Skip site navigation (1)Skip section navigation (2)

FreeBSD Manual Pages

  
 
  

home | help
GPG2(1)			     GNU Privacy Guard 2.2		       GPG2(1)

NAME
       gpg2 - OpenPGP encryption and signing tool

SYNOPSIS
       gpg2 [--homedir dir] [--options file] [options] command [args]

DESCRIPTION
       gpg2 is the OpenPGP part	of the GNU Privacy Guard (GnuPG). It is	a tool
       to provide digital encryption and signing services  using  the  OpenPGP
       standard.  gpg2	features complete key management and all the bells and
       whistles	you would expect from a	full OpenPGP implementation.

       There are two main versions of GnuPG: GnuPG 1.x and GnuPG  2.x.	 GnuPG
       2.x  supports modern encryption algorithms and thus should be preferred
       over GnuPG 1.x.	You only need  to  use	GnuPG  1.x  if	your  platform
       doesn't	support	 GnuPG 2.x, or you need	support	for some features that
       GnuPG 2.x has deprecated, e.g.,	decrypting  data  created  with	 PGP-2
       keys.

       In  contrast to the standalone command gpg from GnuPG 1.x, the 2.x ver-
       sion is commonly	installed under	the name gpg2.

RETURN VALUE
       The program returns 0 if	there are no severe errors, 1 if  at  least  a
       signature was bad, and other error codes	for fatal errors.

       Note  that  signature verification requires exact knowledge of what has
       been signed and by whom it has been signed.  Using only the return code
       is  thus	not an appropriate way to verify a signature by	a script.  Ei-
       ther make proper	use or the status codes	or use the gpgv	tool which has
       been designed to	make signature verification easy for scripts.

WARNINGS
       Use  a good password for	your user account and make sure	that all secu-
       rity issues are always fixed on your  machine.	Also  employ  diligent
       physical	protection to your machine.  Consider to use a good passphrase
       as a last resort	protection to your secret key in the case your machine
       gets  stolen.   It  is  important that your secret key is never leaked.
       Using an	easy to	carry around token or smartcard	with the secret	key is
       often a advisable.

       If you are going	to verify detached signatures, make sure that the pro-
       gram knows about	it; either give	both filenames on the command line  or
       use `-' to specify STDIN.

       For  scripted  or  other	unattended use of gpg make sure	to use the ma-
       chine-parseable interface and not the default interface	which  is  in-
       tended  for direct use by humans.  The machine-parseable	interface pro-
       vides a stable and well documented API independent of the locale	or fu-
       ture  changes of	gpg.  To enable	this interface use the options --with-
       colons and --status-fd.	For certain operations the option --command-fd
       may  come  handy	too.  See this man page	and the	file `DETAILS' for the
       specification of	the interface.	Note that the GnuPG ``info'' pages  as
       well as the PDF version of the GnuPG manual features a chapter on unat-
       tended use of GnuPG.  As	an alternative the library GPGME can  be  used
       as a high-level abstraction on top of that interface.

INTEROPERABILITY
       GnuPG  tries  to	be a very flexible implementation of the OpenPGP stan-
       dard. In	particular, GnuPG implements many of the optional parts	of the
       standard,  such as the SHA-512 hash, and	the ZLIB and BZIP2 compression
       algorithms. It is important to be aware that not	all  OpenPGP  programs
       implement  these	 optional algorithms and that by forcing their use via
       the --cipher-algo, --digest-algo,  --cert-digest-algo,  or  --compress-
       algo  options  in  GnuPG,  it  is  possible to create a perfectly valid
       OpenPGP message,	but one	that cannot be read by the intended recipient.

       There are dozens	of variations of OpenPGP programs available, and  each
       supports	a slightly different subset of these optional algorithms.  For
       example,	until recently,	no (unhacked) version  of  PGP	supported  the
       BLOWFISH	cipher algorithm. A message using BLOWFISH simply could	not be
       read by a PGP user. By default, GnuPG uses the standard OpenPGP prefer-
       ences  system  that  will always	do the right thing and create messages
       that are	usable by all recipients, regardless of	which OpenPGP  program
       they  use.  Only	override this safe default if you really know what you
       are doing.

       If you absolutely must override the safe	default, or if the preferences
       on  a given key are invalid for some reason, you	are far	better off us-
       ing the --pgp6, --pgp7, or --pgp8 options. These	options	 are  safe  as
       they  do	 not  force any	particular algorithms in violation of OpenPGP,
       but rather reduce the available algorithms to a "PGP-safe" list.

COMMANDS
       Commands	are not	distinguished from options except for  the  fact  that
       only  one  command  is allowed.	Generally speaking, irrelevant options
       are silently ignored, and may not be checked for	correctness.

       gpg2 may	be run with no commands. In this case it will print a  warning
       perform	a  reasonable action depending on the type of file it is given
       as input	(an encrypted message is decrypted, a signature	is verified, a
       file containing keys is listed, etc.).

       If  you	run  into any problems,	please add the option --verbose	to the
       invocation to see more diagnostics.

   Commands not	specific to the	function

       --version
	      Print the	program	version	and licensing information.  Note  that
	      you cannot abbreviate this command.

       --help
       -h     Print  a	usage message summarizing the most useful command-line
	      options.	Note that you cannot arbitrarily abbreviate this  com-
	      mand (though you can use its short form -h).

       --warranty
	      Print warranty information.

       --dump-options
	      Print  a	list of	all available options and commands.  Note that
	      you cannot abbreviate this command.

   Commands to select the type of operation

       --sign
       -s     Sign a message. This command may be combined with	--encrypt  (to
	      sign  and	encrypt	a message), --symmetric	(to sign and symmetri-
	      cally encrypt a message),	or both	--encrypt and --symmetric  (to
	      sign  and	encrypt	a message that can be decrypted	using a	secret
	      key or a passphrase).  The signing key is	chosen by  default  or
	      can  be  set explicitly using the	--local-user and --default-key
	      options.

       --clear-sign
       --clearsign
	      Make a cleartext signature.  The content in a  cleartext	signa-
	      ture  is readable	without	any special software. OpenPGP software
	      is only needed to	verify the  signature.	 cleartext  signatures
	      may  modify end-of-line whitespace for platform independence and
	      are not intended to be reversible.  The signing key is chosen by
	      default  or  can	be  set	 explicitly using the --local-user and
	      --default-key options.

       --detach-sign
       -b     Make a detached signature.

       --encrypt
       -e     Encrypt data to one or more public keys.	This  command  may  be
	      combined	with --sign (to	sign and encrypt a message), --symmet-
	      ric (to encrypt a	message	that can be decrypted using  a	secret
	      key  or a	passphrase), or	--sign and --symmetric together	(for a
	      signed message that can be decrypted using a  secret  key	 or  a
	      passphrase).  --recipient	and related options specify which pub-
	      lic keys to use for encryption.

       --symmetric
       -c     Encrypt with a symmetric cipher using a passphrase. The  default
	      symmetric	 cipher	 used  is  AES-128, but	may be chosen with the
	      --cipher-algo option. This command may be	combined  with	--sign
	      (for  a  signed  and symmetrically encrypted message), --encrypt
	      (for a message that may be decrypted  via	 a  secret  key	 or  a
	      passphrase), or --sign and --encrypt together (for a signed mes-
	      sage that	may be decrypted via a secret key  or  a  passphrase).
	      gpg2 caches the passphrase used for symmetric encryption so that
	      a	decrypt	operation may not require that the user	needs to enter
	      the  passphrase.	 The  option  --no-symkey-cache	can be used to
	      disable this feature.

       --store
	      Store only (make a simple	literal	data packet).

       --decrypt
       -d     Decrypt the file given on	the command line (or STDIN if no  file
	      is specified) and	write it to STDOUT (or the file	specified with
	      --output). If the	decrypted file is  signed,  the	 signature  is
	      also  verified. This command differs from	the default operation,
	      as it never writes to the	filename which is included in the file
	      and it rejects files that	don't begin with an encrypted message.

       --verify
	      Assume  that  the	 first argument	is a signed file and verify it
	      without generating any output.  With no arguments, the signature
	      packet  is  read from STDIN.  If only one	argument is given, the
	      specified	file is	expected to include a complete signature.

	      With more	than one argument, the first argument should specify a
	      file  with  a  detached signature	and the	remaining files	should
	      contain the signed data. To read the signed data from STDIN, use
	      `-'  as  the  second filename.  For security reasons, a detached
	      signature	will not read the signed material from	STDIN  if  not
	      explicitly specified.

	      Note:  If	the option --batch is not used,	gpg2 may assume	that a
	      single argument is a file	with a detached	signature, and it will
	      try  to find a matching data file	by stripping certain suffixes.
	      Using this historical feature to verify a	detached signature  is
	      strongly	discouraged;  you  should always specify the data file
	      explicitly.

	      Note: When verifying a cleartext signature, gpg2	verifies  only
	      what  makes  up the cleartext signed data	and not	any extra data
	      outside of the cleartext signature or the	header lines  directly
	      following	the dash marker	line.  The option --output may be used
	      to write out the actual signed data, but there  are  other  pit-
	      falls with this format as	well.  It is suggested to avoid	clear-
	      text signatures in favor of detached signatures.

	      Note: Sometimes the use of the gpgv tool is  easier  than	 using
	      the full-fledged gpg with	this option.  gpgv is designed to com-
	      pare signed data against a list of trusted keys and returns with
	      success only for a good signature.  It has its own manual	page.

       --multifile
	      This  modifies  certain  other commands to accept	multiple files
	      for processing on	the command line or read from STDIN with  each
	      filename	on  a  separate	line. This allows for many files to be
	      processed	at once. --multifile may currently be used along  with
	      --verify,	--encrypt, and --decrypt. Note that --multifile	--ver-
	      ify may not be used with detached	signatures.

       --verify-files
	      Identical	to --multifile --verify.

       --encrypt-files
	      Identical	to --multifile --encrypt.

       --decrypt-files
	      Identical	to --multifile --decrypt.

       --list-keys
       -k
       --list-public-keys
	      List the specified keys.	If no keys  are	 specified,  then  all
	      keys from	the configured public keyrings are listed.

	      Never  use  the  output of this command in scripts or other pro-
	      grams.  The output is intended only for humans and its format is
	      likely  to change.  The --with-colons option emits the output in
	      a	stable,	machine-parseable format, which	is intended for	use by
	      scripts and other	programs.

       --list-secret-keys
       -K     List  the	specified secret keys.	If no keys are specified, then
	      all known	secret keys are	listed.	 A # after  the	 initial  tags
	      sec  or ssb means	that the secret	key or subkey is currently not
	      usable.  We also say that	this key has been taken	 offline  (for
	      example, a primary key can be taken offline by exporting the key
	      using the	command	--export-secret-subkeys).   A  >  after	 these
	      tags  indicate  that the key is stored on	a smartcard.  See also
	      --list-keys.

       --check-signatures
       --check-sigs
	      Same as --list-keys, but the key	signatures  are	 verified  and
	      listed  too.   Note  that	for performance	reasons	the revocation
	      status of	a signing key is not shown.  This command has the same
	      effect as	using --list-keys with --with-sig-check.

	      The  status  of the verification is indicated by a flag directly
	      following	the "sig" tag (and thus	before the flags described be-
	      low.   A	"!" indicates that the signature has been successfully
	      verified,	a "-" denotes a	bad signature and a "%"	is used	if  an
	      error  occurred  while  checking	the signature (e.g. a non sup-
	      ported algorithm).  Signatures  where  the  public  key  is  not
	      available	 are  not  listed;  to	see  their  keyids the command
	      --list-sigs can be used.

	      For each signature listed, there are several  flags  in  between
	      the  signature  status  flag  and	keyid.	These flags give addi-
	      tional information about	each  key  signature.	From  left  to
	      right, they are the numbers 1-3 for certificate check level (see
	      --ask-cert-level), "L" for a local or  non-exportable  signature
	      (see  --lsign-key),  "R"	for  a nonRevocable signature (see the
	      --edit-key command "nrsign"), "P"	for a signature	that  contains
	      a	 policy	 URL (see --cert-policy-url), "N" for a	signature that
	      contains a notation (see --cert-notation), "X"  for  an  eXpired
	      signature	 (see  --ask-cert-expire),  and	the numbers 1-9	or "T"
	      for 10 and above to indicate trust  signature  levels  (see  the
	      --edit-key command "tsign").

       --locate-keys
       --locate-external-keys
	      Locate the keys given as arguments.  This	command	basically uses
	      the same algorithm as used when locating keys for	encryption and
	      may thus be used to see what keys	gpg2 might use.	 In particular
	      external methods as defined by --auto-key-locate are used	to lo-
	      cate  a  key if the arguments comain valid mail addresses.  Only
	      public keys are listed.

	      The variant --locate-external-keys does not consider  a  locally
	      existing	key and	can thus be used to force the refresh of a key
	      via the defined external methods.	 If a fingerprint is given and
	      and   the	 methods  defined  by  --auto-key-locate  define  LDAP
	      servers, the key is fetched from these resources;	 defined  non-
	      LDAP keyservers are skipped.

       --show-keys
	      This commands takes OpenPGP keys as input	and prints information
	      about them in the	same way the command --list-keys does for  lo-
	      cally  stored  key.  In addition the list	options	show-unusable-
	      uids, show-unusable-subkeys, show-notations and show-policy-urls
	      are  also	enabled.  As usual for automated processing, this com-
	      mand should be combined with the option --with-colons.

       --fingerprint
	      List all keys (or	the specified ones) along with	their  finger-
	      prints.  This is the same	output as --list-keys but with the ad-
	      ditional output of a line	with the fingerprint. May also be com-
	      bined  with --check-signatures.  If this command is given	twice,
	      the fingerprints of all secondary	keys  are  listed  too.	  This
	      command also forces pretty printing of fingerprints if the keyid
	      format has been set to "none".

       --list-packets
	      List only	the sequence of	packets.  This command is only	useful
	      for  debugging.	When used with option --verbose	the actual MPI
	      values are dumped	and not	only their  lengths.   Note  that  the
	      output of	this command may change	with new releases.

       --edit-card
       --card-edit
	      Present  a  menu to work with a smartcard. The subcommand	"help"
	      provides an overview on available	commands. For a	 detailed  de-
	      scription,  please see the Card HOWTO at https://gnupg.org/docu-
	      mentation/howtos.html#GnuPG-cardHOWTO .

       --card-status
	      Show the content of the smart card.

       --change-pin
	      Present a	menu to	allow changing the PIN of  a  smartcard.  This
	      functionality  is	also available as the subcommand "passwd" with
	      the --edit-card command.

       --delete-keys name
	      Remove key from the public keyring. In batch mode	 either	 --yes
	      is required or the key must be specified by fingerprint. This is
	      a	safeguard against accidental deletion of  multiple  keys.   If
	      the  exclamation	mark  syntax is	used with the fingerprint of a
	      subkey only that subkey is deleted; if the exclamation  mark  is
	      used  with  the fingerprint of the primary key the entire	public
	      key is deleted.

       --delete-secret-keys name
	      Remove key from the secret keyring. In batch mode	the  key  must
	      be  specified  by	 fingerprint.  The option --yes	can be used to
	      advise gpg-agent not to request a	confirmation.  This extra pre-
	      caution  is  done	because	gpg2 can't be sure that	the secret key
	      (as controlled by	gpg-agent) is only used	for the	given  OpenPGP
	      public  key.   If	 the  exclamation mark syntax is used with the
	      fingerprint of a subkey only the secret part of that  subkey  is
	      deleted; if the exclamation mark is used with the	fingerprint of
	      the primary key only the secret  part  of	 the  primary  key  is
	      deleted.

       --delete-secret-and-public-key name
	      Same as --delete-key, but	if a secret key	exists,	it will	be re-
	      moved first. In batch mode the key must be specified by  finger-
	      print.   The option --yes	can be used to advise gpg-agent	not to
	      request a	confirmation.

       --export
	      Either export all	keys from all keyrings (default	 keyrings  and
	      those  registered	via option --keyring), or if at	least one name
	      is given,	those of the given name. The exported keys are written
	      to  STDOUT  or  to the file given	with option --output.  Use to-
	      gether with --armor to mail those	keys.

       --send-keys keyIDs
	      Similar to --export but sends the	keys to	a keyserver.   Finger-
	      prints may be used instead of key	IDs.  Don't send your complete
	      keyring to a keyserver --- select	only those keys	which are  new
	      or changed by you.  If no	keyIDs are given, gpg2 does nothing.

	      Take  care: Keyservers are by design write only systems and thus
	      it is not	possible to ever delete	keys once they have been  send
	      to a keyserver.

       --export-secret-keys
       --export-secret-subkeys
	      Same  as --export, but exports the secret	keys instead.  The ex-
	      ported keys are written to STDOUT	or to the file given with  op-
	      tion --output.  This command is often used along with the	option
	      --armor to allow for easy	printing of the	key for	paper  backup;
	      however the external tool	paperkey does a	better job of creating
	      backups on paper.	 Note that exporting a secret key can be a se-
	      curity risk if the exported keys are sent	over an	insecure chan-
	      nel.

	      The second form of the command has the special property to  ren-
	      der  the	secret	part of	the primary key	useless; this is a GNU
	      extension	to OpenPGP and other implementations can  not  be  ex-
	      pected  to  successfully import such a key.  Its intended	use is
	      in generating a full key with an additional signing subkey on  a
	      dedicated	 machine.   This  command then exports the key without
	      the primary key to the main machine.

	      GnuPG may	ask you	to enter the passphrase	for the	key.  This  is
	      required,	 because  the internal protection method of the	secret
	      key is different from the	one specified by the OpenPGP protocol.

       --export-ssh-key
	      This command is used to export a key in the OpenSSH  public  key
	      format.	It  requires the specification of one key by the usual
	      means and	exports	the latest valid subkey	which has an authenti-
	      cation  capability  to  STDOUT  or to the	file given with	option
	      --output.	 That output can directly be added  to	ssh's  `autho-
	      rized_key' file.

	      By  specifying the key to	export using a key ID or a fingerprint
	      suffixed with an exclamation mark	(!), a specific	subkey or  the
	      primary  key  can	 be exported.  This does not even require that
	      the key has the authentication capability	flag set.

       --import
       --fast-import
	      Import/merge keys. This adds the given keys to the keyring.  The
	      fast version is currently	just a synonym.

	      There  are  a  few  other	options	which control how this command
	      works.  Most notable here	is the --import-options	merge-only op-
	      tion which does not insert new keys but does only	the merging of
	      new signatures, user-IDs and subkeys.

       --receive-keys keyIDs
       --recv-keys keyIDs
	      Import the keys with the given keyIDs from a keyserver.

