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GROFF_HDTBL(7)	       Miscellaneous Information Manual		GROFF_HDTBL(7)

       groff_hdtbl - Heidelberger table	macros for GNU roff

       The  hdtbl  macros consist of four base and three optional macros, con-
       trolled by about	twenty arguments.  The syntax is simple	and similar to
       the HTML	table model and	nearly as flexible: You	can write sequences of
       tokens (macro calls with	their arguments	and content  data),  separated
       by  blanks  and	beginning with a macro call, into the same line	to get
       compact and cleanly arrranged input.  An	advantage of hdtbl is that the
       tables  are constructed without calling a preprocessor; this means that
       groff's full macro capabilities are available.  On the other hand,  ta-
       ble  processing	with  hdtbl  is	much slower than using the tbl(1) pre-
       processor.  A further advantage is that the HTML-like syntax  of	 hdtbl
       will be easily converted	to HTML; this is not implemented yet.

       In  this	and the	next section, we present examples to help users	under-
       stand the basic workflow	of hdtbl.  First of all,  you  must  load  the
       hdtbl.tmac  file.  As with nearly all other groff macro packages, there
       are two possibilities to	do so: Either add the line

	      .mso hdtbl.tmac

       to your roff file before	using any macros of the	hdtbl package, or  add
       the option

	      -m hdtbl

       to  the	command	line of	groff (before the document file	which contains
       hdtbl macros).  Then you	can include on or more tables  in  your	 docu-
       ment,  where  each one must be started and ended	with the .TBL and .ETB
       macros, respectively.

       In this man page, we approximate	the result of each example in the  tty
       format to be as generic as possible since hdtbl currently only supports
       the PS and PDF output devices.

       The simplest well-formed	table consists of just	single	calls  to  the
       four  base  table macros	in the right order.  Here we construct a table
       with only one cell.

	      contents of the table cell

       A tty representation is

	      |	contents-of-the-table-cell			     |

       Equivalent to the above is the following	notation.

	      .TBL .TR .TD "contents of	the table cell"	.ETB

       By default, the formatted table is inserted into	the  surrounding  text
       at  the	place  of  its definition.  If the vertical space isn't	suffi-
       cient, it is placed at the top of the next page.	 Tables	 can  also  be
       stored for later	insertion.

       Using `row-number*column-number'	as the data for	the table cells, a ta-
       ble with	two rows and two columns can be	written	as

	      .TBL cols=2
	      .	 TR .TD	1*1 .TD	1*2
	      .	 TR .TD	2*1 .TD	2*2

       A tty representation is

	      |	1*1			 | 1*2			     |
	      |	2*1			 | 2*2			     |

       Here we see a difference	from HTML tables: The number of	 columns  must
       be  explicitly specified	using the `cols=m' argument (or	indirectly via
       the `width' argument, see below).

       The contents of a table cell is arbitrary; for example, it can  be  an-
       other  table,  without restriction to the nesting depth.	 A given table
       layout can be either constructed	with suitably nested  tables  or  with
       proper  arguments  to .TD and .TH, controlling column and row spanning.
       Note, however, that this	table

	      .	 TR
	      .	   TD
	      .	     nop 1*1 1*2
	      .	 TR
	      .	   TD
	      .	     TBL cols=2	border=
	      .	       TR
	      .		 TD
	      .		   nop 2*1
	      .		 TD
	      .		   nop 2*2
	      .	     ETB

       and this	table

	      .TBL cols=2
	      .	 TR
	      .	   TD colspan=2
	      .	     nop 1*1 1*2
	      .	 TR
	      .	   TD
	      .	     nop 2*1
	      .	   TD
	      .	     nop 2*2

       are similar but not identical (the use of .nop is  purely  cosmetic  to
       get proper indentation).

       The first table looks like

	      |	1*1 1*2						     |
	      |							     |
	      |	2*1			    2*2			     |
	      |							     |

       and the second one like

	      |	1*1 1*2						     |
	      |	2*1			  | 2*2			     |

       Here the	latter table in	a more compact form.

