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GPG2(1)			       GNU Privacy Guard		       GPG2(1)

NAME
       gpg2 - OpenPGP encryption and signing tool

SYNOPSIS
       gpg2 [--homedir dir] [--options file] [options] command [args]

DESCRIPTION
       gpg2 is the OpenPGP part	of the GNU Privacy Guard (GnuPG). It is	a tool
       to provide digital encryption and signing services  using  the  OpenPGP
       standard. gpg2 features complete	key management and all bells and whis-
       tles you	can expect from	a decent OpenPGP implementation.

       In contrast to the standalone version gpg, which	 is  more  suited  for
       server and embedded platforms, this version is commonly installed under
       the name	gpg2 and more targeted to the desktop as it  requires  several
       other  modules  to  be  installed.  The standalone version will be kept
       maintained and it is possible to	install	both versions on the same sys-
       tem.  If	you need to use	different configuration	files, you should make
       use of something	like `gpg.conf-2' instead of just `gpg.conf'.

RETURN VALUE
       The program returns 0 if	everything was fine, 1 if at least a signature
       was bad,	and other error	codes for fatal	errors.

WARNINGS
       Use  a *good* password for your user account and	a *good* passphrase to
       protect your secret key.	This passphrase	is the	weakest	 part  of  the
       whole  system. Programs to do dictionary	attacks	on your	secret keyring
       are very	easy to	write and so you should	protect	your  "~/.gnupg/"  di-
       rectory very well.

       Keep  in	mind that, if this program is used over	a network (telnet), it
       is *very* easy to spy out your passphrase!

       If you are going	to verify detached signatures, make sure that the pro-
       gram  knows about it; either give both filenames	on the command line or
       use '-' to specify STDIN.

INTEROPERABILITY
       GnuPG tries to be a very	flexible implementation	of the	OpenPGP	 stan-
       dard. In	particular, GnuPG implements many of the optional parts	of the
       standard, such as the SHA-512 hash, and the ZLIB	and BZIP2  compression
       algorithms.  It	is important to	be aware that not all OpenPGP programs
       implement these optional	algorithms and that by forcing their  use  via
       the  --cipher-algo,  --digest-algo,  --cert-digest-algo,	or --compress-
       algo options in GnuPG, it is  possible  to  create  a  perfectly	 valid
       OpenPGP message,	but one	that cannot be read by the intended recipient.

       There  are dozens of variations of OpenPGP programs available, and each
       supports	a slightly different subset of these optional algorithms.  For
       example,	 until	recently,  no  (unhacked) version of PGP supported the
       BLOWFISH	cipher algorithm. A message using BLOWFISH simply could	not be
       read by a PGP user. By default, GnuPG uses the standard OpenPGP prefer-
       ences system that will always do	the right thing	 and  create  messages
       that  are usable	by all recipients, regardless of which OpenPGP program
       they use. Only override this safe default if you	really know  what  you
       are doing.

       If you absolutely must override the safe	default, or if the preferences
       on a given key are invalid for some reason, you are far better off  us-
       ing  the	 --pgp6,  --pgp7, or --pgp8 options. These options are safe as
       they do not force any particular	algorithms in  violation  of  OpenPGP,
       but rather reduce the available algorithms to a "PGP-safe" list.

COMMANDS
       Commands	 are  not  distinguished from options except for the fact that
       only one	command	is allowed.

       gpg2 may	be run with no commands, in which case it will perform a  rea-
       sonable	action	depending on the type of file it is given as input (an
       encrypted message is decrypted, a signature is verified,	 a  file  con-
       taining keys is listed).

       Please remember that option as well as command parsing stops as soon as
       a non-option is encountered, you	can explicitly stop parsing  by	 using
       the special option --.

   Commands not	specific to the	function

       --version
	      Print  the program version and licensing information.  Note that
	      you cannot abbreviate this command.

       --help

       -h     Print a usage message summarizing	the most useful	 command  line
	      options.	Note that you cannot abbreviate	this command.

       --warranty
	      Print warranty information.

       --dump-options
	      Print  a	list of	all available options and commands.  Note that
	      you cannot abbreviate this command.

   Commands to select the type of operation

       --sign

       -s     Make a signature.	This command may be  combined  with  --encrypt
	      (for  a signed and encrypted message), --symmetric (for a	signed
	      and symmetrically	encrypted message), or --encrypt and --symmet-
	      ric  together  (for a signed message that	may be decrypted via a
	      secret key or a passphrase).  The	key to be used for signing  is
	      chosen  by default or can	be set with the	--local-user and --de-
	      fault-key	options.

       --clearsign
	      Make a clear text	signature.  The	content	in a clear text	signa-
	      ture  is readable	without	any special software. OpenPGP software
	      is only needed to	verify the signature.  Clear  text  signatures
	      may  modify end-of-line whitespace for platform independence and
	      are not intended to be reversible.  The key to be	used for sign-
	      ing is chosen by default or can be set with the --local-user and
	      --default-key options.

       --detach-sign

       -b     Make a detached signature.

       --encrypt

       -e     Encrypt data. This option	may be combined	 with  --sign  (for  a
	      signed  and  encrypted message), --symmetric (for	a message that
	      may be decrypted via a secret key	or a  passphrase),  or	--sign
	      and  --symmetric	together (for a	signed message that may	be de-
	      crypted via a secret key or a passphrase).