       --refresh-keys
	      Request updates from a keyserver for keys	that already exist  on
	      the  local  keyring.  This is useful for updating	a key with the
	      latest signatures, user IDs, etc.	Calling	this with no arguments
	      will refresh the entire keyring.

       --search-keys names
	      Search  the  keyserver for the given names. Multiple names given
	      here will	be joined together to create the search	string for the
	      keyserver.  Note that keyservers search for names	in a different
	      and simpler way than gpg does.  The best choice is to use	a mail
	      address.	 Due  to  data privacy reasons keyservers may even not
	      even allow searching by user id or mail  address	and  thus  may
	      only  return results when	being used with	the --recv-key command
	      to search	by key fingerprint or keyid.

       --fetch-keys URIs
	      Retrieve keys located at the specified URIs. Note	that different
	      installations  of	 GnuPG	may support different protocols	(HTTP,
	      FTP, LDAP, etc.).	 When using HTTPS  the	system	provided  root
	      certificates are used by this command.

       --update-trustdb
	      Do  trust	 database  maintenance.	This command iterates over all
	      keys and builds the Web of Trust.	This is	an interactive command
	      because it may have to ask for the "ownertrust" values for keys.
	      The user has to give an estimation of how	 far  she  trusts  the
	      owner  of	 the  displayed	 key to	correctly certify (sign) other
	      keys. GnuPG only asks for	the ownertrust value if	it has not yet
	      been  assigned to	a key. Using the --edit-key menu, the assigned
	      value can	be changed at any time.

       --check-trustdb
	      Do trust database	maintenance  without  user  interaction.  From
	      time  to time the	trust database must be updated so that expired
	      keys or signatures and the resulting changes in the Web of Trust
	      can  be tracked. Normally, GnuPG will calculate when this	is re-
	      quired and do it automatically unless --no-auto-check-trustdb is
	      set. This	command	can be used to force a trust database check at
	      any time.	The processing	is  identical  to  that	 of  --update-
	      trustdb but it skips keys	with a not yet defined "ownertrust".

	      For  use	with cron jobs,	this command can be used together with
	      --batch in which case the	trust database check is	done only if a
	      check  is	 needed. To force a run	even in	batch mode add the op-
	      tion --yes.

       --export-ownertrust
	      Send the ownertrust values to STDOUT. This is useful for	backup
	      purposes	as  these  values are the only ones which can't	be re-
	      created from a corrupted trustdb.	 Example:
		  gpg2 --export-ownertrust > otrust.txt

       --import-ownertrust
	      Update the trustdb with the ownertrust values  stored  in	 files
	      (or  STDIN  if  not given); existing values will be overwritten.
	      In case of a severely damaged trustdb and	if you have  a	recent
	      backup of	the ownertrust values (e.g. in the file	`otrust.txt'),
	      you may re-create	the trustdb using these	commands:
		  cd ~/.gnupg
		  rm trustdb.gpg
		  gpg2 --import-ownertrust < otrust.txt

       --rebuild-keydb-caches
	      When updating from version 1.0.6 to 1.0.7	this command should be
	      used  to	create	signature  caches  in the keyring. It might be
	      handy in other situations	too.

       --print-md algo
       --print-mds
	      Print message digest of algorithm	algo for all  given  files  or
	      STDIN.   With the	second form (or	a deprecated "*" for algo) di-
	      gests for	all available algorithms are printed.

       --gen-random 0|1|2 count
	      Emit count random	bytes of the given quality level 0, 1 or 2. If
	      count  is	not given or zero, an endless sequence of random bytes
	      will be emitted.	If used	with --armor the output	will be	base64
	      encoded.	 PLEASE,  don't	 use this command unless you know what
	      you are doing; it	may remove precious entropy from the system!

       --gen-prime mode	bits
	      Use the source, Luke :-).	The output format is subject to	change
	      with ant release.

       --enarmor
       --dearmor
	      Pack or unpack an	arbitrary input	into/from an OpenPGP ASCII ar-
	      mor.  This is a GnuPG extension to OpenPGP and  in  general  not
	      very useful.

       --unwrap
	      This  command  is	 similar to --decrypt with the change that the
	      output is	not the	usual plaintext	but the	original message  with
	      the  decryption  layer  removed.	 Thus  the  output  will be an
	      OpenPGP data structure which often means a signed	 OpenPGP  mes-
	      sage.   Note  that this command may or may not remove a compres-
	      sion layer which is often	found beneath the encryption layer.

       --tofu-policy {auto|good|unknown|bad|ask} keys
	      Set the TOFU policy for all the  bindings	 associated  with  the
	      specified	 keys.	 For more information about the	meaning	of the
	      policies,	see: [trust-model-tofu].  The keys  may	 be  specified
	      either by	their fingerprint (preferred) or their keyid.

   How to manage your keys

       This section explains the main commands for key management.

       --quick-generate-key user-id [algo [usage [expire]]]
       --quick-gen-key
	      This  is	a  simple  command to generate a standard key with one
	      user id.	In contrast to --generate-key the key is generated di-
	      rectly  without  the  need to answer a bunch of prompts.	Unless
	      the option --yes is given, the key creation will be canceled  if
	      the given	user id	already	exists in the keyring.

	      If  invoked  directly on the console without any special options
	      an answer	to a ``Continue?'' style confirmation  prompt  is  re-
	      quired.	In  case  the  user id already exists in the keyring a
	      second prompt to force the creation of the key will show up.

	      If algo or usage are given, only the primary key is created  and
	      no  prompts  are shown.  To specify an expiration	date but still
	      create a primary and  subkey  use	 ``default''  or  ``future-de-
	      fault''  for  algo and ``default'' for usage.  For a description
	      of these optional	arguments  see	the  command  --quick-add-key.
	      The  usage  accepts also the value ``cert'' which	can be used to
	      create a certification only primary key; the  default  is	 to  a
	      create certification and signing key.

	      The  expire  argument  can be used to specify an expiration date
	      for the key.  Several formats are	supported;  commonly  the  ISO
	      formats ``YYYY-MM-DD'' or	``YYYYMMDDThhmmss'' are	used.  To make
	      the key expire in	N seconds, N days, N weeks,  N	months,	 or  N
	      years  use  ``seconds=N'', ``Nd'', ``Nw'', ``Nm'', or ``Ny'' re-
	      spectively.  Not specifying a value, or using ``-'' results in a
	      key  expiring  in	 a  reasonable	default	 interval.  The	values
	      ``never'', ``none'' can be used for no expiration	date.

	      If this command is used with --batch, --pinentry-mode  has  been
	      set   to	 loopback,   and   one	 of   the  passphrase  options
	      (--passphrase, --passphrase-fd, or --passphrase-file)  is	 used,
	      the  supplied  passphrase	 is used for the new key and the agent
	      does not ask for it.  To create a	 key  without  any  protection
	      --passphrase '' may be used.

	      To  create  an  OpenPGP  key from	the keys available on the cur-
	      rently inserted smartcard, the special string  ``card''  can  be
	      used for algo.  If the card features an encryption and a signing
	      key, gpg will figure them	out and	creates	an  OpenPGP  key  con-
	      sisting  of  the	usual  primary key and one subkey.  This works
	      only with	certain	smartcards.  Note that the interactive --full-
	      gen-key command allows to	do the same but	with greater flexibil-
	      ity in the selection of the smartcard keys.

	      Note that	it is possible to create a primary key	and  a	subkey
	      using  non-default  algorithms by	using ``default'' and changing
	      the default parameters using the option --default-new-key-algo.

       --quick-set-expire fpr expire [*|subfprs]
	      With two arguments given,	directly set the  expiration  time  of
	      the  primary key identified by fpr to expire.  To	remove the ex-
	      piration time 0 can be used.  With three arguments and the third
	      given as an asterisk, the	expiration time	of all non-revoked and
	      not yet expired subkeys are set to expire.  With more  than  two
	      arguments	and a list of fingerprints given for subfprs, all non-
	      revoked subkeys matching these fingerprints are set to expire.

       --quick-add-key fpr [algo [usage	[expire]]]
	      Directly add a subkey to the key identified by  the  fingerprint
	      fpr.   Without  the  optional  arguments an encryption subkey is
	      added.  If any of	the arguments are given	a more specific	subkey
	      is added.

	      algo may be any of the supported algorithms or curve names given
	      in the format as used by key listings.  To use the default algo-
	      rithm  the  string  ``default'' or ``-'' can be used.  Supported
	      algorithms   are	 ``rsa'',   ``dsa'',   ``elg'',	  ``ed25519'',
	      ``cv25519'',  and	 other	ECC  curves.   For  example the	string
	      ``rsa'' adds an RSA key with the default key  length;  a	string
	      ``rsa4096''  requests  that  the	key  length is 4096 bits.  The
	      string ``future-default''	is an alias for	 the  algorithm	 which
	      will  likely  be used as default algorithm in future versions of
	      gpg.  To list the	supported ECC curves the command  gpg  --with-
	      colons --list-config curve can be	used.

	      Depending	 on the	given algo the subkey may either be an encryp-
	      tion subkey or a signing subkey.	If an algorithm	is capable  of
	      signing  and  encryption	and  such a subkey is desired, a usage
	      string must be given.  This  string  is  either  ``default''  or
	      ``-''  to	 keep  the default or a	comma delimited	list (or space
	      delimited	list) of keywords:  ``sign''  for  a  signing  subkey,
	      ``auth''	for  an	authentication subkey, and ``encr'' for	an en-
	      cryption subkey (``encrypt'' can be used as alias	for ``encr'').
	      The valid	combinations depend on the algorithm.

	      The  expire  argument  can be used to specify an expiration date
	      for the key.  Several formats are	supported;  commonly  the  ISO
	      formats ``YYYY-MM-DD'' or	``YYYYMMDDThhmmss'' are	used.  To make
	      the key expire in	N seconds, N days, N weeks,  N	months,	 or  N
	      years  use  ``seconds=N'', ``Nd'', ``Nw'', ``Nm'', or ``Ny'' re-
	      spectively.  Not specifying a value, or using ``-'' results in a
	      key  expiring  in	 a  reasonable	default	 interval.  The	values
	      ``never'', ``none'' can be used for no expiration	date.

       --generate-key
       --gen-key
	      Generate a new key pair using the	 current  default  parameters.
	      This  is	the standard command to	create a new key.  In addition
	      to the key a revocation certificate is created and stored	in the
	      `openpgp-revocs.d' directory below the GnuPG home	directory.

       --full-generate-key
       --full-gen-key
	      Generate	a  new key pair	with dialogs for all options.  This is
	      an extended version of --generate-key.

	      There is also a feature which allows you to create keys in batch
	      mode.  See  the  manual section ``Unattended key generation'' on
	      how to use this.

       --generate-revocation name
       --gen-revoke name
	      Generate a revocation certificate	for the	complete key.  To only
	      revoke a subkey or a key signature, use the --edit command.

	      This  command  merely creates the	revocation certificate so that
	      it can be	used to	revoke the key if that is ever needed.	To ac-
	      tually  revoke a key the created revocation certificate needs to
	      be merged	with the key to	revoke.	 This is done by importing the
	      revocation certificate using the --import	command.  Then the re-
	      voked key	needs to be published, which is	best done  by  sending
	      the  key	to  a  keyserver (command --send-key) and by exporting
	      (--export) it to a file which is then send to frequent  communi-
	      cation partners.

       --generate-designated-revocation	name
       --desig-revoke name
	      Generate a designated revocation certificate for a key. This al-
	      lows a user (with	the permission of  the	keyholder)  to	revoke
	      someone else's key.

       --edit-key
	      Present  a  menu which enables you to do most of the key manage-
	      ment related tasks.  It expects the specification	of  a  key  on
	      the command line.

	      uid n  Toggle  selection of user ID or photographic user ID with
		     index n.  Use * to	select all and 0 to deselect all.

	      key n  Toggle selection of subkey	with index n or	key ID n.  Use
		     * to select all and 0 to deselect all.

	      sign   Make  a  signature	on key of user name. If	the key	is not
		     yet signed	by the default user (or	the users  given  with
		     -u),  the	program	 displays  the	information of the key
		     again, together with its fingerprint and asks whether  it
		     should be signed. This question is	repeated for all users
		     specified with -u.

	      lsign  Same as "sign" but	the signature  is  marked  as  non-ex-
		     portable and will therefore never be used by others. This
		     may be used to make keys valid only in the	local environ-
		     ment.

	      nrsign Same as "sign" but	the signature is marked	as non-revoca-
		     ble and can therefore never be revoked.

	      tsign  Make a trust signature. This is a signature that combines
		     the  notions of certification (like a regular signature),
		     and trust (like the "trust"  command).  It	 is  generally
		     only  useful in distinct communities or groups.  For more
		     information please	read the sections ``Trust  Signature''
		     and ``Regular Expression''	in RFC-4880.

	      Note  that "l" (for local	/ non-exportable), "nr"	(for non-revo-
	      cable, and "t" (for trust) may be	freely mixed and  prefixed  to
	      "sign" to	create a signature of any type desired.

       If  the	option	--only-sign-text-ids  is  specified, then any non-text
       based user ids (e.g., photo IDs)	will not be selected for signing.

	      delsig Delete a signature. Note that it is not possible  to  re-
		     tract  a  signature,  once	it has been send to the	public
		     (i.e. to a	keyserver).   In  that	case  you  better  use
		     revsig.

	      revsig Revoke  a	signature.  For	every signature	which has been
		     generated by one of the secret keys, GnuPG	asks whether a
		     revocation	certificate should be generated.

	      check  Check  the	signatures on all selected user	IDs.  With the
		     extra option selfsig only self-signatures are shown.

	      adduid Create an additional user ID.

	      addphoto
		     Create a photographic user	ID. This  will	prompt	for  a
		     JPEG  file	 that  will be embedded	into the user ID. Note
		     that a very large JPEG will make for a  very  large  key.
		     Also  note	 that some programs will display your JPEG un-
		     changed (GnuPG), and some programs	will scale it  to  fit
		     in	a dialog box (PGP).

	      showphoto
		     Display the selected photographic user ID.

	      deluid Delete  a	user ID	or photographic	user ID.  Note that it
		     is	not possible to	retract	a user id, once	 it  has  been
		     send  to  the public (i.e.	to a keyserver).  In that case
		     you better	use revuid.

	      revuid Revoke a user ID or photographic user ID.

	      primary
		     Flag the current user id as the primary one, removes  the
		     primary user id flag from all other user ids and sets the
		     timestamp of  all	affected  self-signatures  one	second
		     ahead. Note that setting a	photo user ID as primary makes
		     it	primary	over other photo user IDs, and setting a regu-
		     lar  user ID as primary makes it primary over other regu-
		     lar user IDs.

	      keyserver
		     Set a preferred keyserver for the specified  user	ID(s).
		     This allows other users to	know where you prefer they get
		     your key from. See	 --keyserver-options  honor-keyserver-
		     url  for  more  on	 how  this  works.  Setting a value of
		     "none" removes an existing	preferred keyserver.

	      notation
		     Set a name=value notation for the specified  user	ID(s).
		     See --cert-notation for more on how this works. Setting a
		     value of "none" removes all notations, setting a notation
		     prefixed with a minus sign	(-) removes that notation, and
		     setting a notation	name  (without	the  =value)  prefixed
		     with a minus sign removes all notations with that name.

	      pref   List  preferences	from  the selected user	ID. This shows
		     the actual	preferences,  without  including  any  implied
		     preferences.

	      showpref
		     More  verbose  preferences	 listing for the selected user
		     ID. This shows the	preferences in effect by including the
		     implied preferences of 3DES (cipher), SHA-1 (digest), and
		     Uncompressed (compression)	if they	are  not  already  in-
		     cluded in the preference list. In addition, the preferred
		     keyserver and signature notations (if any)	are shown.

	      setpref string
		     Set the list of user ID preferences to string for all (or
		     just  the selected) user IDs. Calling setpref with	no ar-
		     guments sets the preference list to the  default  (either
		     built-in or set via --default-preference-list), and call-
		     ing setpref with "none" as	the  argument  sets  an	 empty
		     preference	 list.	Use  gpg2  --version  to get a list of
		     available algorithms. Note	that while you can change  the
		     preferences  on  an  attribute  user ID (aka "photo ID"),
		     GnuPG does	not select keys	 via  attribute	 user  IDs  so
		     these preferences will not	be used	by GnuPG.