	      .TBL cols=2 .TR ".TD colspan=2" 1*1 1*2
	      .		   TR .TD 2*1 .TD 2*2 .ETB

       If  a macro has one or more arguments (see below), and it is not	start-
       ing a line, everything belonging	to this	macro including	the macro  it-
       self must be enclosed in	double quotes.

       The  order  of macro calls and other tokens follows the HTML model.  In
       the following list, valid predecessors  and  successors	of  all	 hdtbl
       macros are given, together with the possible arguments.

       Macro arguments are separated by	blanks.	 The order of arguments	is ar-
       bitrary;	they are of the	form



	      key='value1 [value2 [...]]'

       with the	only exception of the optional argument	 of  the  macro	 .ETB,
       which is	the string `hold'.  Another possible form is

	      "key=value1 [value2 [...]]"

       However,	 this  is limited to the case where the	macro is the first one
       in the line and not already enclosed in double quotes.

       Argument	values specified below as c are	colors predefined by groff  or
       colors  defined	by the user with the .defcolor request.	 Argument val-
       ues d are decimal numbers with or without decimal point.	 Argument val-
       ues m are natural numbers.  Argument values n are numerical values with
       the usual groff scaling indicators.  Some of the	arguments are specific
       to one or two macros, but most of them can be specified with .TBL, .TR,
       .TD, and	.TH.  These common arguments are explained in the next subsec-

       Most  of	the argument default values can	be changed by the user by set-
       ting corresponding default registers or strings,	as listed below.

       .TBL [args]
	      Begin a new table.

	      predecessor: .TD,	.TH, .ETB, cell	contents
	      successor: .CPTN,	.TR
			    Thickness	of   the   surrounding	 box   border.
			    `border='  (no  value) means neither a surrounding
			    box	border nor any horizontal or vertical  separa-
			    tor	 lines	between	 the  table  rows  and	cells.
			    `border=0' suppresses the surrounding box  border,
			    but	still allows separator lines between cells and
			    Default: `border=.1n' (register `t*b').
		     bc=c   Border color.
			    Default: `bc=red4' (string `t*bc').
		     cols=m Number of table columns.  This argument is	neces-
			    sary  if  more than	one column is in the table and
			    no `width' arguments are present.
			    Default: `cols=1' (register	`t*cols').
		     cpd=n  Cell padding, i.e.,	the extra  space  between  the
			    cell space border and the cell contents.
			    Default: `cpd=.5n' (register `t*cpd').
		     csp=n  Cell  spacing,  i.e.,  the extra space between the
			    table border or vertical or	horizontal  lines  be-
			    tween cells	and the	cellspace.
			    Default: `csp=.5n' (register `t*csp').
			    Horizontal alignment of the	table, if it is	small-
			    er than the	line width.  `tal=l': left  alignment.
			    `tal=c':   centered	  alignment.   `tal=r':	 right
			    Default: `tal=l' (register `t*tal').
		     width='w1 [w2 [...]]'
			    Widths of table cells.  w1,	 w2,  ...  are	either
			    numbers  of	 type  n  or  natural numbers with the
			    pseudo-scaling indicator  `%',  with  the  meaning
			    "percent  of  the  actual  line  length (or	column
			    length for inner tables, respectively)".  If there
			    are	less width values than table columns, the last
			    width value	is used	for the	remaining cells.   The

				   width='1.5i 10%'

			    for	 example  indicates  that  the first column is
			    1.5	inches wide; the remaining columns  take  1/10
			    of the column length each.
			    Default:  The  table  width	 equals	the outer line
			    length or column length; the  columns  have	 equal
			    Height  of	the table.  If the table with its con-
			    tents is lower than	n, the last row	 is  stretched
			    to this value.

       .CPTN [args]
	      Text of caption.

	      The (optionally numbered)	table caption.	.CPTN is optional.

	      predecessor: .TBL
	      successor: .TR
			    Vertical alignment of the table caption.  `val=t':
			    The	caption	is placed above	the  table.   `val=b':
			    The	caption	is placed below	the table.
			    Default: `val=t' (string `t*cptn').