       --symmetric

       -c     Encrypt with a symmetric cipher using a passphrase. The  default
	      symmetric	cipher used is CAST5, but may be chosen	with the --ci-
	      pher-algo	option.	This option may	be combined with --sign	(for a
	      signed  and  symmetrically  encrypted message), --encrypt	(for a
	      message that may be decrypted via	a secret key or	a passphrase),
	      or  --sign and --encrypt together	(for a signed message that may
	      be decrypted via a secret	key or a passphrase).

       --store
	      Store only (make a simple	RFC1991	literal	data packet).

       --decrypt

       -d     Decrypt the file given on	the command line (or STDIN if no  file
	      is specified) and	write it to STDOUT (or the file	specified with
	      --output). If the	decrypted file is  signed,  the	 signature  is
	      also  verified. This command differs from	the default operation,
	      as it never writes to the	filename which is included in the file
	      and  it  rejects	files which don't begin	with an	encrypted mes-
	      sage.

       --verify
	      Assume that the first argument is	a signed file  or  a  detached
	      signature	 and  verify it	without	generating any output. With no
	      arguments, the signature packet is read from STDIN.  If  only  a
	      sigfile  is  given, it may be a complete signature or a detached
	      signature, in which case the signed stuff	is expected in a  file
	      without  the ".sig" or ".asc" extension.	With more than 1 argu-
	      ment, the	first should be	a detached signature and the remaining
	      files are	the signed stuff. To read the signed stuff from	STDIN,
	      use '-' as the second filename.  For security reasons a detached
	      signature	cannot read the	signed material	from STDIN without de-
	      noting it	in the above way.

	      Note: When verifying a cleartext signature,  gpg	verifies  only
	      what  makes  up the cleartext signed data	and not	any extra data
	      outside of the cleartext signature or header lines following di-
	      rectly the dash marker line.  The	option --output	may be used to
	      write out	the actual signed data;	but there are  other  pitfalls
	      with  this  format  as well.  It is suggested to avoid cleartext
	      signatures in favor of detached signatures.

       --multifile
	      This modifies certain other commands to  accept  multiple	 files
	      for  processing on the command line or read from STDIN with each
	      filename on a separate line. This	allows for many	 files	to  be
	      processed	 at once. --multifile may currently be used along with
	      --verify,	--encrypt, and --decrypt. Note that --multifile	--ver-
	      ify may not be used with detached	signatures.

       --verify-files
	      Identical	to --multifile --verify.

       --encrypt-files
	      Identical	to --multifile --encrypt.

       --decrypt-files
	      Identical	to --multifile --decrypt.

       --list-keys

       -k

       --list-public-keys
	      List  all	 keys from the public keyrings,	or just	the keys given
	      on the command line.

	      Avoid using the output of	this command in	scripts	or other  pro-
	      grams  as	 it  is	likely to change as GnuPG changes. See --with-
	      colons for a machine-parseable key listing command that  is  ap-
	      propriate	for use	in scripts and other programs.

       --list-secret-keys

       -K     List  all	 keys from the secret keyrings,	or just	the ones given
	      on the command line. A # after the letters sec  means  that  the
	      secret  key  is  not  usable (for	example, if it was created via
	      --export-secret-subkeys).

       --list-sigs
	      Same as --list-keys, but the signatures are  listed  too.	  This
	      command  has  the	 same effect as	using --list-keys with --with-
	      sig-list.

	      For each signature listed, there are several  flags  in  between
	      the "sig"	tag and	keyid. These flags give	additional information
	      about each signature. From left to right,	they are  the  numbers
	      1-3  for certificate check level (see --ask-cert-level), "L" for
	      a	local or non-exportable	signature (see --lsign-key), "R" for a
	      nonRevocable  signature  (see  the --edit-key command "nrsign"),
	      "P" for a	signature that contains	a policy URL (see  --cert-pol-
	      icy-url),	 "N"  for  a  signature	 that contains a notation (see
	      --cert-notation),	"X" for	an eXpired signature (see  --ask-cert-
	      expire), and the numbers 1-9 or "T" for 10 and above to indicate
	      trust signature levels (see the --edit-key command "tsign").

       --check-sigs
	      Same as --list-sigs, but the signatures are verified.  Note that
	      for  performance	reasons	the revocation status of a signing key
	      is not shown.  This command has the same effect as using --list-
	      keys with	--with-sig-check.

	      The  status  of the verification is indicated by a flag directly
	      following	the "sig" tag (and thus	 before	 the  flags  described
	      above  for --list-sigs).	A "!" indicates	that the signature has
	      been successfully	verified, a "-"	denotes	a bad signature	and  a
	      "%"  is  used  if	an error occurred while	checking the signature
	      (e.g. a non supported algorithm).

       --locate-keys
	      Locate the keys given as arguments.  This	command	basically uses
	      the  same	algorithm as used when locating	keys for encryption or
	      signing and may thus be used to see what keys  gpg2  might  use.
	      In  particular  external methods as defined by --auto-key-locate
	      may be used to locate a key.  Only public	keys are listed.