		     When  setting preferences,	you should list	the algorithms
		     in	the order which	you'd like to see them used by someone
		     else when encrypting a message to your key.  If you don't
		     include 3DES, it will be automatically added at the  end.
		     Note that there are many factors that go into choosing an
		     algorithm (for example, your key may not be the only  re-
		     cipient),	and  so	 the  remote OpenPGP application being
		     used to send to you may or	may not	follow your exact cho-
		     sen  order	 for  a	given message.	It will, however, only
		     choose an algorithm that is  present  on  the  preference
		     list of every recipient key.  See also the	INTEROPERABIL-
		     ITY WITH OTHER OPENPGP PROGRAMS section below.

	      addkey Add a subkey to this key.

	      addcardkey
		     Generate a	subkey on a card and add it to this key.

	      keytocard
		     Transfer the selected secret subkey (or the  primary  key
		     if	 no  subkey has	been selected) to a smartcard. The se-
		     cret key in the keyring will be replaced by a stub	if the
		     key  could	be stored successfully on the card and you use
		     the save command later. Only certain  key	types  may  be
		     transferred  to the card. A sub menu allows you to	select
		     on	what card to store the key. Note that it is not	possi-
		     ble to get	that key back from the card - if the card gets
		     broken your secret	key will be lost  unless  you  have  a
		     backup somewhere.

	      bkuptocard file
		     Restore  the  given  file	to a card. This	command	may be
		     used to restore a backup key (as  generated  during  card
		     initialization)  to  a new	card. In almost	all cases this
		     will be the encryption key. You should use	 this  command
		     only with the corresponding public	key and	make sure that
		     the file given as argument	is indeed the  backup  to  re-
		     store.  You should	then select 2 to restore as encryption
		     key.  You will first be asked to enter the	passphrase  of
		     the backup	key and	then for the Admin PIN of the card.

	      keytotpm
		     Transfer  the  selected secret subkey (or the primary key
		     if	no subkey has been selected) to	TPM form.  The	secret
		     key  in the keyring will be replaced by the TPM represen-
		     tation of that key, which can only	be read	by the partic-
		     ular  TPM	that  created  it  (so the keyfile now becomes
		     locked to the laptop containing the TPM).	 Only  certain
		     key types may be transferred to the TPM (all TPM 2.0 sys-
		     tems are mandated to have the rsa2048 and nistp256	 algo-
		     rithms  but  newer	TPMs may have more). Note that the key
		     itself is not transferred into the	TPM, merely  encrypted
		     by	 the  TPM  in-place, so	if the keyfile is deleted, the
		     key will be lost.	Once transferred  to  TPM  representa-
		     tion, the key file	can never be converted back to non-TPM
		     form and the key will die	when  the  TPM	does,  so  you
		     should  first  have a backup on secure offline storage of
		     the actual	secret key file	before conversion.  It is  es-
		     sential  to  use the physical system TPM that you have rw
		     permission	  on   the   TPM   resource   manager	device
		     (/dev/tpmrm0).   Usually  this means you must be a	member
		     of	the tss	group.

	      delkey Remove a subkey (secondary	key). Note that	it is not pos-
		     sible  to	retract	a subkey, once it has been send	to the
		     public (i.e. to a keyserver).  In that  case  you	better
		     use  revkey.  Also	note that this only deletes the	public
		     part of a key.

	      revkey Revoke a subkey.

	      expire Change the	key or subkey expiration time. If a subkey  is
		     selected,	the  expiration	 time  of  this	subkey will be
		     changed. With no selection, the  key  expiration  of  the
		     primary key is changed.

	      trust  Change  the  owner	 trust value for the key. This updates
		     the trust-db immediately and no save is required.

	      disable
	      enable Disable or	enable an entire key. A	disabled key  can  not
		     normally be used for encryption.

	      addrevoker
		     Add  a  designated	revoker	to the key. This takes one op-
		     tional argument: "sensitive". If a	designated revoker  is
		     marked  as	 sensitive, it will not	be exported by default
		     (see export-options).

	      passwd Change the	passphrase of the secret key.

	      toggle This is dummy command which exists	only for backward com-
		     patibility.

	      clean  Compact  (by  removing all	signatures except the selfsig)
		     any user ID that is no longer usable  (e.g.  revoked,  or
		     expired). Then, remove any	signatures that	are not	usable
		     by	the trust calculations.	  Specifically,	 this  removes
		     any  signature that does not validate, any	signature that
		     is	superseded by a	later signature,  revoked  signatures,
		     and signatures issued by keys that	are not	present	on the
		     keyring.

	      minimize
		     Make the key as small as possible.	This removes all  sig-
		     natures  from  each  user	ID  except for the most	recent
		     self-signature.

	      change-usage
		     Change the	usage flags (capabilities) of the primary  key
		     or	 of  subkeys.	These usage flags (e.g.	Certify, Sign,
		     Authenticate,  Encrypt)  are  set	during	key  creation.
		     Sometimes	it is useful to	have the opportunity to	change
		     them (for example to add Authenticate)  after  they  have
		     been  created.  Please take care when doing this; the al-
		     lowed usage flags depend on the key algorithm.

	      cross-certify
		     Add cross-certification  signatures  to  signing  subkeys
		     that  may	not  currently	have them. Cross-certification
		     signatures	protect	against	a subtle attack	against	 sign-
		     ing  subkeys. See --require-cross-certification.  All new
		     keys generated have this signature	by  default,  so  this
		     command is	only useful to bring older keys	up to date.

	      save   Save all changes to the keyrings and quit.

	      quit   Quit the program without updating the keyrings.

	      The  listing  shows  you the key with its	secondary keys and all
	      user IDs.	 The primary user ID is	indicated by a	dot,  and  se-
	      lected keys or user IDs are indicated by an asterisk.  The trust
	      value is displayed with the primary key: "trust" is the assigned
	      owner  trust  and	 "validity"  is	the calculated validity	of the
	      key.  Validity values are	also displayed for all user IDs.   For
	      possible values of trust,	see: [trust-values].

       --sign-key name
	      Signs a public key with your secret key. This is a shortcut ver-
	      sion of the subcommand "sign" from --edit-key.

       --lsign-key name
	      Signs a public key with your secret key but marks	it as  non-ex-
	      portable.	 This  is a shortcut version of	the subcommand "lsign"
	      from --edit-key.

       --quick-sign-key	fpr [names]
       --quick-lsign-key fpr [names]
	      Directly sign a key from the passphrase without any further user
	      interaction.   The  fpr must be the verified primary fingerprint
	      of a key in the local keyring. If	no names are given, all	useful
	      user  ids	 are  signed;  with given [names] only useful user ids
	      matching one of these names are signed.  By  default,  or	 if  a
	      name  is prefixed	with a '*', a case insensitive substring match
	      is used.	If a name is prefixed with a '=' a case	sensitive  ex-
	      act match	is done.

	      The  command  --quick-lsign-key  marks the signatures as non-ex-
	      portable.	 If such a non-exportable signature already exists the
	      --quick-sign-key	turns  it into a exportable signature.	If you
	      need to update an	existing signature,  for  example  to  add  or
	      change  notation	data, you need to use the option --force-sign-
	      key.

	      This command uses	reasonable defaults and	thus does not  provide
	      the  full	 flexibility of	the "sign" subcommand from --edit-key.
	      Its intended use is to help unattended key signing by  utilizing
	      a	list of	verified fingerprints.

       --quick-add-uid user-id new-user-id
	      This command adds	a new user id to an existing key.  In contrast
	      to the interactive sub-command adduid  of	 --edit-key  the  new-
	      user-id  is  added verbatim with only leading and	trailing white
	      space removed, it	is expected to be UTF-8	encoded, and no	checks
	      on its form are applied.

       --quick-revoke-uid user-id user-id-to-revoke
	      This command revokes a user ID on	an existing key.  It cannot be
	      used to revoke the last user ID on key (some non-revoked user ID
	      must  remain),  with  revocation	reason	``User ID is no	longer
	      valid''.	If you want to specify a different revocation  reason,
	      or  to  supply supplementary revocation text, you	should use the
	      interactive sub-command revuid of	--edit-key.

       --quick-revoke-sig fpr signing-fpr [names]
	      This command revokes the key signatures made by signing-fpr from
	      the key specified	by the fingerprint fpr.	 With names given only
	      the signatures on	user ids of the	key matching any of the	 given
	      names  are affected (see --quick-sign-key).  If a	revocation al-
	      ready exists a notice is printed instead of creating a new revo-
	      cation; no error is returned in this case.  Note that key	signa-
	      ture revocations may be superseded by a newer key	signature  and
	      in turn again revoked.

       --quick-set-primary-uid user-id primary-user-id
	      This  command sets or updates the	primary	user ID	flag on	an ex-
	      isting key.  user-id specifies the key and  primary-user-id  the
	      user ID which shall be flagged as	the primary user ID.  The pri-
	      mary user	ID flag	is removed from	all other  user	 ids  and  the
	      timestamp	 of  all  affected  self-signatures  is	set one	second
	      ahead.

       --change-passphrase user-id
       --passwd	user-id
	      Change the passphrase of the secret key belonging	 to  the  cer-
	      tificate	specified as user-id.  This is a shortcut for the sub-
	      command passwd of	the --edit-key menu.  When using together with
	      the   option   --dry-run	this  will  not	 actually  change  the
	      passphrase but check that	the current passphrase is correct.

OPTIONS
       gpg2 features a bunch of	options	to control the exact behaviour and  to
       change the default configuration.

       Long    options	  can	be   put   in	an   options   file   (default
       "~/.gnupg/gpg.conf"). Short option names	will not work -	 for  example,
       "armor"	is  a  valid option for	the options file, while	"a" is not. Do
       not write the 2 dashes, but simply the name of the option and  any  re-
       quired  arguments. Lines	with a hash ('#') as the first non-white-space
       character are ignored. Commands may be put in this file too,  but  that
       is  not generally useful	as the command will execute automatically with
       every execution of gpg.

       Please remember that option parsing stops as soon as  a	non-option  is
       encountered,  you  can explicitly stop parsing by using the special op-
       tion --.

   How to change the configuration

       These options are used to change	the configuration and most of them are
       usually found in	the option file.

       --default-key name
	      Use  name	as the default key to sign with. If this option	is not
	      used, the	default	key is the  first  key	found  in  the	secret
	      keyring.	 Note  that  -u	or --local-user	overrides this option.
	      This option may be given multiple	times.	In this	case, the last
	      key for which a secret key is available is used.	If there is no
	      secret key available for any of the specified values, GnuPG will
	      not  emit	an error message but continue as if this option	wasn't
	      given.

       --default-recipient name
	      Use name as default recipient if option --recipient is not  used
	      and don't	ask if this is a valid one. name must be non-empty.

       --default-recipient-self
	      Use  the	default	key as default recipient if option --recipient
	      is not used and don't ask	if this	is a valid  one.  The  default
	      key is the first one from	the secret keyring or the one set with
	      --default-key.

       --no-default-recipient
	      Reset --default-recipient	and --default-recipient-self.	Should
	      not be used in an	option file.

       -v, --verbose
	      Give  more information during processing.	If used	twice, the in-
	      put data is listed in detail.

       --no-verbose
	      Reset verbose level to 0.	 Should	not be used in an option file.

       -q, --quiet
	      Try to be	as quiet as possible.  Should not be used in an	option
	      file.

       --batch
       --no-batch
	      Use  batch  mode.	 Never ask, do not allow interactive commands.
	      --no-batch disables this option.	Note that even with a filename
	      given  on	 the  command  line, gpg might still need to read from
	      STDIN (in	particular if gpg figures that the input is a detached
	      signature	 and no	data file has been specified).	Thus if	you do
	      not want to feed data via	STDIN, you  should  connect  STDIN  to
	      `/dev/null'.

	      It  is  highly recommended to use	this option along with the op-
	      tions --status-fd	and --with-colons for any  unattended  use  of
	      gpg.  Should not be used in an option file.

       --no-tty
	      Make  sure that the TTY (terminal) is never used for any output.
	      This option is needed in	some  cases  because  GnuPG  sometimes
	      prints warnings to the TTY even if --batch is used.

       --yes  Assume "yes" on most questions.  Should not be used in an	option
	      file.

       --no   Assume "no" on most questions.  Should not be used in an	option
	      file.

       --list-options parameters
	      This  is	a  space  or comma delimited string that gives options
	      used when	listing	keys and  signatures  (that  is,  --list-keys,
	      --check-signatures,  --list-public-keys, --list-secret-keys, and
	      the --edit-key functions).  Options can be prepended with	a  no-
	      (after  the  two	dashes)	to give	the opposite meaning.  The op-
	      tions are:

	      show-photos
		     Causes  --list-keys,  --check-signatures,	--list-public-
		     keys, and --list-secret-keys to display any photo IDs at-
		     tached to the key.	 Defaults to  no.  See	also  --photo-
		     viewer.   Does  not work with --with-colons: see --attri-
		     bute-fd for the appropriate way to	 get  photo  data  for
		     scripts and other frontends.

	      show-usage
		     Show  usage information for keys and subkeys in the stan-
		     dard key listing.	This is	a list of  letters  indicating
		     the  allowed  usage  for  a key (E=encryption, S=signing,
		     C=certification, A=authentication).  Defaults to yes.

	      show-policy-urls
		     Show policy URLs  in  the	 --check-signatures  listings.
		     Defaults to no.

	      show-notations
	      show-std-notations
	      show-user-notations
		     Show  all,	IETF standard, or user-defined signature nota-
		     tions in the --check-signatures listings. Defaults	to no.

	      show-keyserver-urls
		     Show any preferred	keyserver URL  in  the	--check-signa-
		     tures listings. Defaults to no.

	      show-uid-validity
		     Display  the  calculated  validity	of user	IDs during key
		     listings.	Defaults to yes.

	      show-unusable-uids
		     Show revoked and expired user IDs in  key	listings.  De-
		     faults to no.

	      show-unusable-subkeys
		     Show  revoked  and	 expired  subkeys in key listings. De-
		     faults to no.

	      show-keyring
		     Display the keyring name at the head of key  listings  to
		     show  which  keyring  a given key resides on. Defaults to
		     no.

	      show-sig-expire
		     Show signature expiration dates (if any) during  --check-
		     signatures	listings. Defaults to no.

	      show-sig-subpackets
		     Include signature subpackets in the key listing. This op-
		     tion can take an optional argument	list of	the subpackets
		     to	 list.	If no argument is passed, list all subpackets.
		     Defaults to no. This option is only meaningful when using
		     --with-colons along with --check-signatures.

	      show-only-fpr-mbox
		     For  each	user-id	 which	has a valid mail address print
		     only the fingerprint followed by the mail address.

	      sort-sigs
		     With --list-sigs and --check-sigs sort the	signatures  by
		     keyID  and	 creation  time	 to make it easier to view the
		     history of	these signatures.  The self-signature is  also
		     listed before other signatures. Defaults to yes.

       --verify-options	parameters
	      This  is	a  space  or comma delimited string that gives options
	      used when	verifying signatures. Options can be prepended with  a
	      `no-' to give the	opposite meaning. The options are:

	      show-photos
		     Display  any photo	IDs present on the key that issued the
		     signature.	 Defaults to no. See also --photo-viewer.

	      show-policy-urls
		     Show policy URLs in the  signature	 being	verified.  De-
		     faults to yes.

	      show-notations
	      show-std-notations
	      show-user-notations
		     Show  all,	IETF standard, or user-defined signature nota-
		     tions in the signature being verified. Defaults  to  IETF
		     standard.

	      show-keyserver-urls
		     Show  any	preferred keyserver URL	in the signature being
		     verified.	Defaults to yes.

	      show-uid-validity
		     Display the calculated validity of	the user  IDs  on  the
		     key that issued the signature. Defaults to	yes.

	      show-unusable-uids
		     Show  revoked and expired user IDs	during signature veri-
		     fication.	Defaults to no.

	      show-primary-uid-only
		     Show only the primary user	ID during signature  verifica-
		     tion.  That is all	the AKA	lines as well as photo Ids are
		     not shown with the	signature verification status.

       --enable-large-rsa
       --disable-large-rsa
	      With --generate-key and --batch, enable the creation of RSA  se-
	      cret  keys as large as 8192 bit.	Note: 8192 bit is more than is
	      generally	recommended.  These large keys don't significantly im-
	      prove  security,	but  they are more expensive to	use, and their
	      signatures and certifications are	larger.	 This option  is  only
	      available	if the binary was build	with large-secmem support.

       --enable-dsa2
       --disable-dsa2
	      Enable hash truncation for all DSA keys even for old DSA Keys up
	      to 1024 bit.  This is also the  default  with  --openpgp.	  Note
	      that  older  versions  of	GnuPG also required this flag to allow
	      the generation of	DSA larger than	1024 bit.

       --photo-viewer string
	      This is the command line that should be run to view a photo  ID.
	      "%i"  will  be expanded to a filename containing the photo. "%I"
	      does the same, except the	file will  not	be  deleted  once  the
	      viewer exits.  Other flags are "%k" for the key ID, "%K" for the
	      long key ID, "%f"	for the	key fingerprint, "%t" for  the	exten-
	      sion  of	the image type (e.g. "jpg"), "%T" for the MIME type of
	      the image	(e.g. "image/jpeg"),  "%v"  for	 the  single-character
	      calculated  validity  of the image being viewed (e.g. "f"), "%V"
	      for the calculated validity as a string (e.g.  "full"), "%U" for
	      a	 base32	 encoded  hash	of the user ID,	and "%%" for an	actual
	      percent sign. If neither %i or %I	are present,  then  the	 photo
	      will be supplied to the viewer on	standard input.

	      On  Unix	the  default  viewer is	xloadimage -fork -quiet	-title
	      'KeyID 0x%k' STDIN with a	 fallback  to  display	-title	'KeyID
	      0x%k'  %i	 and finally to	xdg-open %i.  On Windows !ShellExecute
	      400 %i is	used; here the command is a meta command to  use  that
	      API  call	 followed by a wait time in milliseconds which is used
	      to give the viewer time to read the temporary image file	before
	      gpg deletes it again.  Note that if your image viewer program is
	      not secure, then executing it from gpg does not make it secure.

       --exec-path string
	      Sets a list of directories to search for photo  viewers  If  not
	      provided photo viewers use the PATH environment variable.

       --keyring file
	      Add  file	to the current list of keyrings. If file begins	with a
	      tilde and	a slash, these are replaced by the $HOME directory. If
	      the  filename  does  not contain a slash,	it is assumed to be in
	      the GnuPG	home directory ("~/.gnupg" if --homedir	or  $GNUPGHOME
	      is not used).

	      Note that	this adds a keyring to the current list. If the	intent
	      is to use	the specified keyring alone, use --keyring along  with
	      --no-default-keyring.

	      If  the  option  --no-keyring  has been used no keyrings will be
	      used at all.

       --secret-keyring	file
	      This is an obsolete option and ignored.	All  secret  keys  are
	      stored in	the `private-keys-v1.d'	directory below	the GnuPG home
	      directory.

       --primary-keyring file
	      Designate	file as	the primary public keyring.  This  means  that
	      newly imported keys (via --import	or keyserver --recv-from) will
	      go to this keyring.

       --trustdb-name file
	      Use file instead of the default trustdb. If file begins  with  a
	      tilde and	a slash, these are replaced by the $HOME directory. If
	      the filename does	not contain a slash, it	is assumed  to	be  in
	      the  GnuPG home directory	(`~/.gnupg' if --homedir or $GNUPGHOME
	      is not used).

       --homedir dir
	      Set the name of the home directory to dir. If this option	is not
	      used,  the  home	directory  defaults to `~/.gnupg'.  It is only
	      recognized when given on the command line.   It  also  overrides
	      any  home	 directory  stated  through  the  environment variable
	      `GNUPGHOME' or (on Windows systems) by means of the Registry en-
	      try HKCU\Software\GNU\GnuPG:HomeDir.

	      On Windows systems it is possible	to install GnuPG as a portable
	      application.  In this case only this command line	option is con-
	      sidered, all other ways to set a home directory are ignored.

	      To install GnuPG as a portable application under Windows,	create
	      an empty file named `gpgconf.ctl'	in the same directory  as  the
	      tool  `gpgconf.exe'.   The root of the installation is then that
	      directory; or, if	`gpgconf.exe' has been installed directly  be-
	      low  a  directory	 named	`bin', its parent directory.  You also
	      need to make sure	that the following directories exist  and  are
	      writable:	    `ROOT/home'	    for	   the	  GnuPG	   home	   and
	      `ROOT/var/cache/gnupg' for internal cache	files.

       --display-charset name
	      Set the name of the native character set.	This is	used  to  con-
	      vert  some  informational	 strings  like	user IDs to the	proper
	      UTF-8 encoding.  Note that this has nothing to do	with the char-
	      acter  set of data to be encrypted or signed; GnuPG does not re-
	      code user-supplied data. If this option is not used, the default
	      character	set is determined from the current locale. A verbosity
	      level of 3 shows the chosen set.	This option should not be used
	      on Windows.  Valid values	for name are:

	      iso-8859-1
		     This is the Latin 1 set.

	      iso-8859-2
		     The Latin 2 set.

	      iso-8859-15
		     This is currently an alias	for the	Latin 1	set.

	      koi8-r The usual Russian set (RFC-1489).

	      utf-8  Bypass  all  translations and assume that the OS uses na-
		     tive UTF-8	encoding.

