
	      urx, and ury give	the bounding box of the	graphic	in the default
	      PostScript  coordinate  system; they should all be integers; llx
	      and lly are the x	and y coordinates of the lower left corner  of
	      the  graphic; urx	and ury	are the	x and y	coordinates of the up-
	      per right	corner of the graphic; width and height	 are  integers
	      that  give  the  desired	width and height in groff units	of the
	      graphic.	The graphic will be scaled so that it has  this	 width
	      and  height  and translated so that the lower left corner	of the
	      graphic is located at the	position associated with  \X  command.
	      If the height argument is	omitted	it will	be scaled uniformly in
	      the x and	y directions so	that it	has the	specified width.  Note
	      that  the	 contents  of  the  \X	command	are not	interpreted by
	      troff; so	vertical space for the graphic	is  not	 automatically
	      added,  and  the	width  and height arguments are	not allowed to
	      have attached scaling indicators.	 If the	PostScript  file  com-
	      plies  with  the Adobe Document Structuring Conventions and con-
	      tains a %%BoundingBox comment, then the bounding box can be  au-
	      tomatically  extracted  from  within groff by using the psbb re-
	      quest.

	      The -mps macros (which are automatically loaded  when  grops  is
	      run  by  the groff command) include a PSPIC macro	which allows a
	      picture to be easily imported.  This has the format

		     .PSPIC [ -L | -R |	-I n ]	file [ width [ height ]]

	      file is the name of the file containing the illustration;	 width
	      and  height  give	 the  desired width and	height of the graphic.
	      The width	and height arguments may have scaling  indicators  at-
	      tached;  the  default  scaling  indicator	is i.  This macro will
	      scale the	graphic	uniformly in the x and y directions so that it
	      is  no  more  than  width	wide and height	high.  By default, the
	      graphic will be horizontally centered.  The -L and -R cause  the
	      graphic  to be left-aligned and right-aligned respectively.  The
	      -I option	causes the graphic to be indented by n.

       \X'ps: invis'
       \X'ps: endinvis'
	      No output	will be	generated for text and drawing	commands  that
	      are  bracketed  with  these \X commands.	These commands are in-
	      tended for use when output from troff will be  previewed	before
	      being  processed	with grops; if the previewer is	unable to dis-
	      play certain characters or other constructs, then	other  substi-
	      tute  characters	or  constructs	can  be	used for previewing by
	      bracketing them with these \X commands.

	      For example, gxditview is	not able  to  display  a  proper  \(em
	      character	because	the standard X11 fonts do not provide it; this
	      problem can be overcome by executing the following request

		     .char \(em	\X'ps: invis'\
		     \Z'\v'-.25m'\h'.05m'\D'l .9m 0'\h'.05m''\
		     \X'ps: endinvis'\(em

	      In this case, gxditview will be unable to	display	the \(em char-
	      acter  and will draw the line, whereas grops will	print the \(em
	      character	and ignore the line.

       The input to grops must be in the format	output by troff(1).   This  is
       described in groff_out(5).  In addition the device and font description
       files for the device used must meet certain requirements.   The	device
       and  font  description  files supplied for ps device meet all these re-
       quirements.  afmtodit(1)	can be used to	create	font  files  from  AFM
       files.	The  resolution	 must  be  an integer multiple of 72 times the
       sizescale.  The ps device uses a	resolution of 72000 and	a sizescale of
       1000.  The device description file should contain a command

	      paperlength n

       which says that output should be	generated which	is suitable for	print-
       ing on a	page whose length is n machine units.  Each  font  description
       file must contain a command

	      internalname psname

       which says that the PostScript name of the font is psname.  It may also
       contain a command

	      encoding enc_file

       which says that the PostScript font should be reencoded using  the  en-
       coding described	in enc_file; this file should consist of a sequence of
       lines of	the form:

	      pschar code

       where pschar is the PostScript name of the character, and code  is  its
       position	 in the	encoding expressed as a	decimal	integer.  The code for
       each character given in the font	file must correspond to	the  code  for
       the  character in encoding file,	or to the code in the default encoding
       for the font if the PostScript font is not to be	reencoded.  This  code
       can  be used with the \N	escape sequence	in troff to select the charac-
       ter, even if the	character does not have	a groff	name.  Every character
       in  the	font  file  must  exist	in the PostScript font,	and the	widths
       given in	the font file must match the widths  used  in  the  PostScript
       font.  grops will assume	that a character with a	groff name of space is
       blank (makes no marks on	the page); it can make use of such a character
       to generate more	efficient and compact PostScript output.