       --fingerprint
	      List all keys (or	the specified ones) along with	their  finger-
	      prints.  This is the same	output as --list-keys but with the ad-
	      ditional output of a line	with the fingerprint. May also be com-
	      bined  with  --list-sigs	or  --check-sigs.   If this command is
	      given twice, the fingerprints of all secondary keys  are	listed
	      too.

       --list-packets
	      List only	the sequence of	packets. This is mainly	useful for de-
	      bugging.

       --card-edit
	      Present a	menu to	work with a smartcard. The  subcommand	"help"
	      provides	an  overview on	available commands. For	a detailed de-
	      scription, please	see the	Card HOWTO at  https://gnupg.org/docu-
	      mentation/howtos.html#GnuPG-cardHOWTO .

       --card-status
	      Show the content of the smart card.

       --change-pin
	      Present  a  menu	to allow changing the PIN of a smartcard. This
	      functionality is also available as the subcommand	"passwd"  with
	      the --card-edit command.

       --delete-key name
	      Remove  key  from	the public keyring. In batch mode either --yes
	      is required or the key must be specified by fingerprint. This is
	      a	safeguard against accidental deletion of multiple keys.

       --delete-secret-key name
	      Remove  key  from	the secret keyring. In batch mode the key must
	      be specified by fingerprint.

       --delete-secret-and-public-key name
	      Same as --delete-key, but	if a secret key	exists,	it will	be re-
	      moved  first. In batch mode the key must be specified by finger-
	      print.

       --export
	      Either export all	keys from all keyrings (default	 keyrings  and
	      those  registered	via option --keyring), or if at	least one name
	      is given,	those of the given name. The exported keys are written
	      to  STDOUT  or  to the file given	with option --output.  Use to-
	      gether with --armor to mail those	keys.

       --send-keys key IDs
	      Similar to --export but sends the	keys to	a keyserver.   Finger-
	      prints  may  be used instead of key IDs. Option --keyserver must
	      be used to give the name of this keyserver. Don't	send your com-
	      plete  keyring  to  a keyserver --- select only those keys which
	      are new or changed by you.  If no	key IDs	are  given,  gpg  does
	      nothing.

       --export-secret-keys

       --export-secret-subkeys
	      Same  as --export, but exports the secret	keys instead.  The ex-
	      ported keys are written to STDOUT	or to the file given with  op-
	      tion --output.  This command is often used along with the	option
	      --armor to allow easy printing of	the key	for paper backup; how-
	      ever  the	 external tool paperkey	does a better job for creating
	      backups on paper.	 Note that exporting a secret key can be a se-
	      curity risk if the exported keys are send	over an	insecure chan-
	      nel.

	      The second form of the command has the special property to  ren-
	      der  the	secret	part of	the primary key	useless; this is a GNU
	      extension	to OpenPGP and other implementations can  not  be  ex-
	      pected  to  successfully import such a key.  Its intended	use is
	      to generated a full key with an additional signing subkey	 on  a
	      dedicated	 machine and then using	this command to	export the key
	      without the primary key to the main machine.

	      See the option --simple-sk-checksum if you want to import	an ex-
	      ported secret key	into ancient OpenPGP implementations.

       --import

       --fast-import
	      Import/merge  keys. This adds the	given keys to the keyring. The
	      fast version is currently	just a synonym.

	      There are	a few other options which  control  how	 this  command
	      works.  Most notable here	is the --import-options	merge-only op-
	      tion which does not insert new keys but does only	the merging of
	      new signatures, user-IDs and subkeys.

       --recv-keys key IDs
	      Import  the keys with the	given key IDs from a keyserver.	Option
	      --keyserver must be used to give the name	of this	keyserver.

       --refresh-keys
	      Request updates from a keyserver for keys	that already exist  on
	      the  local  keyring.  This is useful for updating	a key with the
	      latest signatures, user IDs, etc.	Calling	this with no arguments
	      will refresh the entire keyring. Option --keyserver must be used
	      to give the name of the keyserver	for all	keys that do not  have
	      preferred	 keyservers  set  (see	--keyserver-options honor-key-
	      server-url).

       --search-keys names
	      Search the keyserver for the given names.	Multiple  names	 given
	      here will	be joined together to create the search	string for the
	      keyserver.  Option --keyserver must be used to give the name  of
	      this  keyserver.	Keyservers that	support	different search meth-
	      ods allow	using the syntax specified in "How to specify  a  user
	      ID" below. Note that different keyserver types support different
	      search methods. Currently	only LDAP supports them	all.

       --fetch-keys URIs
	      Retrieve keys located at the specified URIs. Note	that different
	      installations  of	 GnuPG	may support different protocols	(HTTP,
	      FTP, LDAP, etc.)

       --update-trustdb
	      Do trust database	maintenance. This command  iterates  over  all
	      keys and builds the Web of Trust.	This is	an interactive command
	      because it may have to ask for the "ownertrust" values for keys.
	      The  user	 has  to  give an estimation of	how far	she trusts the
	      owner of the displayed key to  correctly	certify	 (sign)	 other
	      keys. GnuPG only asks for	the ownertrust value if	it has not yet
	      been assigned to a key. Using the	--edit-key menu, the  assigned
	      value can	be changed at any time.