       --utf8-strings
       --no-utf8-strings
	      Assume that command line arguments are given as  UTF-8  strings.
	      The  default (--no-utf8-strings) is to assume that arguments are
	      encoded in the character set as specified	by  --display-charset.
	      These  options  affect all following arguments. Both options may
	      be used multiple times.  This option should not be  used	in  an
	      option file.

	      This  option  has	no effect on Windows.  There the internal used
	      UTF-8 encoding is	translated for console input and output.   The
	      command line arguments are expected as Unicode and translated to
	      UTF-8.  Thus when	calling	this program from another,  make  sure
	      to use the Unicode version of CreateProcess.

       --options file
	      Read  options from file and do not try to	read them from the de-
	      fault options file in the	homedir	(see --homedir).  This	option
	      is ignored if used in an options file.

       --no-options
	      Shortcut for --options /dev/null.	This option is detected	before
	      an attempt to open an option file.  Using	this option will  also
	      prevent the creation of a	`~/.gnupg' homedir.

       -z n
       --compress-level	n
       --bzip2-compress-level n
	      Set  compression level to	n for the ZIP and ZLIB compression al-
	      gorithms.	The default is to use the default compression level of
	      zlib  (normally  6). --bzip2-compress-level sets the compression
	      level for	the BZIP2 compression algorithm	(defaulting  to	 6  as
	      well).  This  is	a different option from	--compress-level since
	      BZIP2 uses a significant amount of memory	 for  each  additional
	      compression  level.   -z	sets both. A value of 0	for n disables
	      compression.

       --bzip2-decompress-lowmem
	      Use a different decompression method for BZIP2 compressed	files.
	      This  alternate method uses a bit	more than half the memory, but
	      also runs	at half	the speed. This	is useful  under  extreme  low
	      memory  circumstances when the file was originally compressed at
	      a	high --bzip2-compress-level.

       --mangle-dos-filenames
       --no-mangle-dos-filenames
	      Older version of Windows cannot handle filenames with more  than
	      one  dot.	--mangle-dos-filenames causes GnuPG to replace (rather
	      than add to) the extension of an output filename to  avoid  this
	      problem. This option is off by default and has no	effect on non-
	      Windows platforms.

       --ask-cert-level
       --no-ask-cert-level
	      When making a key	signature, prompt for a	 certification	level.
	      If this option is	not specified, the certification level used is
	      set via --default-cert-level. See	--default-cert-level  for  in-
	      formation	 on  the  specific levels and how they are used. --no-
	      ask-cert-level disables this option. This	option defaults	to no.

       --default-cert-level n
	      The default to use for the check level when signing a key.

	      0	means you make no particular claim as  to  how	carefully  you
	      verified the key.

	      1	means you believe the key is owned by the person who claims to
	      own it but you could not,	or did not verify the key at all. This
	      is  useful  for a	"persona" verification,	where you sign the key
	      of a pseudonymous	user.

	      2	means you did casual verification of  the  key.	 For  example,
	      this  could  mean	 that  you  verified  the  key fingerprint and
	      checked the user ID on the key against a photo ID.

	      3	means you did extensive	verification of	the key. For  example,
	      this  could  mean	that you verified the key fingerprint with the
	      owner of the key in person, and that you checked,	by means of  a
	      hard to forge document with a photo ID (such as a	passport) that
	      the name of the key owner	matches	the name in the	user ID	on the
	      key,  and	 finally that you verified (by exchange	of email) that
	      the email	address	on the key belongs to the key owner.

	      Note that	the examples given above for levels 2 and 3  are  just
	      that:  examples. In the end, it is up to you to decide just what
	      "casual" and "extensive" mean to you.

	      This option defaults to 0	(no particular claim).

       --min-cert-level
	      When building the	trust database,	treat any  signatures  with  a
	      certification  level below this as invalid. Defaults to 2, which
	      disregards level 1 signatures. Note that level 0 "no  particular
	      claim" signatures	are always accepted.

       --trusted-key long key ID or fingerprint
	      Assume  that the specified key (which should be given as finger-
	      print) is	as trustworthy as one of your own  secret  keys.  This
	      option  is useful	if you don't want to keep your secret keys (or
	      one of them) online but still want to be able to check  the  va-
	      lidity  of  a given recipient's or signator's key.  If the given
	      key is not locally available but an LDAP keyserver is configured
	      the missing key is imported from that server.

       --trust-model {pgp|classic|tofu|tofu+pgp|direct|always|auto}
	      Set what trust model GnuPG should	follow.	The models are:

	      pgp    This  is  the Web of Trust	combined with trust signatures
		     as	used in	PGP 5.x	and later. This	is the	default	 trust
		     model when	creating a new trust database.

	      classic
		     This is the standard Web of Trust as introduced by	PGP 2.

	      tofu

		     TOFU stands for Trust On First Use.  In this trust	model,
		     the first time a key is seen, it is memorized.  If	 later
		     another key with a	user id	with the same email address is
		     seen, both	keys are marked	as suspect.  In	that case, the
		     next time either is used, a warning is displayed describ-
		     ing the conflict, why it might have occurred (either  the
		     user generated a new key and failed to cross sign the old
		     and new keys, the key is forgery, or a  man-in-the-middle
		     attack  is	 being attempted), and the user	is prompted to
		     manually confirm the validity of the key in question.

		     Because a potential attacker is able to control the email
		     address and thereby circumvent the	conflict detection al-
		     gorithm by	using an email address that is similar in  ap-
		     pearance  to  a trusted email address, whenever a message
		     is	verified, statistics  about  the  number  of  messages
		     signed  with  the key are shown.  In this way, a user can
		     easily identify attacks using fake	keys for regular  cor-
		     respondents.

		     When compared with	the Web	of Trust, TOFU offers signifi-
		     cantly weaker security guarantees.	 In  particular,  TOFU
		     only  helps ensure	consistency (that is, that the binding
		     between a key and email address doesn't change).  A major
		     advantage	of TOFU	is that	it requires little maintenance
		     to	use correctly.	To use the web of trust	properly,  you
		     need  to actively sign keys and mark users	as trusted in-
		     troducers.	 This is a time-consuming process and  anecdo-
		     tal  evidence suggests that even security-conscious users
		     rarely take the time to do	this  thoroughly  and  instead
		     rely on an	ad-hoc TOFU process.

		     In	 the TOFU model, policies are associated with bindings
		     between keys and email  addresses	(which	are  extracted
		     from  user	ids and	normalized).  There are	five policies,
		     which can be set manually using the --tofu-policy option.
		     The  default  policy can be set using the --tofu-default-
		     policy option.

		     The TOFU policies are: auto, good,	unknown, bad and  ask.
		     The  auto policy is used by default (unless overridden by
		     --tofu-default-policy) and	marks a	binding	as  marginally
		     trusted.  The good, unknown and bad policies mark a bind-
		     ing as fully trusted, as having unknown trust or as  hav-
		     ing  trust	 never,	 respectively.	 The unknown policy is
		     useful for	just using TOFU	to detect  conflicts,  but  to
		     never assign positive trust to a binding.	The final pol-
		     icy, ask prompts  the  user  to  indicate	the  binding's
		     trust.  If	batch mode is enabled (or input	is inappropri-
		     ate in the	context), then the user	is  not	 prompted  and
		     the undefined trust level is returned.

	      tofu+pgp
		     This  trust  model	 combines  TOFU	with the Web of	Trust.
		     This is done by computing the trust level for each	 model
		     and  then	taking the maximum trust level where the trust
		     levels are	ordered	as follows: unknown < undefined	< mar-
		     ginal < fully < ultimate <	expired	< never.

		     By	 setting --tofu-default-policy=unknown,	this model can
		     be	used to	implement the web of trust  with  TOFU's  con-
		     flict  detection algorithm, but without its assignment of
		     positive  trust  values,  which  some  security-conscious
		     users don't like.

	      direct Key  validity  is set directly by the user	and not	calcu-
		     lated via the Web of Trust.  This model is	 solely	 based
		     on	 the key and does not distinguish user IDs.  Note that
		     when changing to another trust model the trust values as-
		     signed  to	 a key are transformed into ownertrust values,
		     which also	indicate how you trust the owner of the	key to
		     sign other	keys.

	      always Skip  key validation and assume that used keys are	always
		     fully valid. You generally	won't use this unless you  are
		     using  some  external validation scheme. This option also
		     suppresses	the "[uncertain]" tag printed  with  signature
		     checks  when  there  is  no  evidence that	the user ID is
		     bound to the key.	Note that this trust model still  does
		     not allow the use of expired, revoked, or disabled	keys.

	      auto   Select the	trust model depending on whatever the internal
		     trust database says. This is the default model if such  a
		     database already exists.  Note that a tofu	trust model is
		     not considered here and must be enabled explicitly.

       --auto-key-locate mechanisms
       --no-auto-key-locate
	      GnuPG can	automatically locate and retrieve keys as needed using
	      this  option.   This happens when	encrypting to an email address
	      (in the "user@example.com" form),	and there are  no  "user@exam-
	      ple.com"	keys on	the local keyring.  This option	takes any num-
	      ber of the mechanisms listed below, in the order they are	to  be
	      tried.  Instead of listing the mechanisms	as comma delimited ar-
	      guments, the option may also be given several times to add  more
	      mechanism.   The	option	--no-auto-key-locate  or the mechanism
	      "clear" resets the list.	The default is "local,wkd".

	      cert   Locate a key using	DNS CERT, as specified in RFC-4398.

	      dane   Locate a key using	DANE, as specified in draft-ietf-dane-
		     openpgpkey-05.txt.

	      wkd    Locate a key using	the Web	Key Directory protocol.

	      ldap   Using DNS Service Discovery, check	the domain in question
		     for any LDAP keyservers to	use.  If this  fails,  attempt
		     to	 locate	 the  key  using  the  PGP Universal method of
		     checking `ldap://keys.(thedomain)'.

	      ntds   Locate the	key using the Active Directory (Windows	only).
		     This  method  also	 allows	to search by fingerprint using
		     the command --locate-external-key.

	      keyserver
		     Locate a key using	a keyserver.  This method also	allows
		     to	 search	 by fingerprint	using the command --locate-ex-
		     ternal-key	if any of the configured keyservers is an LDAP
		     server.

	      keyserver-URL
		     In	 addition, a keyserver URL as used in the dirmngr con-
		     figuration	may be used here to query that particular key-
		     server.  This method also allows to search	by fingerprint
		     using the command --locate-external-key if	the URL	speci-
		     fies an LDAP server.

	      local  Locate  the key using the local keyrings.	This mechanism
		     allows the	user to	select the order a local key lookup is
		     done.   Thus using	`--auto-key-locate local' is identical
		     to	--no-auto-key-locate.

	      nodefault
		     This flag disables	the standard local  key	 lookup,  done
		     before  any  of the mechanisms defined by the --auto-key-
		     locate are	tried.	The position of	this mechanism in  the
		     list  does	 not  matter.	It is not required if local is
		     also used.

	      clear  Clear all defined mechanisms.  This is useful to override
		     mechanisms	given in a config file.	 Note that a nodefault
		     in	mechanisms will	also be	cleared	unless it is given af-
		     ter the clear.

       --auto-key-import
       --no-auto-key-import
	      This  is an offline mechanism to get a missing key for signature
	      verification and for later encryption to this key.  If this  op-
	      tion  is	enabled	and a signature	includes an embedded key, that
	      key is used to verify the	signature and on verification  success
	      the key is imported. The default is --no-auto-key-import.

	      On  the  sender  (signing)  site	the option --include-key-block
	      needs to be used to put the public part of the  signing  key  as
	      aKey Block subpacketa into the signature.

       --auto-key-retrieve
       --no-auto-key-retrieve
	      These options enable or disable the automatic retrieving of keys
	      from a keyserver when verifying signatures made by keys that are
	      not  on  the  local  keyring.   The default is --no-auto-key-re-
	      trieve.

	      The order	of methods tried to lookup the key is:

	      1. If the	option --auto-key-import is set	and the	signatures in-
	      cludes an	embedded key, that key is used to verify the signature
	      and on verification success that key is imported.

	      2. If a preferred	keyserver is specified in  the	signature  and
	      the  option  honor-keyserver-url is active (which	is not the de-
	      fault), that keyserver is	tried.	Note that the creator  of  the
	      signature	 uses  the  option  --sig-keyserver-url	to specify the
	      preferred	keyserver for data signatures.

	      3. If the	 signature  has	 the  Signer's	UID  set  (e.g.	 using
	      --sender while creating the signature) a Web Key Directory (WKD)
	      lookup is	done.  This is the default configuration  but  can  be
	      disabled by removing WKD from the	auto-key-locate	list or	by us-
	      ing the option --disable-signer-uid.

	      4. If any	keyserver is configured	and the	Issuer Fingerprint  is
	      part  of the signature (since GnuPG 2.1.16), the configured key-
	      servers are tried.

	      Note that	this option makes a "web bug" like behavior  possible.
	      Keyserver	 or Web	Key Directory operators	can see	which keys you
	      request, so by sending you a message signed by a brand  new  key
	      (which  you  naturally will not have on your local keyring), the
	      operator can tell	both your IP address and  the  time  when  you
	      verified the signature.

       --keyid-format {none|short|0xshort|long|0xlong}
	      Select  how to display key IDs.  "none" does not show the	key ID
	      at all but shows the fingerprint in a separate line.  "short" is
	      the traditional 8-character key ID.  "long" is the more accurate
	      (but less	convenient) 16-character key ID.  Add an "0x"  to  ei-
	      ther  to	include	 an "0x" at the	beginning of the key ID, as in
	      0x99242560.  Note	that this option  is  ignored  if  the	option
	      --with-colons is used.

       --keyserver name
	      This option is deprecated	- please use the --keyserver in	`dirm-
	      ngr.conf'	instead.

	      Use name as your keyserver. This is the server  that  --receive-
	      keys,  --send-keys,  and	--search-keys will communicate with to
	      receive keys from, send keys to, and search  for	keys  on.  The
	      format  of  the name is a	URI: `scheme:[//]keyservername[:port]'
	      The scheme is the	type of	keyserver: "hkp"/"hkps"	for  the  HTTP
	      (or  compatible)	keyservers or "ldap"/"ldaps" for the LDAP key-
	      servers.	Note that your particular installation	of  GnuPG  may
	      have  other keyserver types available as well. Keyserver schemes
	      are case-insensitive.

	      Most keyservers synchronize with each other, so there is	gener-
	      ally no need to send keys	to more	than one server. The keyserver
	      hkp://keys.gnupg.net uses	round robin DNS	to  give  a  different
	      keyserver	each time you use it.

       --keyserver-options {name=value}
	      This is a	space or comma delimited string	that gives options for
	      the keyserver. Options can be prefixed with a `no-' to give  the
	      opposite	meaning. Valid import-options or export-options	may be
	      used here	as well	to apply to importing (--recv-key) or  export-
	      ing  (--send-key)	 a key from a keyserver. While not all options
	      are available for	all keyserver types, some common options are:

	      include-revoked
		     When searching for	a key with --search-keys, include keys
		     that  are	marked	on the keyserver as revoked. Note that
		     not all keyservers	differentiate between revoked and  un-
		     revoked  keys,  and  for  such  keyservers	this option is
		     meaningless. Note also that most keyservers do  not  have
		     cryptographic  verification  of  key  revocations,	and so
		     turning this option off may result	in skipping keys  that
		     are incorrectly marked as revoked.

	      include-disabled
		     When searching for	a key with --search-keys, include keys
		     that are marked on	the keyserver as disabled.  Note  that
		     this option is not	used with HKP keyservers.

	      auto-key-retrieve
		     This  is  an  obsolete  alias for the option auto-key-re-
		     trieve.  Please do	not use	it; it will be removed in  fu-
		     ture versions..

	      honor-keyserver-url
		     When  using  --refresh-keys, if the key in	question has a
		     preferred keyserver URL, then  use	 that  preferred  key-
		     server to refresh the key from. In	addition, if auto-key-
		     retrieve is set, and the signature	being verified	has  a
		     preferred	keyserver  URL,	 then  use that	preferred key-
		     server to fetch the key from. Note	that this  option  in-
		     troduces a	"web bug": The creator of the key can see when
		     the keys is refreshed.  Thus this option is  not  enabled
		     by	default.

	      include-subkeys
		     When  receiving  a	key, include subkeys as	potential tar-
		     gets. Note	that this option is not	 used  with  HKP  key-
		     servers, as they do not support retrieving	keys by	subkey
		     id.

	      timeout
	      http-proxy=value
	      verbose
	      debug
	      check-cert

	      ca-cert-file
		     These options have	no more	function since GnuPG 2.1.  Use
		     the dirmngr configuration options instead.

       The  default list of options is:	"self-sigs-only, import-clean, repair-
       keys, repair-pks-subkey-bug, export-attributes".	However, if the	actual
       used  source  is	 an  LDAP server "no-self-sigs-only" is	assumed	unless
       "self-sigs-only"	has been explictly configured.

       --completes-needed n
	      Number of	completely trusted users to introduce a	new key	signer
	      (defaults	to 1).

       --marginals-needed n
	      Number of	marginally trusted users to introduce a	new key	signer
	      (defaults	to 3)

       --tofu-default-policy {auto|good|unknown|bad|ask}
	      The default TOFU policy (defaults	to auto).  For	more  informa-
	      tion about the meaning of	this option, see: [trust-model-tofu].

       --max-cert-depth	n
	      Maximum depth of a certification chain (default is 5).

       --no-sig-cache
	      Do not cache the verification status of key signatures.  Caching
	      gives a much better performance in key listings. However,	if you
	      suspect that your	public keyring is not safe against write modi-
	      fications, you can use this option to disable  the  caching.  It
	      probably	does  not make sense to	disable	it because all kind of
	      damage can be done if someone else has write access to your pub-
	      lic keyring.

       --auto-check-trustdb
       --no-auto-check-trustdb
	      If  GnuPG	 feels that its	information about the Web of Trust has
	      to be updated, it	automatically runs the --check-trustdb command
	      internally.   This  may  be a time consuming process. --no-auto-
	      check-trustdb disables this option.

       --use-agent
       --no-use-agent
	      This is dummy option. gpg2 always	requires the agent.

       --gpg-agent-info
	      This is dummy option. It has no effect when used with gpg2.

       --agent-program file
	      Specify an agent program to be used for secret  key  operations.
	      The  default value is determined by running gpgconf with the op-
	      tion --list-dirs.	 Note that the pipe symbol (|) is used	for  a
	      regression  test suite hack and may thus not be used in the file
	      name.

