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GROFF(1)		    General Commands Manual		      GROFF(1)

       groff - front end for the groff document	formatting system

       groff [ -abeghilpstvzCEGNRSUVXZ ] [ -wname ] [ -Wname ] [ -mname	]
	     [ -Fdir ] [ -Idir ] [ -Tdev ] [ -ffam ] [ -Mdir ] [ -dcs ]
	     [ -rcn ] [	-nnum ]	[ -olist ] [ -Parg ] [ -Larg ] [ files... ]

       It is possible to have whitespace between a command line	option and its

       groff is	a front-end to the groff document formatting system.  Normally
       it  runs	 the troff program and a postprocessor appropriate for the se-
       lected device.  Available devices are:

       ps     For PostScript printers and previewers

       dvi    For TeX dvi format.

       X75    For a 75dpi X11 previewer.

       X100   For a 100dpi X11 previewer.

       ascii  For typewriter-like devices.

       latin1 For typewriter-like devices using	the ISO	Latin-1	 (ISO  8859-1)
	      character	set.

       koi8-r For  typewriter-like  devices using the Russian KOI8-R character

       utf8   For typewriter-like devices using	the Unicode (ISO 10646)	 char-
	      acter set	with UTF-8 encoding.

       cp1047 For  typewriter-like  devices which use the EBCDIC code page IBM
	      cp1047 (e.g. OS/390 Unix).

       lj4    For  an  HP  LaserJet4-compatible	 (or  other   PCL5-compatible)

       lbp    For  Canon  CAPSL	 printers (LBP-4 and LBP-8 series laser	print-

       html   To produce HTML output.

       The postprocessor to be used for	a device is specified by  the  postpro
       command	in  the	 device	description file.  This	can be overridden with
       the -X option.

       The default device is ps.  It can optionally  preprocess	 with  any  of
       pic, eqn, grn, grap, tbl, refer,	or soelim.

       Options	without	an argument can	be grouped behind a single -.  A file-
       name of - denotes the standard input.

       The grog	command	can be used to guess the correct groff command to  use
       to format a file.

       -h     Print a help message.

       -e     Preprocess with eqn.

       -t     Preprocess with tbl.

       -g     Preprocess with grn.

       -G     Preprocess with grap.

       -p     Preprocess with pic.

       -s     Preprocess with soelim.

       -Idir  This  option  is as described in soelim(1).  This	option implies
	      the -s option.

       -R     Preprocess with refer.  No mechanism is provided for passing ar-
	      guments to refer because most refer options have equivalent com-
	      mands which can be included in the file.	See refer(1) for  more

       -v     Make programs run	by groff print out their version number.

       -V     Print the	pipeline on stdout instead of executing	it.

       -z     Suppress	output	from  troff.   Only  error  messages  will  be

       -Z     Do not postprocess the output of troff.  Normally	groff will au-
	      tomatically run the appropriate postprocessor.

       -Parg  Pass  arg	 to the	postprocessor.	Each argument should be	passed
	      with a separate -P option.  Note that groff does not  prepend  -
	      to arg before passing it to the postprocessor.

       -l     Send the output to a spooler for printing.  The command used for
	      this is specified	by the print command in	the device description
	      file (if not present, -l has no effect).

       -Larg  Pass  arg	to the spooler.	 Each argument should be passed	with a
	      separate -L option.  Note	that groff does	not prepend -  to  arg
	      before  passing  it  to the postprocessor.  If there is no print
	      command in the device description	file, -L is ignored.

       -Tdev  Prepare output for device	dev.  The default device is ps.

       -X     Preview with gxditview instead of	using the usual	postprocessor.
	      Groff  passes  gxditview	a -printCommand	option which will make
	      the Print	action do what groff would have	done if	the -l	option
	      had been given.  This is unlikely	to produce good	results	except
	      with -Tps.

       -N     Don't allow newlines with	eqn delimiters.	 This is the  same  as
	      the -N option in eqn.

       -S     Safer mode.  Pass	the -S option to pic and disable the following
	      troff requests: .open, .opena, .pso, .sy,	and .pi.  For security
	      reasons, safer mode is enabled by	default.

       -U     Unsafe mode.  Reverts to the old unsafe behaviour.

       -nnum  These are	as described in	troff(1).

	      If  this	is set X, then groff will run Xtroff instead of	troff.
	      This also	applies	to tbl,	pic, eqn, grn, refer, and soelim.   It
	      does  not	apply to grap, grops, grodvi, grotty, grolj4, grohtml,
	      and gxditview.

	      A	colon separated	list of	directories in	which  to  search  for
	      macro  files  in	addition  to  the  default  directories.   See
	      troff(1) for more	details.

	      Default device.

	      A	colon separated	list of	directories in which to	search for the
	      devname  directory in addition to	the default one.  See troff(1)
	      for more details.

	      This search path,	followed by PATH, will be  used	 for  commands
	      executed by groff.  If not set, `/usr/bin' is prepended to PATH.

	      The directory in which temporary files will be created.  If this
	      is not set and TMPDIR is set, temporary files will be created in
	      that  directory.	 Otherwise  temporary files will be created in
	      /tmp.  The grops(1) and refer(1) commands	can  create  temporary

	      Device description file for device name.

	      Font file	for font F of device name.

       Note  that  on  EBCDIC  hosts,  output  devices ascii, latin1, and utf8
       aren't available.  Similarly, cp1047 is not available  on  ASCII	 based
       operating systems.

       To  print  the  man page	foo.1 to the standard output using the latin-1
       output device and less as the pager, the	following command can be used:

	      groff -mandoc -Tlatin1 foo.1 | less

       Alternatively, you can say

	      groff -m mandoc -Tlatin1 foo.1 | less

       James Clark <>

       Report bugs to  Include a  complete,	self-contained
       example that will allow the bug to be reproduced, and say which version
       of groff	you are	using.

       Copyright (C) 1989-2000 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

       groff is	free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it	 under
       the  terms  of  the GNU General Public License as published by the Free
       Software	Foundation; either version 2, or (at your  option)  any	 later

       groff  is  distributed  in the hope that	it will	be useful, but WITHOUT
       ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of  MERCHANTABILITY  or
       FITNESS	FOR  A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See	the GNU	General	Public License
       for more	details.

       You should have received	a copy of the GNU General Public License along
       with  groff;  see the file COPYING.  If not, write to the Free Software
       Foundation, 59 Temple Place - Suite 330,	Boston,	MA 02111-1307, USA.

       The most	recent released	version	 of  groff  is	always	available  for
       anonymous ftp from in the directory gnu/groff.

       groff only supports the freely available	grap implementation written by
       Ted Faber <>.	The actual version can be found	at

       grog(1),	troff(1), tbl(1), pic(1), eqn(1), grn(1), grap(1),  soelim(1),
       refer(1),  grops(1),  grodvi(1),	 grotty(1), grolj4(1), grolbp(1), gro-
       html(1),	 gxditview(1),	groff_font(5),	 groff_out(5),	 groff_man(7),
       groff_ms(7), groff_me(7), groff_char(7)

Groff Version 1.17.2		 6 August 2001			      GROFF(1)


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