       --check-trustdb
	      Do  trust	 database  maintenance	without	user interaction. From
	      time to time the trust database must be updated so that  expired
	      keys or signatures and the resulting changes in the Web of Trust
	      can be tracked. Normally,	GnuPG will calculate when this is  re-
	      quired and do it automatically unless --no-auto-check-trustdb is
	      set. This	command	can be used to force a trust database check at
	      any  time.  The  processing  is  identical  to that of --update-
	      trustdb but it skips keys	with a not yet defined "ownertrust".

	      For use with cron	jobs, this command can be used	together  with
	      --batch in which case the	trust database check is	done only if a
	      check is needed. To force	a run even in batch mode add  the  op-
	      tion --yes.

       --export-ownertrust
	      Send  the	ownertrust values to STDOUT. This is useful for	backup
	      purposes as these	values are the only ones which	can't  be  re-
	      created from a corrupted trustdb.	 Example:
		  gpg2 --export-ownertrust > otrust.txt

       --import-ownertrust
	      Update  the  trustdb  with the ownertrust	values stored in files
	      (or STDIN	if not given); existing	values	will  be  overwritten.
	      In  case	of a severely damaged trustdb and if you have a	recent
	      backup of	the ownertrust values (e.g. in the file	 `otrust.txt',
	      you may re-create	the trustdb using these	commands:
		  cd ~/.gnupg
		  rm trustdb.gpg
		  gpg2 --import-ownertrust < otrust.txt

       --rebuild-keydb-caches
	      When updating from version 1.0.6 to 1.0.7	this command should be
	      used to create signature caches in  the  keyring.	 It  might  be
	      handy in other situations	too.

       --print-md algo

       --print-mds
	      Print  message  digest  of algorithm ALGO	for all	given files or
	      STDIN.  With the second form (or a deprecated "*"	as  algo)  di-
	      gests for	all available algorithms are printed.

       --gen-random 0|1|2 count
	      Emit count random	bytes of the given quality level 0, 1 or 2. If
	      count is not given or zero, an endless sequence of random	 bytes
	      will be emitted.	If used	with --armor the output	will be	base64
	      encoded.	PLEASE,	don't use this command unless  you  know  what
	      you are doing; it	may remove precious entropy from the system!

       --gen-prime mode	bits
	      Use  the source, Luke :-). The output format is still subject to
	      change.

       --enarmor

       --dearmor
	      Pack or unpack an	arbitrary input	into/from an OpenPGP ASCII ar-
	      mor.   This  is  a GnuPG extension to OpenPGP and	in general not
	      very useful.

   How to manage your keys

       This section explains the main commands for key management

       --gen-key
	      Generate a new key pair. This command is normally	only used  in-
	      teractively.

	      There is an experimental feature which allows you	to create keys
	      in batch mode. See the file `doc/DETAILS'	in the source  distri-
	      bution on	how to use this.

       --gen-revoke name
	      Generate	a  revocation certificate for the complete key.	To re-
	      voke a subkey or a signature, use	the --edit command.

       --desig-revoke name
	      Generate a designated revocation certificate for a key. This al-
	      lows  a  user  (with  the	permission of the keyholder) to	revoke
	      someone else's key.

       --edit-key
	      Present a	menu which enables you to do most of the  key  manage-
	      ment  related  tasks.   It expects the specification of a	key on
	      the command line.

	      uid n  Toggle selection of user ID or photographic user ID  with
		     index n.  Use * to	select all and 0 to deselect all.

	      key n  Toggle selection of subkey	with index n.  Use * to	select
		     all and 0 to deselect all.

	      sign   Make a signature on key of	user name If the  key  is  not
		     yet  signed  by the default user (or the users given with
		     -u), the program displays	the  information  of  the  key
		     again,  together with its fingerprint and asks whether it
		     should be signed. This question is	repeated for all users
		     specified with -u.

	      lsign  Same  as  "sign"  but  the	signature is marked as non-ex-
		     portable and will therefore never be used by others. This
		     may be used to make keys valid only in the	local environ-
		     ment.

	      nrsign Same as "sign" but	the signature is marked	as non-revoca-
		     ble and can therefore never be revoked.

	      tsign  Make a trust signature. This is a signature that combines
		     the notions of certification (like	a regular  signature),
		     and  trust	 (like	the  "trust" command). It is generally
		     only useful in distinct communities or groups.

	      Note that	"l" (for local / non-exportable), "nr" (for  non-revo-
	      cable,  and  "t" (for trust) may be freely mixed and prefixed to
	      "sign" to	create a signature of any type desired.

	      delsig Delete a signature. Note that it is not possible  to  re-
		     tract  a  signature,  once	it has been send to the	public
		     (i.e. to a	keyserver).   In  that	case  you  better  use
		     revsig.

	      revsig Revoke  a	signature.  For	every signature	which has been
		     generated by one of the secret keys, GnuPG	asks whether a
		     revocation	certificate should be generated.

	      check  Check the signatures on all selected user IDs.

	      adduid Create an additional user ID.

	      addphoto
		     Create  a	photographic  user  ID.	This will prompt for a
		     JPEG file that will be embedded into the  user  ID.  Note
		     that  a  very  large JPEG will make for a very large key.
		     Also note that some programs will display your  JPEG  un-
		     changed  (GnuPG),	and some programs will scale it	to fit
		     in	a dialog box (PGP).

	      showphoto
		     Display the selected photographic user ID.