       --dirmngr-program file
	      Specify a	dirmngr	program	to be used for keyserver access.   The
	      default value is `/usr/local/bin/dirmngr'.

       --disable-dirmngr
	      Entirely disable the use of the Dirmngr.

       --no-autostart
	      Do not start the gpg-agent or the	dirmngr	if it has not yet been
	      started and its service is required.  This option	is mostly use-
	      ful on machines where the	connection to gpg-agent	has been redi-
	      rected to	another	machines.  If dirmngr is required on  the  re-
	      mote  machine, it	may be started manually	using gpgconf --launch
	      dirmngr.

       --lock-once
	      Lock the databases the first time	a lock is requested and	do not
	      release the lock until the process terminates.

       --lock-multiple
	      Release  the  locks  every  time a lock is no longer needed. Use
	      this to override a previous --lock-once from a config file.

       --lock-never
	      Disable locking entirely.	This option should  be	used  only  in
	      very special environments, where it can be assured that only one
	      process is accessing those  files.  A  bootable  floppy  with  a
	      stand-alone  encryption  system will probably use	this. Improper
	      usage of this option may lead to data and	key corruption.

       --exit-on-status-write-error
	      This option will cause write errors on the status	FD to  immedi-
	      ately  terminate the process. That should	in fact	be the default
	      but it never worked this way and thus we need an option  to  en-
	      able  this,  so  that  the change	won't break applications which
	      close their end of a status fd connected pipe too	 early.	 Using
	      this  option  along with --enable-progress-filter	may be used to
	      cleanly cancel long running gpg operations.

       --limit-card-insert-tries n
	      With n greater than 0 the	number of prompts asking to  insert  a
	      smartcard	 gets limited to N-1. Thus with	a value	of 1 gpg won't
	      at all ask to insert  a  card  if	 none  has  been  inserted  at
	      startup. This option is useful in	the configuration file in case
	      an application does not know about  the  smartcard  support  and
	      waits ad infinitum for an	inserted card.

       --no-random-seed-file
	      GnuPG uses a file	to store its internal random pool over invoca-
	      tions.  This makes random	generation faster;  however  sometimes
	      write  operations	 are  not  desired. This option	can be used to
	      achieve that with	the cost of slower random generation.

       --no-greeting
	      Suppress the initial copyright message.

       --no-secmem-warning
	      Suppress the warning about "using	insecure memory".

       --no-permission-warning
	      Suppress the  warning  about  unsafe  file  and  home  directory
	      (--homedir)  permissions.	 Note  that the	permission checks that
	      GnuPG performs are not intended to be authoritative, but	rather
	      they  simply  warn  about	certain	common permission problems. Do
	      not assume that the lack of a warning means that your system  is
	      secure.

	      Note that	the warning for	unsafe --homedir permissions cannot be
	      suppressed in the	gpg.conf file, as this would allow an attacker
	      to  place	an unsafe gpg.conf file	in place, and use this file to
	      suppress warnings	about itself. The --homedir permissions	 warn-
	      ing may only be suppressed on the	command	line.

       --require-secmem
       --no-require-secmem
	      Refuse  to run if	GnuPG cannot get secure	memory.	Defaults to no
	      (i.e. run, but give a warning).

       --require-cross-certification
       --no-require-cross-certification
	      When verifying a signature made from a subkey, ensure  that  the
	      cross  certification  "back  signature" on the subkey is present
	      and valid.  This protects	against	a subtle attack	 against  sub-
	      keys  that  can sign.  Defaults to --require-cross-certification
	      for gpg2.

       --expert
       --no-expert
	      Allow the	user to	do certain nonsensical or "silly" things  like
	      signing an expired or revoked key, or certain potentially	incom-
	      patible things like generating unusual key types.	This also dis-
	      ables  certain  warning  messages	about potentially incompatible
	      actions. As the name implies, this option	is for	experts	 only.
	      If you don't fully understand the	implications of	what it	allows
	      you to do, leave this off. --no-expert disables this option.

   Key related options

       --recipient name
       -r     Encrypt for user id name.	If this	option	or  --hidden-recipient
	      is  not  specified, GnuPG	asks for the user-id unless --default-
	      recipient	is given.

       --hidden-recipient name
       -R     Encrypt for user ID name,	but hide the key  ID  of  this	user's
	      key.  This  option helps to hide the receiver of the message and
	      is a limited countermeasure against traffic  analysis.  If  this
	      option  or --recipient is	not specified, GnuPG asks for the user
	      ID unless	--default-recipient is given.

       --recipient-file	file
       -f     This option is similar to	--recipient except that	it encrypts to
	      a	key stored in the given	file.  file must be the	name of	a file
	      containing exactly one key.  gpg2	assumes	that the key  in  this
	      file is fully valid.

       --hidden-recipient-file file
       -F     This  option is similar to --hidden-recipient except that	it en-
	      crypts to	a key stored in	the given file.	 file must be the name
	      of a file	containing exactly one key.  gpg2 assumes that the key
	      in this file is fully valid.

       --encrypt-to name
	      Same as --recipient but this one is intended for use in the  op-
	      tions file and may be used with your own user-id as an "encrypt-
	      to-self".	These keys are only used when there are	other  recipi-
	      ents given either	by use of --recipient or by the	asked user id.
	      No trust checking	is performed for these user ids	and even  dis-
	      abled keys can be	used.

       --hidden-encrypt-to name
	      Same  as	--hidden-recipient but this one	is intended for	use in
	      the options file and may be used with your own user-id as	a hid-
	      den  "encrypt-to-self".  These keys are only used	when there are
	      other recipients given either by use of --recipient  or  by  the
	      asked  user  id.	 No trust checking is performed	for these user
	      ids and even disabled keys can be	used.

       --no-encrypt-to
	      Disable the use  of  all	--encrypt-to  and  --hidden-encrypt-to
	      keys.

       --group {name=value}
	      Sets up a	named group, which is similar to aliases in email pro-
	      grams.  Any time the group name is a recipient (-r or  --recipi-
	      ent),  it	 will  be  expanded  to	the values specified. Multiple
	      groups with the same name	are automatically merged into a	single
	      group.

	      The  values are key IDs or fingerprints, but any key description
	      is accepted. Note	that a value with spaces in it will be treated
	      as  two  different  values. Note also there is only one level of
	      expansion	--- you	cannot make an group that  points  to  another
	      group.  When  used from the command line,	it may be necessary to
	      quote the	argument to this option	 to  prevent  the  shell  from
	      treating it as multiple arguments.

       --ungroup name
	      Remove a given entry from	the --group list.

       --no-groups
	      Remove all entries from the --group list.

       --local-user name
       -u     Use  name	 as  the key to	sign with. Note	that this option over-
	      rides --default-key.

       --sender	mbox
	      This option has two purposes.  mbox must either  be  a  complete
	      user  ID	containing  a proper mail address or just a plain mail
	      address.	The option can be given	multiple times.

	      When creating a signature	this  option  tells  gpg  the  signing
	      key's user id used to make the signature and embeds that user ID
	      into the created signature (using	OpenPGP's ``Signer's User ID''
	      subpacket).   If	the  option is given multiple times a suitable
	      user ID is picked.  However, if the signing  key	was  specified
	      directly	by  using  a mail address (i.e.	not by using a finger-
	      print or key ID) this option is used and the mail	address	is em-
	      bedded in	the created signature.

	      When verifying a signature mbox is used to restrict the informa-
	      tion printed by the TOFU code to matching	user IDs.  If the  op-
	      tion  is	used and the signature contains	a ``Signer's User ID''
	      subpacket	that information is  is	 also  used  to	 restrict  the
	      printed  information.   Note  that GnuPG considers only the mail
	      address part of a	User ID.

	      If this option or	the said  subpacket  is	 available  the	 TRUST
	      lines  as	 printed  by option status-fd correspond to the	corre-
	      sponding User ID;	if no User ID is known	the  TRUST  lines  are
	      computed	directly  on  the  key and do not give any information
	      about the	User ID.  In the latter	case it	his highly recommended
	      to  scripts  and	other frontends	to evaluate the	VALIDSIG line,
	      retrieve the key and print all User IDs along with their	valid-
	      ity (trust) information.

       --try-secret-key	name
	      For  hidden  recipients  GPG  needs  to know the keys to use for
	      trial decryption.	 The key  set  with  --default-key  is	always
	      tried  first, but	this is	often not sufficient.  This option al-
	      lows setting more	keys to	be used	 for  trial  decryption.   Al-
	      though  any  valid user-id specification may be used for name it
	      makes sense to use at least the long keyid to avoid ambiguities.
	      Note that	gpg-agent might	pop up a pinentry for a	lot keys to do
	      the trial	decryption.  If	you want to stop all further trial de-
	      cryption	you  may use close-window button instead of the	cancel
	      button.

       --try-all-secrets
	      Don't look at the	key ID as stored in the	message	 but  try  all
	      secret  keys  in turn to find the	right decryption key. This op-
	      tion forces the behaviour	as used	by anonymous recipients	 (cre-
	      ated  by	using  --throw-keyids or --hidden-recipient) and might
	      come handy in case where an encrypted message contains  a	 bogus
	      key ID.

       --skip-hidden-recipients
       --no-skip-hidden-recipients
	      During  decryption  skip	all anonymous recipients.  This	option
	      helps in the case	that people use	the hidden recipients  feature
	      to  hide	their own encrypt-to key from others.  If one has many
	      secret keys this may lead	to a major annoyance because all  keys
	      are  tried in turn to decrypt something which was	not really in-
	      tended for it.  The drawback of this option is that it  is  cur-
	      rently  not  possible  to	 decrypt a message which includes real
	      anonymous	recipients.

   Input and Output

       --armor
       -a     Create ASCII armored output.  The	default	is to create  the  bi-
	      nary OpenPGP format.

       --no-armor
	      Assume the input data is not in ASCII armored format.

       --output	file
       -o file
	      Write output to file.  To	write to stdout	use - as the filename.

       --max-output n
	      This  option  sets  a  limit on the number of bytes that will be
	      generated	when processing	a file.	Since OpenPGP supports various
	      levels  of  compression,	it is possible that the	plaintext of a
	      given message may	be  significantly  larger  than	 the  original
	      OpenPGP  message.	While GnuPG works properly with	such messages,
	      there is often a desire to set a maximum file size that will  be
	      generated	 before	processing is forced to	stop by	the OS limits.
	      Defaults to 0, which means "no limit".

       --chunk-size n
	      The AEAD encryption mode encrypts	the data in chunks so  that  a
	      receiving	side can check for transmission	errors or tampering at
	      the end of each chunk and	does not need to delay this until  all
	      data  has	 been received.	 The used chunk	size is	2^n byte.  The
	      lowest allowed value for n is 6 (64 byte)	and the	largest	is the
	      default of 27 which creates chunks not larger than 128 MiB.

       --input-size-hint n
	      This  option  can	be used	to tell	GPG the	size of	the input data
	      in bytes.	 n must	be a positive base-10 number.  This option  is
	      only  useful if the input	is not taken from a file.  GPG may use
	      this hint	to optimize its	buffer	allocation  strategy.	It  is
	      also  used  by  the  --status-fd	line ``PROGRESS'' to provide a
	      value for	``total'' if that is not available by other means.

       --key-origin string[,url]
	      gpg can track the	origin of a key. Certain origins  are  implic-
	      itly  known  (e.g. keyserver, web	key directory) and set.	 For a
	      standard import the origin of the	keys imported can be set  with
	      this option.  To list the	possible values	use "help" for string.
	      Some origins can store an	optional url argument.	That  URL  can
	      appended to string after a comma.

       --import-options	parameters
	      This is a	space or comma delimited string	that gives options for
	      importing	keys. Options can be prepended with a  `no-'  to  give
	      the opposite meaning. The	options	are:

	      import-local-sigs
		     Allow importing key signatures marked as "local". This is
		     not generally useful unless a shared  keyring  scheme  is
		     being used.  Defaults to no.

	      keep-ownertrust
		     Normally  possible	 still existing	ownertrust values of a
		     key are cleared if	a key is imported.  This is in general
		     desirable	so  that a formerly deleted key	does not auto-
		     matically gain an ownertrust values merely	due to import.
		     On	 the other hand	it is sometimes	necessary to re-import
		     a trusted set of keys again but keeping already  assigned
		     ownertrust	 values.   This	 can be	achieved by using this
		     option.

	      repair-pks-subkey-bug
		     During import, attempt to repair the damage caused	by the
		     PKS  keyserver  bug (pre version 0.9.6) that mangles keys
		     with multiple subkeys. Note that this  cannot  completely
		     repair the	damaged	key as some crucial data is removed by
		     the keyserver, but	it does	at least  give	you  back  one
		     subkey.  Defaults	to  no for regular --import and	to yes
		     for keyserver --receive-keys.

	      import-show
	      show-only
		     Show a listing of the key as imported right before	it  is
		     stored.   This  can be combined with the option --dry-run
		     to	only look at keys; the option show-only	is a  shortcut
		     for this combination.  The	command	--show-keys is another
		     shortcut for this.	 Note that suffixes like '#' for "sec"
		     and "sbb" lines may or may	not be printed.

	      import-export
		     Run the entire import code	but instead of storing the key
		     to	the local keyring write	it to the output.  The	export
		     option  export-dane  affect  the output.  This option can
		     for example be used to remove all invalid	parts  from  a
		     key without the need to store it.

	      merge-only
		     During import, allow key updates to existing keys,	but do
		     not allow any new keys to be imported. Defaults to	no.

	      import-clean
		     After import, compact (remove all signatures  except  the
		     self-signature)  any  user	 IDs from the new key that are
		     not usable.  Then,	remove any signatures from the new key
		     that  are not usable.  This includes signatures that were
		     issued by keys that are not present on the	keyring.  This
		     option  is	 the  same  as	running	the --edit-key command
		     "clean" after import. Defaults to no.

	      self-sigs-only
		     Accept only self-signatures while importing a  key.   All
		     other  key	 signatures  are  skipped  at  an early	import
		     stage.  This option can be	used with keyserver-options to
		     mitigate  attempts	 to  flood a key with bogus signatures
		     from a keyserver.	The drawback is	that all  other	 valid
		     key  signatures, as required by the Web of	Trust are also
		     not imported.  Note that when  using  this	 option	 along
		     with  import-clean	it suppresses the final	clean step af-
		     ter merging the imported key into the existing key.

	      repair-keys
		     After import, fix various problems	with  the  keys.   For
		     example,  this  reorders signatures, and strips duplicate
		     signatures.  Defaults to yes.

	      bulk-import
		     When used the  keyboxd  (option  "use-keyboxd"  in	 `com-
		     mon.conf')	 do  the  import  within a single transaction.
		     This is an	experimental feature.

	      import-minimal
		     Import the	smallest key possible. This removes all	signa-
		     tures  except the most recent self-signature on each user
		     ID. This option is	the same  as  running  the  --edit-key
		     command "minimize"	after import.  Defaults	to no.

	      restore
	      import-restore
		     Import  in	key restore mode.  This	imports	all data which
		     is	usually	skipped	during	import;	 including  all	 GnuPG
		     specific data.  All other contradicting options are over-
		     ridden.

       --import-filter {name=expr}
       --export-filter {name=expr}
	      These options define an import/export filter which  are  applied
	      to  the  imported/exported  keyblock  right  before  it  will be
	      stored/written.  name defines the	type of	filter	to  use,  expr
	      the  expression  to  evaluate.   The  option can be used several
	      times which then appends more expression to the same name.

	      The available filter types are:

	      keep-uid
		     This filter will keep a user id packet and	its  dependent
		     packets  in  the  keyblock	if the expression evaluates to
		     true.

	      drop-subkey
		     This filter drops the selected subkeys.   Currently  only
		     implemented for --export-filter.

	      drop-sig
		     This  filter  drops  the  selected	key signatures on user
		     ids.  Self-signatures are not considered.	Currently only
		     implemented for --import-filter.

       For  the	syntax of the expression see the chapter "FILTER EXPRESSIONS".
       The property names for the expressions depend on	the actual filter type
       and are indicated in the	following table.

       The available properties	are:

	      uid    A string with the user id.	 (keep-uid)

	      mbox   The addr-spec part	of a user id with mailbox or the empty
		     string.  (keep-uid)

	      key_algo
		     A number with the public key algorithm of a key or	subkey
		     packet.  (drop-subkey)

	      key_created
	      key_created_d
		     The  first	is the timestamp a public key or subkey	packet
		     was created.  The second is the same but given as an  ISO
		     string, e.g. "2016-08-17".	(drop-subkey)

	      fpr    The hexified fingerprint of the current subkey or primary
		     key.  (drop-subkey)

	      primary
		     Boolean indicating	whether	the user  id  is  the  primary
		     one.  (keep-uid)

	      expired
		     Boolean  indicating  whether  a user id (keep-uid), a key
		     (drop-subkey), or a signature (drop-sig) expired.

	      revoked
		     Boolean indicating	whether	a user id (keep-uid) or	a  key
		     (drop-subkey) has been revoked.

	      disabled
		     Boolean  indicating  whether  a  primary key is disabled.
		     (not used)

	      secret Boolean indicating	whether	a key or subkey	 is  a	secret
		     one.  (drop-subkey)

	      usage  A	string indicating the usage flags for the subkey, from
		     the sequence ``ecsa?''.  For example, a subkey capable of
		     just  signing  and	authentication would be	an exact match
		     for ``sa''. (drop-subkey)

	      sig_created
	      sig_created_d
		     The first is the timestamp	a signature  packet  was  cre-
		     ated.   The  second  is the same but given	as an ISO date
		     string, e.g. "2016-08-17".	(drop-sig)

	      sig_algo
		     A number with the public key  algorithm  of  a  signature
		     packet. (drop-sig)

	      sig_digest_algo
		     A number with the digest algorithm	of a signature packet.
		     (drop-sig)

       --export-options	parameters
	      This is a	space or comma delimited string	that gives options for
	      exporting	 keys.	 Options can be	prepended with a `no-' to give
	      the opposite meaning.  The options are:

	      export-local-sigs
		     Allow exporting key signatures marked as "local". This is
		     not  generally  useful  unless a shared keyring scheme is
		     being used.  Defaults to no.

	      export-attributes
		     Include attribute user IDs	(photo IDs)  while  exporting.
		     Not including attribute user IDs is useful	to export keys
		     that are going to be used by an OpenPGP program that does
		     not accept	attribute user IDs.  Defaults to yes.

	      export-sensitive-revkeys
		     Include designated	revoker	information that was marked as
		     "sensitive". Defaults to no.

	      backup
	      export-backup
		     Export for	use as a backup.  The exported	data  includes
		     all data which is needed to restore the key or keys later
		     with GnuPG.  The format is	basically the  OpenPGP	format
		     but enhanced with GnuPG specific data.  All other contra-
		     dicting options are overridden.

	      export-clean
		     Compact (remove all signatures from) user IDs on the  key
		     being  exported  if the user IDs are not usable. Also, do
		     not export	any signatures that are	not usable.  This  in-
		     cludes  signatures	 that were issued by keys that are not
		     present on	the keyring. This option is the	same  as  run-
		     ning  the --edit-key command "clean" before export	except
		     that the local copy of the	key is not modified.  Defaults
		     to	no.

	      export-minimal
		     Export the	smallest key possible. This removes all	signa-
		     tures except the most recent self-signature on each  user
		     ID.  This	option	is  the	same as	running	the --edit-key
		     command "minimize"	before export except  that  the	 local
		     copy of the key is	not modified. Defaults to no.

	      export-dane
		     Instead  of  outputting  the  key material	output OpenPGP
		     DANE records suitable to put into	DNS  zone  files.   An
		     ORIGIN  line  is  printed before each record to allow di-
		     verting the records to the	corresponding zone file.