       grops  can  automatically  include  the downloadable fonts necessary to
       print the document.  Any	downloadable  fonts  which  should,  when  re-
       quired,	 be   included	 by   grops   must   be	 listed	 in  the  file
       /usr/share/groff_font/devps/download; this should consist of  lines  of
       the form

	      font  filename

       where font is the PostScript name of the	font, and filename is the name
       of the file containing the font;	lines beginning	with # and blank lines
       are  ignored;  fields may be separated by tabs or spaces; filename will
       be searched for using the same mechanism	that is	used  for  groff  font
       metric files.  The download file	itself will also be searched for using
       this mechanism.

       If the file containing a	downloadable font or  imported	document  con-
       forms  to  the  Adobe Document Structuring Conventions, then grops will
       interpret any comments in the files sufficiently	to ensure that its own
       output  is  conforming.	 It will also supply any needed	font resources
       that are	listed in the download file as well as	any  needed  file  re-
       sources.	  It  is also able to handle inter-resource dependencies.  For
       example,	suppose	that you have a	downloadable font called Garamond, and
       also a downloadable font	called Garamond-Outline	which depends on Gara-
       mond (typically it would	be defined to copy Garamond's font dictionary,
       and  change the PaintType), then	it is necessary	for Garamond to	be ap-
       pear before Garamond-Outline in the PostScript  document.   grops  will
       handle  this automatically provided that	the downloadable font file for
       Garamond-Outline	indicates its dependence on Garamond by	means  of  the
       Document	 Structuring  Conventions,  for	 example by beginning with the
       following lines

	      %!PS-Adobe-3.0 Resource-Font
	      %%DocumentNeededResources: font Garamond
	      %%EndComments
	      %%IncludeResource: font Garamond

       In this case both Garamond and Garamond-Outline would need to be	listed
       in  the	download file.	A downloadable font should not include its own
       name in a %%DocumentSuppliedResources comment.

       grops will not interpret	%%DocumentFonts	comments.  The %%DocumentNeed-
       edResources, %%DocumentSuppliedResources, %%IncludeResource, %%BeginRe-
       source and %%EndResource	comments (or possibly the old  %%DocumentNeed-
       edFonts,	%%DocumentSuppliedFonts, %%IncludeFont,	%%BeginFont and	%%End-
       Font comments) should be	used.

ENVIRONMENT
       GROPS_PROLOGUE
	      If this is set to	foo, then grops	will use the file foo (in  the
	      font  path)  instead of the default prologue file	prologue.  The
	      option -P	overrides this environment variable.

FILES
       /usr/share/groff_font/devps/DESC
	      Device description file.

       /usr/share/groff_font/devps/F
	      Font description file for	font F.

       /usr/share/groff_font/devps/download
	      List of downloadable fonts.

       /usr/share/groff_font/devps/text.enc
	      Encoding used for	text fonts.

       /usr/share/tmac/ps.tmac
	      Macros for use with grops; automatically loaded by troffrc

       /usr/share/tmac/pspic.tmac
	      Definition of PSPIC macro, automatically loaded by ps.tmac.

       /usr/share/tmac/psold.tmac
	      Macros to	disable	use of characters not present in  older	 Post-
	      Script printers (e.g. `eth' or `thorn').

       /tmp/gropsXXXXXX
	      Temporary	file.

SEE ALSO
       afmtodit(1),  groff(1), troff(1), psbb(1), groff_out(5),	groff_font(5),
       groff_char(7)

Groff Version 1.17.2		 6 August 2001			      GROPS(1)

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | OPTIONS | USAGE | ENVIRONMENT | FILES | SEE ALSO

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