	      deluid Delete a user ID or photographic user ID.	Note  that  it
		     is	 not  possible	to retract a user id, once it has been
		     send to the public	(i.e. to a keyserver).	In  that  case
		     you better	use revuid.

	      revuid Revoke a user ID or photographic user ID.

	      primary
		     Flag  the current user id as the primary one, removes the
		     primary user id flag from all other user ids and sets the
		     timestamp	of  all	 affected  self-signatures  one	second
		     ahead. Note that setting a	photo user ID as primary makes
		     it	primary	over other photo user IDs, and setting a regu-
		     lar user ID as primary makes it primary over other	 regu-
		     lar user IDs.

	      keyserver
		     Set  a  preferred keyserver for the specified user	ID(s).
		     This allows other users to	know where you prefer they get
		     your  key	from. See --keyserver-options honor-keyserver-
		     url for more on how  this	works.	 Setting  a  value  of
		     "none" removes an existing	preferred keyserver.

	      notation
		     Set  a  name=value	notation for the specified user	ID(s).
		     See --cert-notation for more on how this works. Setting a
		     value of "none" removes all notations, setting a notation
		     prefixed with a minus sign	(-) removes that notation, and
		     setting  a	 notation  name	 (without the =value) prefixed
		     with a minus sign removes all notations with that name.

	      pref   List preferences from the selected	user  ID.  This	 shows
		     the  actual  preferences,	without	 including any implied
		     preferences.

	      showpref
		     More verbose preferences listing for  the	selected  user
		     ID. This shows the	preferences in effect by including the
		     implied preferences of 3DES (cipher), SHA-1 (digest), and
		     Uncompressed  (compression)  if  they are not already in-
		     cluded in the preference list. In addition, the preferred
		     keyserver and signature notations (if any)	are shown.

	      setpref string
		     Set the list of user ID preferences to string for all (or
		     just the selected)	user IDs. Calling setpref with no  ar-
		     guments  sets  the	preference list	to the default (either
		     built-in or set via --default-preference-list), and call-
		     ing  setpref  with	 "none"	 as the	argument sets an empty
		     preference	list. Use gpg2 --version  to  get  a  list  of
		     available	algorithms. Note that while you	can change the
		     preferences on an attribute user  ID  (aka	 "photo	 ID"),
		     GnuPG  does  not  select  keys  via attribute user	IDs so
		     these preferences will not	be used	by GnuPG.

		     When setting preferences, you should list the  algorithms
		     in	the order which	you'd like to see them used by someone
		     else when encrypting a message to your key.  If you don't
		     include  3DES, it will be automatically added at the end.
		     Note that there are many factors that go into choosing an
		     algorithm	(for example, your key may not be the only re-
		     cipient), and so the  remote  OpenPGP  application	 being
		     used to send to you may or	may not	follow your exact cho-
		     sen order for a given message.  It	 will,	however,  only
		     choose  an	 algorithm  that  is present on	the preference
		     list of every recipient key.  See also the	INTEROPERABIL-
		     ITY WITH OTHER OPENPGP PROGRAMS section below.

	      addkey Add a subkey to this key.

	      addcardkey
		     Generate a	subkey on a card and add it to this key.

	      keytocard
		     Transfer  the  selected secret subkey (or the primary key
		     if	no subkey has been selected) to	a smartcard.  The  se-
		     cret key in the keyring will be replaced by a stub	if the
		     key could be stored successfully on the card and you  use
		     the  save	command	 later.	 Only certain key types	may be
		     transferred to the	card. A	sub menu allows	you to	select
		     on	what card to store the key. Note that it is not	possi-
		     ble to get	that key back from the card - if the card gets
		     broken  your  secret  key	will be	lost unless you	have a
		     backup somewhere.

	      bkuptocard file
		     Restore the given file to a card.	This  command  may  be
		     used  to  restore	a backup key (as generated during card
		     initialization) to	a new card. In almost all  cases  this
		     will  be  the encryption key. You should use this command
		     only with the corresponding public	key and	make sure that
		     the  file	given  as argument is indeed the backup	to re-
		     store. You	should then select 2 to	restore	as  encryption
		     key.   You	will first be asked to enter the passphrase of
		     the backup	key and	then for the Admin PIN of the card.

	      delkey Remove a subkey (secondart	key). Note that	it is not pos-
		     sible  to	retract	a subkey, once it has been send	to the
		     public (i.e. to a keyserver).  In that  case  you	better
		     use revkey.

	      revkey Revoke a subkey.

	      expire Change  the key or	subkey expiration time.	If a subkey is
		     selected, the expiration time  of	this  subkey  will  be
		     changed.  With  no	 selection,  the key expiration	of the
		     primary key is changed.

	      trust  Change the	owner trust value for the  key.	 This  updates
		     the trust-db immediately and no save is required.

	      disable

	      enable Disable  or  enable an entire key.	A disabled key can not
		     normally be used for encryption.

	      addrevoker
		     Add a designated revoker to the key. This takes  one  op-
		     tional  argument: "sensitive". If a designated revoker is
		     marked as sensitive, it will not be exported  by  default
		     (see export-options).

	      passwd Change the	passphrase of the secret key.

	      toggle Toggle between public and secret key listing.