       --with-colons
	      Print key	listings delimited by colons.  Note  that  the	output
	      will  be	encoded	 in  UTF-8 regardless of any --display-charset
	      setting. This format is useful when GnuPG	is called from scripts
	      and  other  programs as it is easily machine parsed. The details
	      of this format are documented in the file	 `doc/DETAILS',	 which
	      is included in the GnuPG source distribution.

       --fixed-list-mode
	      Do  not  merge  primary  user ID and primary key in --with-colon
	      listing  mode  and  print	 all  timestamps  as   seconds	 since
	      1970-01-01.   Since  GnuPG  2.0.10, this mode is always used and
	      thus this	option is obsolete; it does not	harm to	use it though.

       --legacy-list-mode
	      Revert to	the pre-2.1 public key list mode.  This	 only  affects
	      the  human  readable  output and not the machine interface (i.e.
	      --with-colons).  Note that the legacy  format  does  not	convey
	      suitable information for elliptic	curves.

       --with-fingerprint
	      Same as the command --fingerprint	but changes only the format of
	      the output and may be used together with another command.

       --with-subkey-fingerprint
	      If a fingerprint is printed for the  primary  key,  this	option
	      forces  printing of the fingerprint for all subkeys.  This could
	      also be achieved by using	the --with-fingerprint	twice  but  by
	      using  this option along with keyid-format "none"	a compact fin-
	      gerprint is printed.

       --with-icao-spelling
	      Print the	ICAO spelling of the fingerprint in  addition  to  the
	      hex digits.

       --with-keygrip
	      Include  the keygrip in the key listings.	 In --with-colons mode
	      this is implicitly enable	for secret keys.

       --with-key-origin
	      Include the locally held information on the origin and last  up-
	      date  of	a key in a key listing.	 In --with-colons mode this is
	      always printed.  This data is currently experimental  and	 shall
	      not be considered	part of	the stable API.

       --with-wkd-hash
	      Print  a Web Key Directory identifier along with each user ID in
	      key listings.  This is an	experimental feature and semantics may
	      change.

       --with-secret
	      Include  info  about  the	presence of a secret key in public key
	      listings done with --with-colons.

   OpenPGP protocol specific options

       -t, --textmode
       --no-textmode
	      Treat input files	as text	and store them in the OpenPGP  canoni-
	      cal  text	form with standard "CRLF" line endings.	This also sets
	      the necessary flags to inform the	recipient that	the  encrypted
	      or  signed  data is text and may need its	line endings converted
	      back to whatever the local system	uses. This  option  is	useful
	      when  communicating  between  two	 platforms that	have different
	      line ending conventions (UNIX-like to Mac, Mac to	Windows, etc).
	      --no-textmode disables this option, and is the default.

       --force-v3-sigs
       --no-force-v3-sigs

       --force-v4-certs
       --no-force-v4-certs
	      These options are	obsolete and have no effect since GnuPG	2.1.

       --force-aead
	      Force the	use of AEAD encryption over MDC	encryption.  AEAD is a
	      modern and faster	way to do authenticated	 encryption  than  the
	      old MDC method.  See also	options	--aead-algo and	--chunk-size.

       --force-mdc
       --disable-mdc
	      These options are	obsolete and have no effect since GnuPG	2.2.8.
	      The MDC is always	used unless the	keys indicate that an AEAD al-
	      gorithm  can  be	used in	which case AEAD	is used.  But note: If
	      the creation of a	legacy non-MDC message	is  exceptionally  re-
	      quired, the option --rfc2440 allows for this.

       --disable-signer-uid
	      By  default  the	user  ID of the	signing	key is embedded	in the
	      data signature.  As of now this is only done if the signing  key
	      has been specified with local-user using a mail address, or with
	      sender.  This information	can be helpful for verifier to	locate
	      the key; see option --auto-key-retrieve.

       --include-key-block
       --no-include-key-block
	      This  option is used to embed the	actual signing key into	a data
	      signature.  The embedded key is stripped down to a  single  user
	      id  and includes only the	signing	subkey used to create the sig-
	      nature as	well as	as valid encryption subkeys.  All  other  info
	      is removed from the key to keep it and thus the signature	small.
	      This option is the OpenPGP counterpart to	the gpgsm option --in-
	      clude-certs  and allows the recipient of a signed	message	to re-
	      ply encrypted to the sender without using	any online directories
	      to  lookup the key.  The default is --no-include-key-block.  See
	      also the option --auto-key-import.

       --personal-cipher-preferences string
	      Set the list of personal cipher preferences to string.  Use gpg2
	      --version	to get a list of available algorithms, and use none to
	      set no preference	at all.	 This allows the user to safely	 over-
	      ride  the	 algorithm chosen by the recipient key preferences, as
	      GPG will only select an algorithm	that is	usable by all  recipi-
	      ents.   The  most	highly ranked cipher in	this list is also used
	      for the --symmetric encryption command.

       --personal-aead-preferences string
	      Set the list of personal AEAD preferences	to string.   Use  gpg2
	      --version	to get a list of available algorithms, and use none to
	      set no preference	at all.	 This allows the user to safely	 over-
	      ride  the	 algorithm chosen by the recipient key preferences, as
	      GPG will only select an algorithm	that is	usable by all  recipi-
	      ents.   The  most	highly ranked cipher in	this list is also used
	      for the --symmetric encryption command.

       --personal-digest-preferences string
	      Set the list of personal digest preferences to string.  Use gpg2
	      --version	to get a list of available algorithms, and use none to
	      set no preference	at all.	 This allows the user to safely	 over-
	      ride  the	 algorithm chosen by the recipient key preferences, as
	      GPG will only select an algorithm	that is	usable by all  recipi-
	      ents.   The  most	highly ranked digest algorithm in this list is
	      also used	when signing without encryption	(e.g. --clear-sign  or
	      --sign).

       --personal-compress-preferences string
	      Set the list of personal compression preferences to string.  Use
	      gpg2 --version to	get a list of available	 algorithms,  and  use
	      none  to	set  no	 preference  at	 all.  This allows the user to
	      safely override the algorithm chosen by the recipient key	 pref-
	      erences,	as GPG will only select	an algorithm that is usable by
	      all recipients.  The most	highly ranked compression algorithm in
	      this  list is also used when there are no	recipient keys to con-
	      sider (e.g. --symmetric).

       --s2k-cipher-algo name
	      Use name as the cipher algorithm for symmetric encryption	with a
	      passphrase  if  --personal-cipher-preferences  and --cipher-algo
	      are not given.  The default is AES-128.

       --s2k-digest-algo name
	      Use name as the digest algorithm used to mangle the  passphrases
	      for symmetric encryption.	 The default is	SHA-1.

       --s2k-mode n
	      Selects how passphrases for symmetric encryption are mangled. If
	      n	is 0 a plain passphrase	(which is in general not  recommended)
	      will  be used, a 1 adds a	salt (which should not be used)	to the
	      passphrase and a 3 (the default) iterates	the  whole  process  a
	      number of	times (see --s2k-count).

       --s2k-count n
	      Specify  how  many  times	the passphrases	mangling for symmetric
	      encryption is repeated.  This value may range between  1024  and
	      65011712	inclusive.   The  default  is inquired from gpg-agent.
	      Note that	not all	values in the 1024-65011712  range  are	 legal
	      and  if an illegal value is selected, GnuPG will round up	to the
	      nearest legal value.  This option	is only	meaningful  if	--s2k-
	      mode is set to the default of 3.

   Compliance options

       These options control what GnuPG	is compliant to. Only one of these op-
       tions may be active at a	time. Note that	the default setting of this is
       nearly  always  the  correct  one.  See the INTEROPERABILITY WITH OTHER
       OPENPGP PROGRAMS	section	below before using one of these	options.

       --gnupg
	      Use standard GnuPG behavior. This	is essentially OpenPGP	behav-
	      ior (see --openpgp), but with extension from the proposed	update
	      to OpenPGP and with some additional workarounds for common  com-
	      patibility  problems  in different versions of PGP.  This	is the
	      default option, so it is not generally needed,  but  it  may  be
	      useful to	override a different compliance	option in the gpg.conf
	      file.

       --openpgp
	      Reset all	packet,	cipher and digest options  to  strict  OpenPGP
	      behavior.	  This	option	implies	--allow-old-cipher-algos.  Use
	      this option to reset all previous	options	 like  --s2k-*,	 --ci-
	      pher-algo,  --digest-algo	and --compress-algo to OpenPGP compli-
	      ant values. All PGP workarounds are disabled.

       --rfc4880
	      Reset all	packet,	cipher and digest options to  strict  RFC-4880
	      behavior.	  This	option implies --allow-old-cipher-algos.  Note
	      that this	is currently the same thing as --openpgp.

       --rfc4880bis
	      Reset all	packet,	cipher and digest options to strict  according
	      to the proposed updates of RFC-4880.

       --rfc2440
	      Reset  all  packet, cipher and digest options to strict RFC-2440
	      behavior.	 Note that by using this option	encryption packets are
	      created  in  a legacy mode without MDC protection.  This is dan-
	      gerous and should	thus only be used for experiments.   This  op-
	      tion  implies  --allow-old-cipher-algos.	 See also option --ig-
	      nore-mdc-error.

       --pgp6 This option is obsolete; it is handled as	an alias for --pgp7

       --pgp7 Set up all options to be as PGP 7	compliant  as  possible.  This
	      allowed  the  ciphers  IDEA, 3DES, CAST5,AES128, AES192, AES256,
	      and TWOFISH., the	hashes MD5, SHA1 and RIPEMD160,	and  the  com-
	      pression algorithms none and ZIP.	 This option implies --escape-
	      from-lines and disables --throw-keyids,

       --pgp8 Set up all options to be as PGP 8	compliant as possible.	PGP  8
	      is  a  lot closer	to the OpenPGP standard	than previous versions
	      of PGP, so all this does is disable --throw-keyids and set --es-
	      cape-from-lines.	 All  algorithms  are  allowed	except for the
	      SHA224, SHA384, and SHA512 digests.

       --compliance string
	      This option can be used instead of one  of  the  options	above.
	      Valid  values for	string are the above option names (without the
	      double dash) and possibly	others as shown	when using "help"  for
	      value.

   Doing things	one usually doesn't want to do

       -n
       --dry-run
	      Don't make any changes (this is not completely implemented).

       --list-only
	      Changes  the  behaviour of some commands.	This is	like --dry-run
	      but different in some cases. The semantic	of this	option may  be
	      extended	in  the	future.	Currently it only skips	the actual de-
	      cryption pass and	therefore enables a fast listing  of  the  en-
	      cryption keys.

       -i
       --interactive
	      Prompt before overwriting	any files.

       --debug-level level
	      Select  the debug	level for investigating	problems. level	may be
	      a	numeric	value or by a keyword:

	      none   No	debugging at all.  A value of less than	1 may be  used
		     instead of	the keyword.

	      basic  Some  basic  debug	messages.  A value between 1 and 2 may
		     be	used instead of	the keyword.

	      advanced
		     More verbose debug	messages.  A value between 3 and 5 may
		     be	used instead of	the keyword.

	      expert Even more detailed	messages.  A value between 6 and 8 may
		     be	used instead of	the keyword.

	      guru   All of the	debug messages you can get.  A	value  greater
		     than  8 may be used instead of the	keyword.  The creation
		     of	hash tracing files is only enabled if the  keyword  is
		     used.

       How  these  messages  are  mapped  to the actual	debugging flags	is not
       specified and may change	with newer releases of this program. They  are
       however carefully selected to best aid in debugging.

       --debug flags
	      Set  debug flags.	 All flags are or-ed and flags may be given in
	      C	syntax (e.g. 0x0042) or	as a  comma  separated	list  of  flag
	      names.   To  get	a  list	of all supported flags the single word
	      "help" can be used. This option is only useful for debugging and
	      the behavior may change at any time without notice.

       --debug-all
	      Set all useful debugging flags.

       --debug-iolbf
	      Set stdout into line buffered mode.  This	option is only honored
	      when given on the	command	line.

       --debug-set-iobuf-size n
	      Change the buffer	size of	the IOBUFs to  n  kilobyte.   Using  0
	      prints  the  current size.  Note well: This is a maintainer only
	      option and may thus be changed or	removed	at  any	 time  without
	      notice.

       --debug-allow-large-chunks
	      To  facilitate  in-memory	 decryption on the receiving site, the
	      largest recommended chunk	size is	 128  MiB  (--chunk-size  27).
	      This  option  allows to specify a	limit of up to 4 EiB (--chunk-
	      size 62) for experiments.

       --faked-system-time epoch
	      This option is only useful for testing; it sets the system  time
	      back  or	forth  to epoch	which is the number of seconds elapsed
	      since the	year 1970.  Alternatively epoch	may be given as	a full
	      ISO time string (e.g. "20070924T154812").

	      If  you  suffix  epoch  with an exclamation mark (!), the	system
	      time will	appear to be frozen at the specified time.

       --full-timestrings
	      Change the format	of printed creation and	expiration times  from
	      just the date to the date	and time.  This	is in general not use-
	      ful and the same information  is	anyway	available  in  --with-
	      colons  mode.   These  longer  strings are also not well aligned
	      with other printed data.

       --enable-progress-filter
	      Enable certain  PROGRESS	status	outputs.  This	option	allows
	      frontends	 to display a progress indicator while gpg is process-
	      ing larger files.	 There is a slight performance overhead	 using
	      it.

       --status-fd n
	      Write  special status strings to the file	descriptor n.  See the
	      file DETAILS in the documentation	for a listing of them.

       --status-file file
	      Same as --status-fd, except the status data is written  to  file
	      file.

       --logger-fd n
	      Write log	output to file descriptor n and	not to STDERR.

       --log-file file
       --logger-file file
	      Same  as	--logger-fd, except the	logger data is written to file
	      file.  Use `socket://' to	log to s socket.

       --attribute-fd n
	      Write attribute subpackets to the	file  descriptor  n.  This  is
	      most  useful for use with	--status-fd, since the status messages
	      are needed to separate  out  the	various	 subpackets  from  the
	      stream delivered to the file descriptor.

       --attribute-file	file
	      Same  as --attribute-fd, except the attribute data is written to
	      file file.

       --comment string
       --no-comments
	      Use string as a comment string in	cleartext signatures and ASCII
	      armored  messages	or keys	(see --armor). The default behavior is
	      not to use a comment string. --comment may be repeated  multiple
	      times to get multiple comment strings. --no-comments removes all
	      comments.	 It is a good idea to keep the length of a single com-
	      ment  below  60  characters to avoid problems with mail programs
	      wrapping such lines.  Note that comment lines,  like  all	 other
	      header lines, are	not protected by the signature.

       --emit-version
       --no-emit-version
	      Force  inclusion	of the version string in ASCII armored output.
	      If given once only the name of the program and the major	number
	      is  emitted, given twice the minor is also emitted, given	thrice
	      the micro	is added, and given four  times	 an  operating	system
	      identification  is  also	emitted.   --no-emit-version (default)
	      disables the version line.

       --sig-notation {name=value}
       --cert-notation {name=value}
       -N, --set-notation {name=value}
	      Put the name value pair into the	signature  as  notation	 data.
	      name  must  consist  only	of printable characters	or spaces, and
	      must contain a '@' character in  the  form  keyname@domain.exam-
	      ple.com  (substituting  the appropriate keyname and domain name,
	      of course).  This	is to help prevent pollution of	the  IETF  re-
	      served  notation	namespace. The --expert	flag overrides the '@'
	      check. value may be any printable	string;	it will	be encoded  in
	      UTF-8,  so  you  should check that your --display-charset	is set
	      correctly. If you	prefix name with an exclamation	mark (!),  the
	      notation	data  will  be flagged as critical (rfc4880:5.2.3.16).
	      --sig-notation sets a notation for data signatures. --cert-nota-
	      tion sets	a notation for key signatures (certifications).	--set-
	      notation sets both.

	      There are	special	codes that may be used in notation names. "%k"
	      will  be	expanded into the key ID of the	key being signed, "%K"
	      into the long key	ID of the key being signed, "%f" into the fin-
	      gerprint	of  the	 key being signed, "%s"	into the key ID	of the
	      key making the signature,	"%S" into the long key ID of  the  key
	      making  the signature, "%g" into the fingerprint of the key mak-
	      ing the signature	(which might be	a subkey), "%p"	into the  fin-
	      gerprint	of  the	 primary  key of the key making	the signature,
	      "%c" into	the signature count from the  OpenPGP  smartcard,  and
	      "%%" results in a	single "%". %k,	%K, and	%f are only meaningful
	      when making a key	signature  (certification),  and  %c  is  only
	      meaningful when using the	OpenPGP	smartcard.

       --known-notation	name
	      Adds  name to a list of known critical signature notations.  The
	      effect of	this is	that gpg will not  mark	 a  signature  with  a
	      critical	signature notation of that name	as bad.	 Note that gpg
	      already knows by default about a few critical  signatures	 nota-
	      tion names.

       --sig-policy-url	string
       --cert-policy-url string
       --set-policy-url	string
	      Use  string  as  a Policy	URL for	signatures (rfc4880:5.2.3.20).
	      If you prefix it with an exclamation mark	(!),  the  policy  URL
	      packet will be flagged as	critical. --sig-policy-url sets	a pol-
	      icy url for data signatures. --cert-policy-url sets a policy url
	      for key signatures (certifications). --set-policy-url sets both.

	      The same %-expandos used for notation data are available here as
	      well.

       --sig-keyserver-url string
	      Use string as a preferred	keyserver URL for data signatures.  If
	      you  prefix  it  with an exclamation mark	(!), the keyserver URL
	      packet will be flagged as	critical.

