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GROFF_FILENAMES(7)     Miscellaneous Information Manual	    GROFF_FILENAMES(7)

NAME
       groff_filenames -- filename extensions for roff and groff

DESCRIPTION
       Since the evolution of roff in the 1970s, a whole bunch of filename ex-
       tensions	for roff files were used.

       The roff	extensions refer to preprocessors or  macro  packages.	 These
       extensions are fixed in all Unix-like operating systems.

       Later  on,  groff  added	 some  more  extensions.   We will now write a
       man-page	about these filename extensions.

COMPRESSION OF ROFF FILES
       Each roff file can be optionally	compressed.  That means	that the total
       filename	 ends  with  a compressor name.	 So the	whole filename has the
       structure _name_._extension_[._compression_].

       Mostly known are	the compressor extensions .Z, .gz, and .bzip2.	 Rela-
       tively new is .xz.

       From  now  on,  we  will	 ignore	 the compressions and only comment the
       structure _name_._extension_.

MAN-PAGES
       The Unix	manual pages are shortly named man-pages.  The man-page	 style
       is the best known part of the roff language.

       The  extensions	for man	should be better documented.  So this is docu-
       mented here.

       Files written in	the man	language use the following extension:  *._sec-
       tion_[_group_].

   Man-page Sections
       The traditional man-page	_section_ is a digit from 1 to 8.

       _name_.1
       _name_.2
       _name_.3
       _name_.4
       _name_.5
       _name_.6
       _name_.7
       _name_.8
	      Classic man-page sections.

       Linux added the section number 9	for kernel man-pages.

       _name_.9
	      Linux kernel man-pages

       In  older  commercial  Unix  systems, the 3 characters l, n, and	o were
       also used as section names.  This is today deprecated,  but  there  are
       still documents in this format.

       _name_.l
       _name_.n
       _name_.o
	      Deprecated old man-page sections.

   Man-page Group Extensions
       The _group_ extension in	._section_[_group_] is optional, but it	can be
       any string of word characters.  Usually programmers use	a  group  name
       that  is	 already  used,	e.g.  x	for X Window System documents or tk to
       refer to	the tk programming language.

       Examples:

       groff.1
	      is the man-page for groff	in section 1 without a group

       xargs.1posix.gz
	      is the man-page for the program xargs in	section	 1  and	 group
	      posix; moreover it is compressed with gz (gzip).

       config.5ssl
	      OpenSSL  CONF  library  configuration  files from	section	5 with
	      group ssl.

       dpkg-reconfigure.8cdebconf
	      man-page for the program dpkg-reconfigure	in section 8 and group
	      cdebconf.

   Source of Man-pages
       There are 2 roff	languages for writing man-pages: man and mdoc.

       The names of these 2 styles are taken as	extensions for the source code
       files of	man-pages in the groff package.

       _name_.man
	      traditional Unix-like man-page format within groff source	files.

       _name_.n
	      A	temporary man-page file	produced from a	name.man man-page by a
	      run of make within the groff source package.

       _name_.mdoc
	      Man-page format in BSD.

       _name_.1b
	      Man-page format in heirloom roff .

       _name_.mandoc
	      Files  using  this  extension recognize both man-page formats in
	      groff and	other processors.

TRADITIONAL TROFF EXTENSIONS
   Files Using Macro Packages
       The classical roff languages were interpreted by	the traditional	 troff
       and nroff programs.

       There were several roff languages, each represented by a	macro-package.
       Each of these provided a	suitable file name extension:

       _name_.me
	      roff file	using the me macro package.

       _name_.mm
	      roff file	using the mm macro package

       _name_.ms
	      roff file	using the ms macro package

       All of these classical roff languages and their	extensions  are	 still
       very active in groff.

   Source Code for Macro Packages (TMAC	Files)
       In  traditional	roff the source	code for the macro packages was	stored
       in TMAC files.  Their file names	have the form:

       tmac._package_,
	      _package_	is the name of the macro package without the leading m
	      character, which is reintegrated by the option -m.

       For example, tmac.an is the source for the man macro package.

       In  the	groff  source,	more  suitable file names were integrated, see
       later on.

   Preprocessors
       Moreover, the following preprocessors were used as filename extension:

       _name_.chem
	      for the integration of chemical formulas

       _name_.eqn
	      for the mathematical use of equations

       _name_.pic
	      graphical	tool

       _name_.tbl
	      for tables with tbl

       _name_.ref
	      for files	using the prefer preprocessor

   Classical Roff Files
       _name_.t
       _name_.tr
	      for files	using the roff language	of any kind

NEW GROFF EXTENSIONS
       GNU roff	groff is the actual roff standard, both	for classical roff and
       new  extensions.	  So  even  the	used new extensions in the source code
       should be regarded as actual standard.  The  following  extensions  are
       used instead of classical .t or .tr:

       _name_.groff
       _name_.roff
	      general ending for files using the groff language

   Source Code for Macro Packages (TMAC	Files)
       As  the classical form tmac._package_without_m_,	of the TMAC file names
       is quite	strange, groff added the following structures:

       _package_without_m_.tmac
       m_package_.tmac
       groff_m_package_.tmac

   Files Using new Macro Packages
       Groff uses the following	new macro packages:

       _name_.mmse
	      file with	swedish	mm macros for groff

       _name_.mom
	      files written in the groff macro package mom

       _name_.www
	      files written in HTML-like groff macros.

   Preprocessors and Postprocessors
       _name_.hdtbl
	      a	new tbl	format.	 See groff_hdtbl(7).

       _name_.grap
	      files written for	the graphical grap processor.

       _name_.grn
	      for including gremlin(1),	pictures, see grn(1).

       _name_.pdfroff
	      transform	this file with pdfroff of the groff system

SEE ALSO
       History and future
	      roff(7), man-pages(7), groff_diff(7), groff(7)

       Compression
	      uncompress(1posix), gzip2(1), bzip2(1), xz(1)

       A man-page of the naming	form name(n) can be read in text mode by
	      man n name
       or in graphical mode (PDF) by
	      groffer n	name

       Gunnar Ritter's	Heirloom  roff	project	 <https://github.com/n-t-roff/
       heirloom-doctools>.  You	can get	this package with the shell command:
	      $	git clone https://github.com/n-t-roff/heirloom-doctools

COPYING
       Copyright (C) 2013-2014 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

       This  file  is  part of groff, a	free software project.	You can	redis-
       tribute it and/or modify	it under the terms of the GNU  General	Public
       License	version	 2 (GPL2) as published by the Free Software Foundation
       (FSF).

       The   license   text   can   be	  found	   in	 the	internet    at
       <http://www.gnu.org/licenses>.

AUTHORS
       This file was written by	Bernd Warken <groff-bernd.warken-72@web.de>.

Groff Version 1.22.3		4 November 2014		    GROFF_FILENAMES(7)

NAME | DESCRIPTION | COMPRESSION OF ROFF FILES | MAN-PAGES | TRADITIONAL TROFF EXTENSIONS | NEW GROFF EXTENSIONS | SEE ALSO | COPYING | AUTHORS

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