	      clean  Compact  (by  removing all	signatures except the selfsig)
		     any user ID that is no longer usable  (e.g.  revoked,  or
		     expired). Then, remove any	signatures that	are not	usable
		     by	the trust calculations.	  Specifically,	 this  removes
		     any  signature that does not validate, any	signature that
		     is	superseded by a	later signature,  revoked  signatures,
		     and signatures issued by keys that	are not	present	on the
		     keyring.

	      minimize
		     Make the key as small as possible.	This removes all  sig-
		     natures  from  each  user	ID  except for the most	recent
		     self-signature.

	      cross-certify
		     Add cross-certification  signatures  to  signing  subkeys
		     that  may	not  currently	have them. Cross-certification
		     signatures	protect	against	a subtle attack	against	 sign-
		     ing  subkeys. See --require-cross-certification.  All new
		     keys generated have this signature	by  default,  so  this
		     option is only useful to bring older keys up to date.

	      save   Save all changes to the key rings and quit.

	      quit   Quit the program without updating the key rings.

	      The  listing  shows  you the key with its	secondary keys and all
	      user ids.	 The primary user id is	indicated by a	dot,  and  se-
	      lected keys or user ids are indicated by an asterisk.  The trust
	      value is displayed with the primary key: the first  is  the  as-
	      signed owner trust and the second	is the calculated trust	value.
	      Letters are used for the values:

	      -	     No	ownertrust assigned / not yet calculated.

	      e	     Trust calculation has failed; probably due	to an  expired
		     key.

	      q	     Not enough	information for	calculation.

	      n	     Never trust this key.

	      m	     Marginally	trusted.

	      f	     Fully trusted.

	      u	     Ultimately	trusted.

       --sign-key name
	      Signs a public key with your secret key. This is a shortcut ver-
	      sion of the subcommand "sign" from --edit.

       --lsign-key name
	      Signs a public key with your secret key but marks	it as  non-ex-
	      portable.	 This  is a shortcut version of	the subcommand "lsign"
	      from --edit-key.

       --passwd	user_id
	      Change the passphrase of the secret key belonging	 to  the  cer-
	      tificate	specified as user_id.  This is a shortcut for the sub-
	      command passwd of	the edit key menu.

OPTIONS
       gpg2 features a bunch of	options	to control the exact behaviour and  to
       change the default configuration.

       Long    options	  can	be   put   in	an   options   file   (default
       "~/.gnupg/gpg.conf"). Short option names	will not work -	 for  example,
       "armor"	is  a  valid option for	the options file, while	"a" is not. Do
       not write the 2 dashes, but simply the name of the option and  any  re-
       quired  arguments. Lines	with a hash ('#') as the first non-white-space
       character are ignored. Commands may be put in this file too,  but  that
       is  not generally useful	as the command will execute automatically with
       every execution of gpg.

       Please remember that option parsing stops as soon as  a	non-option  is
       encountered,  you  can explicitly stop parsing by using the special op-
       tion --.

   How to change the configuration

       These options are used to change	 the  configuration  and  are  usually
       found in	the option file.

       --default-key name
	      Use  name	as the default key to sign with. If this option	is not
	      used, the	default	key is the  first  key	found  in  the	secret
	      keyring.	Note that -u or	--local-user overrides this option.

       --default-recipient name
	      Use  name	as default recipient if	option --recipient is not used
	      and don't	ask if this is a valid one. name must be non-empty.

       --default-recipient-self
	      Use the default key as default recipient if  option  --recipient
	      is  not  used  and don't ask if this is a	valid one. The default
	      key is the first one from	the secret keyring or the one set with
	      --default-key.

       --no-default-recipient
	      Reset --default-recipient	and --default-recipient-self.

       -v, --verbose
	      Give  more information during processing.	If used	twice, the in-
	      put data is listed in detail.

       --no-verbose
	      Reset verbose level to 0.

       -q, --quiet
	      Try to be	as quiet as possible.

       --batch

       --no-batch
	      Use batch	mode.  Never ask, do not allow	interactive  commands.
	      --no-batch disables this option.	Note that even with a filename
	      given on the command line, gpg might still  need	to  read  from
	      STDIN (in	particular if gpg figures that the input is a detached
	      signature	and no data file has been specified).  Thus if you  do
	      not  want	 to  feed  data	via STDIN, you should connect STDIN to
	      `/dev/null'.

       --no-tty
	      Make sure	that the TTY (terminal)	is never used for any  output.
	      This  option  is	needed	in  some cases because GnuPG sometimes
	      prints warnings to the TTY even if --batch is used.

       --yes  Assume "yes" on most questions.

       --no   Assume "no" on most questions.