	      The same %-expandos used for notation data are available here as
	      well.

       --set-filename string
	      Use  string  as  the  filename  which is stored inside messages.
	      This overrides the default, which	is to use the actual  filename
	      of  the file being encrypted.  Using the empty string for	string
	      effectively removes the filename from the	output.

       --for-your-eyes-only
       --no-for-your-eyes-only
	      Set the `for your	eyes only' flag	in the	message.  This	causes
	      GnuPG  to	 refuse	to save	the file unless	the --output option is
	      given, and PGP to	use a "secure viewer" with a claimed  Tempest-
	      resistant	 font  to  display  the	message. This option overrides
	      --set-filename.  --no-for-your-eyes-only disables	this option.

       --use-embedded-filename
       --no-use-embedded-filename
	      Try to create a file with	a name as embedded in the  data.  This
	      can  be a	dangerous option as it enables overwriting files.  De-
	      faults to	no.  Note that the option --output overrides this  op-
	      tion.

       --cipher-algo name
	      Use  name	as cipher algorithm. Running the program with the com-
	      mand --version yields a list of supported	algorithms. If this is
	      not  used	 the cipher algorithm is selected from the preferences
	      stored with the key. In general, you do not want to use this op-
	      tion  as it allows you to	violate	the OpenPGP standard.  The op-
	      tion --personal-cipher-preferences is the	safe way to accomplish
	      the same thing.

       --aead-algo name
	      Specify  that  the  AEAD	algorithm name is to be	used.  This is
	      useful for symmetric encryption  where  no  key  preference  are
	      available	 to  select the	AEAD algorithm.	 Running gpg2 with op-
	      tion --version shows the available AEAD algorithms.  In general,
	      you  do  not want	to use this option as it allows	you to violate
	      the OpenPGP standard.  The option	--personal-aead-preferences is
	      the safe way to accomplish the same thing.

       --digest-algo name
	      Use  name	 as  the message digest	algorithm. Running the program
	      with the command --version yields	 a  list  of  supported	 algo-
	      rithms. In general, you do not want to use this option as	it al-
	      lows you to violate the OpenPGP  standard.   The	option	--per-
	      sonal-digest-preferences	is the safe way	to accomplish the same
	      thing.

       --compress-algo name
	      Use compression algorithm	name. "zlib" is	RFC-1950 ZLIB compres-
	      sion.  "zip"  is	RFC-1951 ZIP compression which is used by PGP.
	      "bzip2" is a more	modern compression scheme  that	 can  compress
	      some  things  better  than  zip or zlib, but at the cost of more
	      memory used during compression and decompression.	"uncompressed"
	      or  "none" disables compression. If this option is not used, the
	      default behavior is to examine the recipient key preferences  to
	      see  which algorithms the	recipient supports. If all else	fails,
	      ZIP is used for maximum compatibility.

	      ZLIB may give better compression results than ZIP, as  the  com-
	      pression	window	size is	not limited to 8k. BZIP2 may give even
	      better compression results than that, but	will  use  a  signifi-
	      cantly larger amount of memory while compressing and decompress-
	      ing. This	may be significant in  low  memory  situations.	 Note,
	      however,	that PGP (all versions)	only supports ZIP compression.
	      Using any	algorithm other	than ZIP or "none" will	make the  mes-
	      sage  unreadable	with  PGP.  In general,	you do not want	to use
	      this option as it	allows you to violate  the  OpenPGP  standard.
	      The  option  --personal-compress-preferences  is the safe	way to
	      accomplish the same thing.

       --cert-digest-algo name
	      Use name as the message digest algorithm	used  when  signing  a
	      key.  Running  the  program  with	the command --version yields a
	      list of supported	algorithms.  Be	aware that if  you  choose  an
	      algorithm	 that GnuPG supports but other OpenPGP implementations
	      do not, then some	users will not be able to use the  key	signa-
	      tures  you  make,	 or quite possibly your	entire key.  Note also
	      that a public key	algorithm must be compatible with  the	speci-
	      fied  digest algorithm; thus selecting an	arbitrary digest algo-
	      rithm may	result in error	messages from lower crypto  layers  or
	      lead to security flaws.

       --disable-cipher-algo name
	      Never allow the use of name as cipher algorithm.	The given name
	      will not be checked so that a later loaded algorithm will	 still
	      get disabled.

       --disable-pubkey-algo name
	      Never  allow the use of name as public key algorithm.  The given
	      name will	not be checked so that a later loaded  algorithm  will
	      still get	disabled.

       --throw-keyids
       --no-throw-keyids
	      Do  not  put the recipient key IDs into encrypted	messages. This
	      helps to hide the	receivers of the  message  and	is  a  limited
	      countermeasure against traffic analysis. ([Using a little	social
	      engineering anyone who is	able to	decrypt	the message can	 check
	      whether  one  of	the other recipients is	the one	he suspects.])
	      On the receiving side, it	may slow down the  decryption  process
	      because  all  available  secret keys must	be tried.  --no-throw-
	      keyids disables this option. This	option is essentially the same
	      as using --hidden-recipient for all recipients.

       --not-dash-escaped
	      This option changes the behavior of cleartext signatures so that
	      they can be used for patch files.	You should not	send  such  an
	      armored  file  via email because all spaces and line endings are
	      hashed too. You can not use this option for  data	 which	has  5
	      dashes  at the beginning of a line, patch	files don't have this.
	      A	special	armor header line tells	 GnuPG	about  this  cleartext
	      signature	option.

       --escape-from-lines
       --no-escape-from-lines
	      Because  some  mailers  change  lines  starting  with "From " to
	      ">From " it is good to handle such lines in a special  way  when
	      creating	cleartext  signatures  to prevent the mail system from
	      breaking the signature. Note that	all other PGP versions	do  it
	      this  way	 too.  Enabled by default. --no-escape-from-lines dis-
	      ables this option.

       --passphrase-repeat n
	      Specify how many times gpg2 will request a new passphrase	be re-
	      peated.	This is	useful for helping memorize a passphrase.  De-
	      faults to	 1  repetition;	 can  be  set  to  0  to  disable  any
	      passphrase repetition.  Note that	a n greater than 1 will	pop up
	      the pinentry window n+1 times even if a modern pinentry with two
	      entry fields is used.

       --passphrase-fd n
	      Read  the	passphrase from	file descriptor	n. Only	the first line
	      will be read from	file descriptor	n. If you use  0  for  n,  the
	      passphrase  will	be  read  from STDIN. This can only be used if
	      only one passphrase is supplied.

	      Note that	since Version 2.0 this passphrase is only used if  the
	      option  --batch  has  also  been	given.	Since  Version 2.1 the
	      --pinentry-mode also needs to be set to loopback.

       --passphrase-file file
	      Read the passphrase from file file. Only the first line will  be
	      read  from  file	file.  This  can  only	be  used  if  only one
	      passphrase is supplied. Obviously, a passphrase stored in	a file
	      is  of  questionable security if other users can read this file.
	      Don't use	this option if you can avoid it.

	      Note that	since Version 2.0 this passphrase is only used if  the
	      option  --batch  has  also  been	given.	Since  Version 2.1 the
	      --pinentry-mode also needs to be set to loopback.

       --passphrase string
	      Use string as the	passphrase. This can only be used if only  one
	      passphrase  is supplied. Obviously, this is of very questionable
	      security on a multi-user system. Don't use this  option  if  you
	      can avoid	it.

	      Note  that since Version 2.0 this	passphrase is only used	if the
	      option --batch has  also	been  given.  Since  Version  2.1  the
	      --pinentry-mode also needs to be set to loopback.

       --pinentry-mode mode
	      Set the pinentry mode to mode.  Allowed values for mode are:

	      default
		     Use the default of	the agent, which is ask.

	      ask    Force the use of the Pinentry.

	      cancel Emulate use of Pinentry's cancel button.

	      error  Return a Pinentry error (``No Pinentry'').

	      loopback
		     Redirect  Pinentry	 queries  to the caller.  Note that in
		     contrast to Pinentry the user is not prompted again if he
		     enters a bad password.

       --no-symkey-cache
	      Disable  the  passphrase	cache used for symmetrical en- and de-
	      cryption.	 This cache is based  on  the  message	specific  salt
	      value (cf. --s2k-mode).

       --request-origin	origin
	      Tell  gpg	 to assume that	the operation ultimately originated at
	      origin.  Depending on the	origin certain	restrictions  are  ap-
	      plied  and the Pinentry may include an extra note	on the origin.
	      Supported	values for origin are: local which is the default, re-
	      mote to indicate a remote	origin or browser for an operation re-
	      quested by a web browser.

       --command-fd n
	      This is a	replacement for	the deprecated shared-memory IPC mode.
	      If  this	option	is enabled, user input on questions is not ex-
	      pected from the TTY but  from  the  given	 file  descriptor.  It
	      should  be  used together	with --status-fd. See the file doc/DE-
	      TAILS in the source distribution for details on how to use it.

       --command-file file
	      Same as --command-fd, except the commands	are read out  of  file
	      file

       --allow-non-selfsigned-uid
       --no-allow-non-selfsigned-uid
	      Allow  the  import  and  use of keys with	user IDs which are not
	      self-signed. This	is not recommended, as a non self-signed  user
	      ID is trivial to forge. --no-allow-non-selfsigned-uid disables.

       --allow-freeform-uid
	      Disable all checks on the	form of	the user ID while generating a
	      new one. This option should only be used in very	special	 envi-
	      ronments	as  it does not	ensure the de-facto standard format of
	      user IDs.

       --ignore-time-conflict
	      GnuPG normally checks that the timestamps	associated  with  keys
	      and  signatures have plausible values. However, sometimes	a sig-
	      nature seems to be older than the	key  due  to  clock  problems.
	      This  option  makes  these checks	just a warning.	See also --ig-
	      nore-valid-from for timestamp issues on subkeys.

       --ignore-valid-from
	      GnuPG normally does not select and use subkeys  created  in  the
	      future.	This  option  allows the use of	such keys and thus ex-
	      hibits the pre-1.0.7 behaviour. You should not use  this	option
	      unless  there is some clock problem. See also --ignore-time-con-
	      flict for	timestamp issues with signatures.

       --ignore-crc-error
	      The ASCII	armor used by OpenPGP is protected by a	 CRC  checksum
	      against  transmission  errors. Occasionally the CRC gets mangled
	      somewhere	on the transmission channel  but  the  actual  content
	      (which  is  protected  by	 the OpenPGP protocol anyway) is still
	      okay. This option	allows GnuPG to	ignore CRC errors.

       --ignore-mdc-error
	      This option changes a MDC	integrity protection  failure  into  a
	      warning.	 It  is	required to decrypt old	messages which did not
	      use an MDC.  It may also be useful if  a	message	 is  partially
	      garbled, but it is necessary to get as much data as possible out
	      of that garbled message.	Be aware that a	missing	or failed  MDC
	      can  be an indication of an attack.  Use with great caution; see
	      also option --rfc2440.

       --allow-old-cipher-algos
	      Old cipher algorithms like 3DES, IDEA, or	CAST5 encrypt data us-
	      ing  blocks  of 64 bits; modern algorithms use blocks of 128 bit
	      instead.	To avoid certain attack	on these old algorithms	it  is
	      suggested	 not  to  encrypt  more	than 150 MiByte	using the same
	      key.  For	this reason gpg	does not allow the use of 64 bit block
	      size algorithms for encryption unless this option	is specified.

       --allow-weak-digest-algos
	      Signatures  made	with known-weak	digest algorithms are normally
	      rejected with an ``invalid digest	algorithm'' message.  This op-
	      tion  allows  the	verification of	signatures made	with such weak
	      algorithms.  MD5 is the only digest algorithm considered weak by
	      default.	 See  also  --weak-digest to reject other digest algo-
	      rithms.

       --weak-digest name
	      Treat the	specified digest algorithm as weak.   Signatures  made
	      over  weak digests algorithms are	normally rejected. This	option
	      can be supplied multiple times if	multiple algorithms should  be
	      considered  weak.	 See also --allow-weak-digest-algos to disable
	      rejection	of weak	digests.  MD5 is always	considered  weak,  and
	      does not need to be listed explicitly.

       --allow-weak-key-signatures
	      To  avoid	 a  minor risk of collision attacks on third-party key
	      signatures made using SHA-1, those key signatures	are considered
	      invalid.	This options allows to override	this restriction.

       --no-default-keyring
	      Do  not  add  the	default	keyrings to the	list of	keyrings. Note
	      that GnuPG will not operate without any keyrings,	so if you  use
	      this  option and do not provide alternate	keyrings via --keyring
	      or --secret-keyring, then	GnuPG will still use the default  pub-
	      lic or secret keyrings.

       --no-keyring
	      Do  not  use any keyring at all.	This overrides the default and
	      all options which	specify	keyrings.

       --skip-verify
	      Skip the signature verification step. This may be	used  to  make
	      the  decryption  faster  if  the	signature  verification	is not
	      needed.

       --with-key-data
	      Print key	listings delimited by colons (like --with-colons)  and
	      print the	public key data.

       --list-signatures
       --list-sigs
	      Same  as	--list-keys,  but the signatures are listed too.  This
	      command has the same effect as using  --list-keys	 with  --with-
	      sig-list.	  Note	that in	contrast to --check-signatures the key
	      signatures are not verified.  This command can be	used to	create
	      a	 list  of signing keys missing in the local keyring; for exam-
	      ple:

	       gpg --list-sigs --with-colons USERID | \
		 awk -F: '$1=="sig" && $2=="?" {if($13){print $13}else{print $5}}'

       --fast-list-mode
	      Changes the output of the	list commands to work faster; this  is
	      achieved	by  leaving  some parts	empty. Some applications don't
	      need the user ID and the trust information given	in  the	 list-
	      ings.  By	 using this options they can get a faster listing. The
	      exact behaviour of this option may change	 in  future  versions.
	      If you are missing some information, don't use this option.

       --no-literal
	      This  is	not  for normal	use. Use the source to see for what it
	      might be useful.

       --set-filesize
	      This is not for normal use. Use the source to see	 for  what  it
	      might be useful.

       --show-session-key
	      Display  the  session  key used for one message. See --override-
	      session-key for the counterpart of this option.

	      We think that Key	Escrow is a Bad	Thing; however the user	should
	      have  the	freedom	to decide whether to go	to prison or to	reveal
	      the content of one specific  message  without  compromising  all
	      messages ever encrypted for one secret key.

	      You can also use this option if you receive an encrypted message
	      which is abusive or offensive, to	prove to the administrators of
	      the messaging system that	the ciphertext transmitted corresponds
	      to an inappropriate plaintext so they can	 take  action  against
	      the offending user.

       --override-session-key string
       --override-session-key-fd fd
	      Don't  use  the public key but the session key string respective
	      the session key taken from the first line	 read  from  file  de-
	      scriptor	fd.   The format of this string	is the same as the one
	      printed by --show-session-key. This option is normally not  used
	      but comes	handy in case someone forces you to reveal the content
	      of an encrypted message; using this option you can do this with-
	      out handing out the secret key.  Note that using --override-ses-
	      sion-key may reveal the session key to all local users  via  the
	      global process table.  Often it is useful	to combine this	option
	      with --no-keyring.

       --ask-sig-expire
       --no-ask-sig-expire
	      When making a data signature, prompt for an expiration time.  If
	      this  option is not specified, the expiration time set via --de-
	      fault-sig-expire is used.	--no-ask-sig-expire disables this  op-
	      tion.

       --default-sig-expire
	      The  default  expiration	time  to use for signature expiration.
	      Valid values are "0" for no expiration, a	number followed	by the
	      letter  d	 (for  days), w	(for weeks), m (for months), or	y (for
	      years) (for example "2m"	for  two  months,  or  "5y"  for  five
	      years),  or an absolute date in the form YYYY-MM-DD. Defaults to
	      "0".

       --ask-cert-expire
       --no-ask-cert-expire
	      When making a key	signature, prompt for an expiration  time.  If
	      this  option is not specified, the expiration time set via --de-
	      fault-cert-expire	is used.  --no-ask-cert-expire	disables  this
	      option.

       --default-cert-expire
	      The default expiration time to use for key signature expiration.
	      Valid values are "0" for no expiration, a	number followed	by the
	      letter  d	 (for  days), w	(for weeks), m (for months), or	y (for
	      years) (for example "2m"	for  two  months,  or  "5y"  for  five
	      years),  or an absolute date in the form YYYY-MM-DD. Defaults to
	      "0".

       --default-new-key-algo string
	      This option can be used to change	the default algorithms for key
	      generation.  The string is similar to the	arguments required for
	      the command --quick-add-key but slightly different.  For example
	      the  current  default  of	 "rsa2048/cert,sign+rsa2048/encr"  (or
	      "rsa3072") can be	changed	to the value of	what we	currently call
	      future  default, which is	"ed25519/cert,sign+cv25519/encr".  You
	      need to consult the source code to learn the details.  Note that
	      the advanced key generation commands can always be used to spec-
	      ify a key	algorithm directly.

       --no-auto-trust-new-key
	      When creating a new key the ownertrust of	the new	key is set  to
	      ultimate.	 This option disables this and the user	needs to manu-
	      ally assign an ownertrust	value.

       --force-sign-key
	      This option modifies the behaviour of the	commands --quick-sign-
	      key,  --quick-lsign-key,	and the	"sign" sub-commands of --edit-
	      key by forcing the creation of a key signature, even if one  al-
	      ready exists.

       --allow-secret-key-import
	      This is an obsolete option and is	not used anywhere.

       --allow-multiple-messages

       --no-allow-multiple-messages
	      These are	obsolete options; they have no more effect since GnuPG
	      2.2.8.

       --enable-special-filenames
	      This option enables a mode in which filenames of the form	`-_n',
	      where  n is a non-negative decimal number, refer to the file de-
	      scriptor n and not to a file with	that name.

       --no-expensive-trust-checks
	      Experimental use only.

       --preserve-permissions
	      Don't change the permissions of a	secret keyring	back  to  user
	      read/write  only.	 Use  this option only if you really know what
	      you are doing.

       --default-preference-list string
	      Set the list of default preferences to string.  This  preference
	      list  is used for	new keys and becomes the default for "setpref"
	      in the --edit-key	menu.

       --default-keyserver-url name
	      Set the default keyserver	URL to name. This  keyserver  will  be
	      used as the keyserver URL	when writing a new self-signature on a
	      key, which includes key generation and changing preferences.

       --list-config
	      Display various internal configuration parameters	of GnuPG. This
	      option is	intended for external programs that call GnuPG to per-
	      form tasks, and is thus  not  generally  useful.	See  the  file
	      `doc/DETAILS'  in	 the  source  distribution  for	the details of
	      which configuration items	may be listed. --list-config  is  only
	      usable with --with-colons	set.