       .TR [args]
	      Begin a new table	row.

	      predecessor: .TBL, .CPTN,	.TD, .TH, .ETB,	cell contents
	      successor: .TD, .TH
			    The	 height	 of  the row.  If a cell in the	row is
			    higher than	n, this	value  is  ignored;  otherwise
			    the	row height is stretched	to n.

       .TD [args [cell contents]]
	      Begin a table data cell.
       .TH [args [cell contents]]
	      Begin a table header cell.

	      Arguments	 and cell contents can be mixed.  The macro .TH	is not
	      really necessary and differs from	.TD only in three default set-
	      tings,  similar  to the <TH> and <TD> HTML tags: The contents of
	      .TH is horizontally and vertically centered and typeset in bold-

	      predecessor: .TR,	.TD, .TH, .ETB,	cell contents
	      successor: .TD, .TH, .TR,	.ETB, cell contents
			    The	width of this cell is the sum of the widths of
			    the	m cells	above and below	this row.
			    The	height of this cell is the sum of the  heights
			    of the m cells left	and right of this column.

			    Remark: Overlapping	of column and row spanning, as
			    in the following table fragment  (the  overlapping
			    happens  in	the second cell	in the second row), is
			    invalid and	causes incorrect results.

				   .TR .TD 1*1 ".TD 1*2	rowspan=2" .TD 1*3
				   .TR ".TD 2*1	colspan=2"	   .TD 2*3

		     A working example for headers and cells with colspan is

			    .TBL cols=3
			    .  TR ".TH colspan=2" header1+2 .TH	header3
			    .  TR .TD 1*1 .TD 1*2 .TD 1*3
			    .  TR .TD 2*1 ".TD colspan=2" 2*2+3

		     This looks	like

			    |	       header1+2	   |	header3	   |
			    | 1*1	   | 1*2	   | 1*3	   |
			    | 2*1	   | 2*2+3			   |

		     A working example with rowspan is

			    .TBL cols=3
			    .  TR
			    .  TD 1*1
			    .  TD rowspan=2 1+2*2
			    .  TD 1*3
			    .  TR
			    .  TD 2*1
			    .  TD 2*3

		     which looks like

			    | 1*1	   | 1+2*2	   | 1*3	   |
			    +--------------+		   +---------------+
			    | 2*1	   |		   | 2*3	   |

       .ETB [hold]
	      End of the table.

	      This macro finishes a table.  It causes one of the following ac-

	      o	 If  the  argument `hold' is given, the	table is held until it
		 is freed by calling the macro .t*free,	which in  turn	prints
		 the  table  immediately, either at the	current	position or at
		 the top of the	next page if its height	is larger than the re-
		 maining space on the page.

	      o	 Otherwise, if the table is higher than	the remaining space on
		 the page, it is printed at the	top of the next	page.

	      o	 If neither of the two above constraints hold,	the  table  is
		 printed immediately at	the place of its definition.

	      predecessor: .TD,	.TH, .ETB, cell	contents
	      successor: .TBL, .TR, .TD, .TH, .ETB, cell contents
		     hold   Prevent  the  table	from being printed until it is
			    freed by calling the macro .t*free.	 This argument
			    is ignored for inner (nested) tables.

       .t*free [n]
	      Free  the	 next  held table or n held tables.  Call this utility
	      macro to print tables which are held by using the	 `hold'	 argu-
	      ment of the .ETB macro.

   Arguments common to .TBL, .TR, .TD, and .TH
       The  arguments described	in this	section	can be specified with the .TBL
       and .TR macros, but they	are eventually passed on to the	 table	cells.
       If  omitted, the	defaults take place, which the user can	change by set-
       ting the	corresponding default registers	or strings, as documented  be-
       low.   Setting  an  argument with the .TBL macro	has the	same effect as
       setting it for all rows in the table.  Setting an argument with	a  .TR
       macro has the same effect as setting it for all the .TH or .TD macro in
       this row.