       --list-options parameters
	      This is a	space or comma delimited  string  that	gives  options
	      used  when  listing  keys	 and signatures	(that is, --list-keys,
	      --list-sigs,  --list-public-keys,	 --list-secret-keys,  and  the
	      --edit-key functions).  Options can be prepended with a no- (af-
	      ter the two dashes) to give the opposite meaning.	  The  options
	      are:

	      show-photos
		     Causes  --list-keys, --list-sigs, --list-public-keys, and
		     --list-secret-keys	to display any photo IDs  attached  to
		     the  key.	Defaults to no.	See also --photo-viewer.  Does
		     not work with --with-colons: see --attribute-fd  for  the
		     appropriate  way  to get photo data for scripts and other
		     frontends.

	      show-policy-urls
		     Show policy URLs in the --list-sigs or --check-sigs list-
		     ings.  Defaults to	no.

	      show-notations

	      show-std-notations

	      show-user-notations
		     Show  all,	IETF standard, or user-defined signature nota-
		     tions in the --list-sigs or  --check-sigs	listings.  De-
		     faults to no.

	      show-keyserver-urls
		     Show  any	preferred  keyserver URL in the	--list-sigs or
		     --check-sigs listings. Defaults to	no.

	      show-uid-validity
		     Display the calculated validity of	user  IDs  during  key
		     listings.	Defaults to no.

	      show-unusable-uids
		     Show  revoked  and	 expired user IDs in key listings. De-
		     faults to no.

	      show-unusable-subkeys
		     Show revoked and expired subkeys  in  key	listings.  De-
		     faults to no.

	      show-keyring
		     Display  the  keyring name	at the head of key listings to
		     show which	keyring	a given	key resides  on.  Defaults  to
		     no.

	      show-sig-expire
		     Show  signature  expiration dates (if any)	during --list-
		     sigs or --check-sigs listings. Defaults to	no.

	      show-sig-subpackets
		     Include signature subpackets in the key listing. This op-
		     tion can take an optional argument	list of	the subpackets
		     to	list. If no argument is	passed,	list  all  subpackets.
		     Defaults to no. This option is only meaningful when using
		     --with-colons along with --list-sigs or --check-sigs.

       --verify-options	parameters
	      This is a	space or comma delimited  string  that	gives  options
	      used  when verifying signatures. Options can be prepended	with a
	      `no-' to give the	opposite meaning. The options are:

	      show-photos
		     Display any photo IDs present on the key that issued  the
		     signature.	 Defaults to no. See also --photo-viewer.

	      show-policy-urls
		     Show  policy  URLs	 in  the signature being verified. De-
		     faults to no.

	      show-notations

	      show-std-notations

	      show-user-notations
		     Show all, IETF standard, or user-defined signature	 nota-
		     tions  in	the signature being verified. Defaults to IETF
		     standard.

	      show-keyserver-urls
		     Show any preferred	keyserver URL in the  signature	 being
		     verified.	Defaults to no.

	      show-uid-validity
		     Display  the  calculated  validity	of the user IDs	on the
		     key that issued the signature. Defaults to	no.

	      show-unusable-uids
		     Show revoked and expired user IDs during signature	 veri-
		     fication.	Defaults to no.

	      show-primary-uid-only
		     Show  only	the primary user ID during signature verifica-
		     tion.  That is all	the AKA	lines as well as photo Ids are
		     not shown with the	signature verification status.

	      pka-lookups
		     Enable  PKA lookups to verify sender addresses. Note that
		     PKA is based on DNS, and so enabling this option may dis-
		     close  information	 on when and what signatures are veri-
		     fied or to	whom data is encrypted.	This is	similar	to the
		     "web bug" described for the auto-key-retrieve feature.

	      pka-trust-increase
		     Raise  the	 trust in a signature to full if the signature
		     passes PKA	validation. This option	is only	meaningful  if
		     pka-lookups is set.

       --enable-large-rsa

       --disable-large-rsa
	      With  --gen-key  and  --batch, enable the	creation of larger RSA
	      secret keys than is generally recommended	 (up  to  8192	bits).
	      These large keys are more	expensive to use, and their signatures
	      and certifications are also larger.

       --enable-dsa2

       --disable-dsa2
	      Enable hash truncation for all DSA keys even for old DSA Keys up
	      to  1024	bit.   This  is	also the default with --openpgp.  Note
	      that older versions of GnuPG also	required this  flag  to	 allow
	      the generation of	DSA larger than	1024 bit.

       --photo-viewer string
	      This  is the command line	that should be run to view a photo ID.
	      "%i" will	be expanded to a filename containing the  photo.  "%I"
	      does  the	 same,	except	the  file will not be deleted once the
	      viewer exits.  Other flags are "%k" for the key ID, "%K" for the
	      long  key	 ID, "%f" for the key fingerprint, "%t"	for the	exten-
	      sion of the image	type (e.g. "jpg"), "%T"	for the	MIME  type  of
	      the  image  (e.g.	 "image/jpeg"),	 "%v" for the single-character
	      calculated validity of the image being viewed (e.g.  "f"),  "%V"
	      for the calculated validity as a string (e.g.  "full"), "%U" for
	      a	base32 encoded hash of the user	ID, and	 "%%"  for  an	actual
	      percent  sign.  If  neither %i or	%I are present,	then the photo
	      will be supplied to the viewer on	standard input.

	      The default viewer is "xloadimage	 -fork	-quiet	-title	'KeyID
	      0x%k'  STDIN". Note that if your image viewer program is not se-
	      cure, then executing it from GnuPG does not make it secure.

       --exec-path string
	      Sets a list of directories to search for photo viewers and  key-
	      server  helpers. If not provided,	keyserver helpers use the com-
	      piled-in default directory, and photo viewers use	the $PATH  en-
	      vironment	 variable.  Note, that on W32 system this value	is ig-
	      nored when searching for keyserver helpers.