       --list-gcrypt-config
	      Display various internal configuration parameters	of Libgcrypt.

       --gpgconf-list
	      This command is similar to --list-config but in general only in-
	      ternally used by the gpgconf tool.

       --gpgconf-test
	      This is more or less dummy action.  However it parses  the  con-
	      figuration  file	and  returns with failure if the configuration
	      file would prevent gpg2 from startup.  Thus it may  be  used  to
	      run a syntax check on the	configuration file.

       --chuid uid
	      Change the current user to uid which may either be a number or a
	      name.  This can be used from the root account to run gpg for an-
	      other  user.   If	 uid is	not the	current	UID a standard PATH is
	      set and the envvar GNUPGHOME is unset.  To override  the	latter
	      the  option  --homedir can be used.  This	option has only	an ef-
	      fect when	used on	the command line.  This	option	has  currently
	      no effect	at all on Windows.

   Deprecated options

       --show-photos
       --no-show-photos
	      Causes   --list-keys,   --list-signatures,   --list-public-keys,
	      --list-secret-keys, and verifying	a signature  to	 also  display
	      the  photo  ID  attached	to  the	key, if	any. See also --photo-
	      viewer.  These  options  are  deprecated.	  Use	--list-options
	      [no-]show-photos	and/or	--verify-options  [no-]show-photos in-
	      stead.

       --show-keyring
	      Display the keyring name at the head of  key  listings  to  show
	      which keyring a given key	resides	on. This option	is deprecated:
	      use --list-options [no-]show-keyring instead.

       --always-trust
	      Identical	to --trust-model always. This option is	deprecated.

       --show-notation
       --no-show-notation
	      Show signature notations in the  --list-signatures  or  --check-
	      signatures listings as well as when verifying a signature	with a
	      notation in it. These options are	deprecated. Use	--list-options
	      [no-]show-notation  and/or  --verify-options  [no-]show-notation
	      instead.

       --show-policy-url
       --no-show-policy-url
	      Show policy URLs in the --list-signatures	or  --check-signatures
	      listings as well as when verifying a signature with a policy URL
	      in  it.  These  options  are  deprecated.	  Use	--list-options
	      [no-]show-policy-url  and/or  --verify-options [no-]show-policy-
	      url instead.

EXAMPLES
       gpg -se -r Bob file
	      sign and encrypt for user	Bob

       gpg --clear-sign	file
	      make a cleartext signature

       gpg -sb file
	      make a detached signature

       gpg -u 0x12345678 -sb file
	      make a detached signature	with the key 0x12345678

       gpg --list-keys user_ID
	      show keys

       gpg --fingerprint user_ID
	      show fingerprint

       gpg --verify pgpfile
       gpg --verify sigfile [datafile]
	      Verify the signature of the file but do not output the data  un-
	      less  requested.	 The  second  form is used for detached	signa-
	      tures, where sigfile is the detached signature (either ASCII ar-
	      mored  or	 binary)  and datafile are the signed data; if this is
	      not given, the name of the file holding the signed data is  con-
	      structed by cutting off the extension (".asc" or ".sig") of sig-
	      file or by asking	the user for  the  filename.   If  the	option
	      --output	is  also  used	the signed data	is written to the file
	      specified	by that	option;	use - to write the signed data to std-
	      out.

HOW TO SPECIFY A USER ID
       There  are  different ways to specify a user ID to GnuPG.  Some of them
       are only	valid for gpg others are only good for gpgsm.  Here is the en-
       tire list of ways to specify a key:

       By key Id.
	      This  format  is	deduced	 from the length of the	string and its
	      content or 0x prefix. The	key Id of an X.509 certificate are the
	      low  64  bits  of	 its SHA-1 fingerprint.	 The use of key	Ids is
	      just a shortcut, for all automated  processing  the  fingerprint
	      should be	used.

	      When  using gpg an exclamation mark (!) may be appended to force
	      using the	specified primary or secondary key and not to try  and
	      calculate	which primary or secondary key to use.

	      The last four lines of the example give the key ID in their long
	      form as internally used by the OpenPGP protocol. You can see the
	      long key ID using	the option --with-colons.

	 234567C4
	 0F34E556E
	 01347A56A
	 0xAB123456

	 234AABBCC34567C4
	 0F323456784E56EAB
	 01AB3FED1347A5612
	 0x234AABBCC34567C4

       By fingerprint.
	      This  format  is	deduced	 from the length of the	string and its
	      content or the 0x	prefix.	 Note, that only the 20	 byte  version
	      fingerprint  is available	with gpgsm (i.e. the SHA-1 hash	of the
	      certificate).

	      When using gpg an	exclamation mark (!) may be appended to	 force
	      using  the specified primary or secondary	key and	not to try and
	      calculate	which primary or secondary key to use.

	      The best way to specify a	key Id is by  using  the  fingerprint.
	      This  avoids  any	 ambiguities in	case that there	are duplicated
	      key IDs.

	 1234343434343434C434343434343434
	 123434343434343C3434343434343734349A3434
	 0E12343434343434343434EAB3484343434343434
	 0xE12343434343434343434EAB3484343434343434

       gpgsm also accepts colons between each pair of hexadecimal  digits  be-
       cause  this  is	the  de-facto standard on how to present X.509 finger-
       prints.	gpg also allows	the use	of the space separated	SHA-1  finger-
       print as	printed	by the key listing commands.

       By exact	match on OpenPGP user ID.
	      This  is denoted by a leading equal sign.	It does	not make sense
	      for X.509	certificates.

	 =Heinrich Heine <heinrichh@uni-duesseldorf.de>

       By exact	match on an email address.
	      This is indicated	by enclosing the email address	in  the	 usual
	      way with left and	right angles.

	 <heinrichh@uni-duesseldorf.de>

       By partial match	on an email address.
	      This  is	indicated  by  prefixing  the search string with an @.
	      This uses	a substring search but considers only the mail address
	      (i.e. inside the angle brackets).

	 @heinrichh

       By exact	match on the subject's DN.
	      This  is	indicated by a leading slash, directly followed	by the
	      RFC-2253 encoded DN of the subject.  Note	that you can't use the
	      string  printed  by  gpgsm --list-keys because that one has been
	      reordered	and modified for better	readability; use --with-colons
	      to print the raw (but standard escaped) RFC-2253 string.

	 /CN=Heinrich Heine,O=Poets,L=Paris,C=FR

       By exact	match on the issuer's DN.
	      This is indicated	by a leading hash mark,	directly followed by a
	      slash and	then directly followed by the RFC-2253 encoded	DN  of
	      the  issuer.   This  should  return the Root cert	of the issuer.
	      See note above.

	 #/CN=Root Cert,O=Poets,L=Paris,C=FR

       By exact	match on serial	number and issuer's DN.
	      This is indicated	by a hash mark,	followed  by  the  hexadecimal
	      representation  of  the  serial number, then followed by a slash
	      and the RFC-2253 encoded DN of the issuer. See note above.

	 #4F03/CN=Root Cert,O=Poets,L=Paris,C=FR

       By keygrip.
	      This is indicated	by an ampersand	followed by the	40 hex	digits
	      of  a  keygrip.  gpgsm prints the	keygrip	when using the command
	      --dump-cert.

	 &D75F22C3F86E355877348498CDC92BD21010A480

       By substring match.
	      This is the default mode but applications	may want to explicitly
	      indicate	this  by  putting the asterisk in front.  Match	is not
	      case sensitive.

	 Heine
	 *Heine

       . and + prefixes
	      These prefixes are reserved for looking up mails anchored	at the
	      end  and	for  a word search mode.  They are not yet implemented
	      and using	them is	undefined.

	      Please note that we have reused the hash mark  identifier	 which
	      was  used	in old GnuPG versions to indicate the so called	local-
	      id.  It is not anymore used and there should be no conflict when
	      used with	X.509 stuff.

	      Using the	RFC-2253 format	of DNs has the drawback	that it	is not
	      possible to map them back	to the original	encoding,  however  we
	      don't  have  to do this because our key database stores this en-
	      coding as	meta data.

FILTER EXPRESSIONS
       The options --import-filter and --export-filter	use  expressions  with
       this syntax (square brackets indicate an	optional part and curly	braces
       a repetition, white space between the elements are allowed):

		  [lc] {[{flag}] PROPNAME op VALUE [lc]}

       The name	of a property (PROPNAME) may only consist of  letters,	digits
       and  underscores.   The description for the filter type describes which
       properties are defined.	If an undefined	property is used it  evaluates
       to  the empty string.  Unless otherwise noted, the VALUE	must always be
       given and may not be the	empty string.  No quoting is defined  for  the
       value,  thus  the value may not contain the strings && or ||, which are
       used as logical connection operators.  The flag -- can be used  to  re-
       move this restriction.

       Numerical values	are computed as	long int; standard C notation applies.
       lc is the logical connection operator; either &&	for a  conjunction  or
       ||  for a disjunction.  A conjunction is	assumed	at the begin of	an ex-
       pression.  Conjunctions have higher precedence than  disjunctions.   If
       VALUE  starts  with  one	of the characters used in any op a space after
       the op is required.

       The supported operators (op) are:

       =~     Substring	must match.

       !~     Substring	must not match.

       =      The full string must match.

       <>     The full string must not match.

       ==     The numerical value must match.

       !=     The numerical value must not match.

       <=     The numerical value of the field must be LE than the value.

       <      The numerical value of the field must be LT than the value.

       >      The numerical value of the field must be GT than the value.

       >=     The numerical value of the field must be GE than the value.

       -le    The string value of the field must be less  or  equal  than  the
	      value.

       -lt    The string value of the field must be less than the value.

       -gt    The string value of the field must be greater than the value.

       -ge    The  string value	of the field must be greater or	equal than the
	      value.

       -n     True if value is not empty (no value allowed).

       -z     True if value is empty (no value allowed).

       -t     Alias for	"PROPNAME != 0"	(no value allowed).

       -f     Alias for	"PROPNAME == 0"	(no value allowed).

       Values for flag must be space separated.	 The supported flags are:

       --     VALUE spans to the end of	the expression.

       -c     The string match in this part is done case-sensitive.

       -t     Leading and trailing spaces are not removed from VALUE.  The op-
	      tional single space after	op is here required.

       The  filter  options concatenate	several	specifications for a filter of
       the same	type.  For example the four options in this example:

		 --import-filter keep-uid="uid =~ Alfa"
		 --import-filter keep-uid="&& uid !~ Test"
		 --import-filter keep-uid="|| uid =~ Alpha"
		 --import-filter keep-uid="uid !~ Test"

       which is	equivalent to

		 --import-filter \
		  keep-uid="uid	=~ Alfa" && uid	!~ Test" || uid	=~ Alpha" && "uid !~ Test"

       imports only the	user ids of a key containing  the  strings  "Alfa"  or
       "Alpha" but not the string "test".

TRUST VALUES
       Trust  values  are used to indicate ownertrust and validity of keys and
       user IDs.  They are displayed with letters or strings:

       -
       unknown
	      No ownertrust assigned / not yet calculated.

       e
       expired

	      Trust calculation	has failed; probably due to an expired key.

       q
       undefined, undef
	      Not enough information for calculation.

       n
       never  Never trust this key.

       m
       marginal
	      Marginally trusted.

       f
       full   Fully trusted.

       u
       ultimate
	      Ultimately trusted.

       r
       revoked
	      For validity only: the key or the	user ID	has been revoked.

       ?
       err    The program encountered an unknown trust value.

FILES
       There are a few configuration  files  to	 control  certain  aspects  of
       gpg2's  operation.  Unless noted, they are expected in the current home
       directory (see: [option --homedir]).

       gpg.conf
	      This is the standard configuration file read by gpg2 on startup.
	      It may contain any valid long option; the	leading	two dashes may
	      not be entered and the option may	not be abbreviated.  This  de-
	      fault  name may be changed on the	command	line (see: [gpg-option
	      --options]).  You	should backup this file.

       common.conf
	      This is an optional configuration	file read by gpg2 on  startup.
	      It  may  contain	options	pertaining to all components of	GnuPG.
	      Its current main use is for the "use-keyboxd" option.

       Note that on larger installations, it is	useful to put predefined files
       into  the  directory `/usr/local/etc/skel/.gnupg' so that newly created
       users start up with a working  configuration.   For  existing  users  a
       small  helper  script  is  provided  to	create	these files (see: [ad-
       dgnupghome]).

       For internal purposes gpg2 creates and maintains	 a  few	 other	files;
       They  all live in the current home directory (see: [option --homedir]).
       Only the	gpg2 program may modify	these files.

       ~/.gnupg
	      This is the default home directory which is used if neither  the
	      environment  variable  GNUPGHOME	nor  the  option  --homedir is
	      given.

       ~/.gnupg/pubring.gpg
	      The public keyring using a legacy	 format.   You	should	backup
	      this file.

	      If  this	file  is not available,	gpg defaults to	the new	keybox
	      format and creates a file	`pubring.kbx' unless that file already
	      exists  in  which	 case  that file will also be used for OpenPGP
	      keys.

	      Note that	in the case that both files, `pubring.gpg'  and	 `pub-
	      ring.kbx'	 exists	but the	latter has no OpenPGP keys, the	legacy
	      file `pubring.gpg' will be used.	Take care: GnuPG versions  be-
	      fore  2.1	will always use	the file `pubring.gpg' because they do
	      not know about the new keybox format. In the case	that you  have
	      to  use  GnuPG 1.4 to decrypt archived data you should keep this
	      file.

       ~/.gnupg/pubring.gpg.lock
	      The lock file for	the public keyring.

       ~/.gnupg/pubring.kbx
	      The public keyring using the new keybox format.	This  file  is
	      shared  with gpgsm.  You should backup this file.	 See above for
	      the relation between this	file and it predecessor.

	      To convert an existing `pubring.gpg' file	to the keybox  format,
	      you  first  backup  the  ownertrust  values,  then  rename `pub-
	      ring.gpg'	to `publickeys.backup',	so it wonat be	recognized  by
	      any  GnuPG  version,  run	 import,  and finally restore the own-
	      ertrust values:

	 $ cd ~/.gnupg
	 $ gpg --export-ownertrust >otrust.lst
	 $ mv pubring.gpg publickeys.backup
	 $ gpg --import-options	restore	--import publickeys.backups
	 $ gpg --import-ownertrust otrust.lst

       ~/.gnupg/pubring.kbx.lock
	      The lock file for	`pubring.kbx'.

       ~/.gnupg/secring.gpg
	      The legacy secret	keyring	as used	by GnuPG versions before  2.1.
	      It  is not used by GnuPG 2.1 and later.  You may want to keep it
	      in case you have to use GnuPG 1.4	to decrypt archived data.

       ~/.gnupg/secring.gpg.lock
	      The lock file for	the legacy secret keyring.

       ~/.gnupg/.gpg-v21-migrated
	      File indicating that a migration to GnuPG	2.1 has	been done.

       ~/.gnupg/trustdb.gpg
	      The trust	database.  There is no need to backup this file; it is
	      better  to  backup the ownertrust	values (see: [option --export-
	      ownertrust]).

       ~/.gnupg/trustdb.gpg.lock
	      The lock file for	the trust database.

       ~/.gnupg/random_seed
	      A	file used to preserve the state	of the internal	random pool.

       ~/.gnupg/openpgp-revocs.d/
	      This is the directory where gpg stores pre-generated  revocation
	      certificates.   The file name corresponds	to the OpenPGP finger-
	      print of the respective key.  It is suggested  to	 backup	 those
	      certificates and if the primary private key is not stored	on the
	      disk to move them	to an external storage device.	Anyone who can
	      access these files is able to revoke the corresponding key.  You
	      may want to print	them out.  You should backup all files in this
	      directory	and take care to keep this backup closed away.

       Operation is further controlled by a few	environment variables:

       HOME   Used to locate the default home directory.

       GNUPGHOME
	      If set directory used instead of "~/.gnupg".

       GPG_AGENT_INFO
	      This  variable is	obsolete; it was used by GnuPG versions	before
	      2.1.

       PINENTRY_USER_DATA
	      This value is passed via gpg-agent to pinentry.  It is useful to
	      convey extra information to a custom pinentry.

       COLUMNS
       LINES  Used to size some	displays to the	full size of the screen.

       LANGUAGE
	      Apart  from  its	use  by	 GNU, it is used in the	W32 version to
	      override the language selection done through the	Registry.   If
	      used  and	 set  to a valid and available language	name (langid),
	      the   file    with    the	   translation	  is	loaded	  from
	      gpgdir/gnupg.nls/langid.mo.  Here	gpgdir is the directory	out of
	      which the	gpg binary has been loaded.  If	it can't be loaded the
	      Registry	is  tried and as last resort the native	Windows	locale
	      system is	used.

       When calling the	gpg-agent component gpg2 sends a  set  of  environment
       variables to gpg-agent.	The names of these variables can be listed us-
       ing the command:

	   gpg-connect-agent 'getinfo std_env_names' /bye | awk	'$1=="D" {print	$2}'

BUGS
       On older	systems	this program should be installed as setuid(root). This
       is  necessary  to  lock memory pages. Locking memory pages prevents the
       operating  system  from	writing	 memory	 pages	(which	 may   contain
       passphrases or other sensitive material)	to disk. If you	get no warning
       message about insecure memory your operating  system  supports  locking
       without being root. The program drops root privileges as	soon as	locked
       memory is allocated.

       Note also that some systems (especially laptops)	have  the  ability  to
       ``suspend  to  disk''  (also known as ``safe sleep'' or ``hibernate'').
       This writes all memory to disk before going into	a low  power  or  even
       powered off mode.  Unless measures are taken in the operating system to
       protect the saved memory, passphrases or	other sensitive	 material  may
       be recoverable from it later.

       Before  you  report  a bug you should first search the mailing list ar-
       chives for similar problems and second check whether such a bug has al-
       ready been reported to our bug tracker at https://bugs.gnupg.org.

SEE ALSO
       gpgv(1),	gpgsm(1), gpg-agent(1)

       The full	documentation for this tool is maintained as a Texinfo manual.
       If GnuPG	and the	info program are properly installed at your site,  the
       command

	 info gnupg

       should  give  you access	to the complete	manual including a menu	struc-
       ture and	an index.

GnuPG 2.3.2			  2021-09-21			       GPG2(1)

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | RETURN VALUE | WARNINGS | INTEROPERABILITY | COMMANDS | OPTIONS | EXAMPLES | HOW TO SPECIFY A USER ID | FILTER EXPRESSIONS | TRUST VALUES | FILES | BUGS | SEE ALSO

Want to link to this manual page? Use this URL:
<https://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?query=gpg2&sektion=1&manpath=FreeBSD+13.0-RELEASE+and+Ports>

home | help