	      The background color of the table	cells.	This includes the area
	      specified	with the `csp' argument.  The argument `bgc=' (no val-
	      ue) suppresses a background color;  this	makes  the  background
	      Default: `bgc=bisque' (string `t*bgc').
       fgc=c  The foreground color of the cell contents.
	      Default: `fgc=red4' (string `t*fgc').
	      The  font	 family	 for the table.	 name is one of	the groff font
	      families,	for example A for the AvantGarde fonts or HN for  Hel-
	      Default: The font	family found before the	table (string `t*ff').
	      The  font	style for the table.  One of R,	B, I, or BI for	roman,
	      bold, italic, or bold italic, respectively.  As with roff's  .ft
	      request the `fst'	argument can be	used to	specify	the font fami-
	      ly and font style	together, for example  `fst=HNBI'  instead  of
	      `ff=HN' and `fst=BI'.
	      Default:	The  font  style in use	right before the table (string
       fsz='d1 [d2]'
	      A	decimal	or fractional factor d1, by which the point  size  for
	      the table	is changed, and	d2, by which the vertical line spacing
	      is changed.  If d2 is omitted, value d1 is taken for both.
	      Default: `fsz='1.0 1.0'' (string `t*fsz').
	      Horizontal  alignment  of	 the  cell  contents  in  the	table.
	      `hal=l': left alignment.	`hal=c': centered alignment.  `hal=b':
	      both (left and right) alignment.	`hal=r': right alignment.
	      Default: `hal=b' (string `t*hal').
	      Vertical alignment of the	cell contents in the table  for	 cells
	      lower than the current row.  `val=t': alignment below the	top of
	      the cell.	  `val=m':  alignment  in  the	middle	of  the	 cell.
	      `val=b': alignment above the cell	bottom.
	      Default: `val=t' (string `t*val').
	      Horizontal  line between the rows.  If specified with .TD	or .TH
	      this is a	separator line to the cell below.  `hl='  (no  value):
	      no  separator line.  `hl=s': a single separator line between the
	      rows.  `hl=d': a double separator	line.

	      The thickness of the separator lines is the half of  the	border
	      thickness,  but  at  least 0.1 inches.  The distance between the
	      double lines is equal to the line	thickness.

	      Remark: Together with `border=0' for proper formatting the value
	      of  `csp'	must be	at least .05 inches for	single separator lines
	      and .15 inches for double	separator lines.
	      Default: `hl=s' (string `t*hl').
	      Vertical separator line between the cells.   If  specified  with
	      .TD  or  .TH  this is a separator	line to	the cell on the	right.
	      `vl=s': a	single separator line between the  cells.   `vl=d':  a
	      double separator line.  `vl=' (no	value):	no vertical cell sepa-
	      rator lines.  For	more information see the documentation of  the
	      `hl' argument above.
	      Default: `vl=s' (string `t*vl').

       Before creating the first table,	you should configure default values to
       minimize	the markup needed in each table.  The following	 example  sets
       up defaults suitable for	typical	papers:

	      .ds t*bgc	white\"	background color
	      .ds t*fgc	black\"	foreground color
	      .ds t*bc black\"	border color
	      .nr t*cpd	0.1n\"	cell padding

       The  file  examples/common.roff	provides  another example setup	in the
       "minimal	Page setup" section.

       A table which does not fit on a partially filled	page is	printed	 auto-
       matically  on the top of	the next page if you append the	little utility
       macro t*hm to the page header macro of your document's main macro pack-
       age.  For example, say

	      .am pg@top
	      .	 t*hm

       if you use the ms macro package.

       The  macro  t*EM	 checks	 for  held or kept tables, and for missing ETB
       macros (table not closed).  You can append  this	 macro	to  the	 "end"
       macro of	your document's	main macro package.  For example:

	      .am pg@end-text
	      .	 t*EM

       If you use the ms macro package.

       Please send your	commments to the groff mailing list <> or
       directly	to the author.

       The  hdtbl   macro   package   was   written   by   Joachim   Walsdorff

	      provides an overview of GNU roff and details how to invoke groff
	      at the command line.

	      summarizes the roff language and GNU extensions to it.

       tbl(1) describes	the traditional	roff preprocessor for tables.

groff 1.22.4		       29 November 2018			GROFF_HDTBL(7)


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