       --keyring file
	      Add file to the current list of keyrings.	If file	begins with  a
	      tilde and	a slash, these are replaced by the $HOME directory. If
	      the filename does	not contain a slash, it	is assumed  to	be  in
	      the  GnuPG home directory	("~/.gnupg" if --homedir or $GNUPGHOME
	      is not used).

	      Note that	this adds a keyring to the current list. If the	intent
	      is  to use the specified keyring alone, use --keyring along with
	      --no-default-keyring.

       --secret-keyring	file
	      Same as --keyring	but for	the secret keyrings.

       --primary-keyring file
	      Designate	file as	the primary public keyring.  This  means  that
	      newly imported keys (via --import	or keyserver --recv-from) will
	      go to this keyring.

       --trustdb-name file
	      Use file instead of the default trustdb. If file begins  with  a
	      tilde and	a slash, these are replaced by the $HOME directory. If
	      the filename does	not contain a slash, it	is assumed  to	be  in
	      the  GnuPG home directory	(`~/.gnupg' if --homedir or $GNUPGHOME
	      is not used).

       --homedir dir
	      Set the name of the home directory to dir. If this option	is not
	      used,  the  home	directory  defaults to `~/.gnupg'.  It is only
	      recognized when given on the command line.   It  also  overrides
	      any  home	 directory  stated  through  the  environment variable
	      `GNUPGHOME' or (on W32 systems) by means of the  Registry	 entry
	      HKCU\Software\GNU\GnuPG:HomeDir.

       --display-charset name
	      Set  the	name of	the native character set. This is used to con-
	      vert some	informational strings like  user  IDs  to  the	proper
	      UTF-8 encoding.  Note that this has nothing to do	with the char-
	      acter set	of data	to be encrypted	or signed; GnuPG does not  re-
	      code user-supplied data. If this option is not used, the default
	      character	set is determined from the current locale. A verbosity
	      level of 3 shows the chosen set.	Valid values for name are:

	      iso-8859-1
		     This is the Latin 1 set.

	      iso-8859-2
		     The Latin 2 set.

	      iso-8859-15
		     This is currently an alias	for the	Latin 1	set.

	      koi8-r The usual Russian set (rfc1489).

	      utf-8  Bypass  all  translations and assume that the OS uses na-
		     tive UTF-8	encoding.

       --utf8-strings

       --no-utf8-strings
	      Assume that command line arguments are given  as	UTF8  strings.
	      The  default (--no-utf8-strings) is to assume that arguments are
	      encoded in the character set as specified	by  --display-charset.
	      These  options  affect all following arguments. Both options may
	      be used multiple times.

       --options file
	      Read options from	file and do not	try to read them from the  de-
	      fault  options  file in the homedir (see --homedir). This	option
	      is ignored if used in an options file.

       --no-options
	      Shortcut for --options /dev/null.	This option is detected	before
	      an  attempt to open an option file.  Using this option will also
	      prevent the creation of a	`~/.gnupg' homedir.

       -z n

       --compress-level	n

       --bzip2-compress-level n
	      Set compression level to n for the ZIP and ZLIB compression  al-
	      gorithms.	The default is to use the default compression level of
	      zlib (normally 6). --bzip2-compress-level	sets  the  compression
	      level  for  the  BZIP2 compression algorithm (defaulting to 6 as
	      well). This is a different option	 from  --compress-level	 since
	      BZIP2  uses  a  significant amount of memory for each additional
	      compression level.  -z sets both.	A value	of 0  for  n  disables
	      compression.

       --bzip2-decompress-lowmem
	      Use a different decompression method for BZIP2 compressed	files.
	      This alternate method uses a bit more than half the memory,  but
	      also  runs  at  half the speed. This is useful under extreme low
	      memory circumstances when	the file was originally	compressed  at
	      a	high --bzip2-compress-level.

       --mangle-dos-filenames

       --no-mangle-dos-filenames
	      Older  version of	Windows	cannot handle filenames	with more than
	      one dot. --mangle-dos-filenames causes GnuPG to replace  (rather
	      than  add	 to) the extension of an output	filename to avoid this
	      problem. This option is off by default and has no	effect on non-
	      Windows platforms.

       --ask-cert-level

       --no-ask-cert-level
	      When  making  a key signature, prompt for	a certification	level.
	      If this option is	not specified, the certification level used is
	      set  via	--default-cert-level. See --default-cert-level for in-
	      formation	on the specific	levels and how they  are  used.	 --no-
	      ask-cert-level disables this option. This	option defaults	to no.

       --default-cert-level n
	      The default to use for the check level when signing a key.

	      0	 means	you  make  no particular claim as to how carefully you
	      verified the key.

	      1	means you believe the key is owned by the person who claims to
	      own it but you could not,	or did not verify the key at all. This
	      is useful	for a "persona"	verification, where you	sign  the  key
	      of a pseudonymous	user.

	      2	 means	you  did  casual verification of the key. For example,
	      this could mean  that  you  verified  the	 key  fingerprint  and
	      checked the user ID on the key against a photo ID.

	      3	 means you did extensive verification of the key. For example,
	      this could mean that you verified	the key	fingerprint  with  the
	      owner  of	the key	in person, and that you	checked, by means of a
	      hard to forge document with a photo ID (such as a	passport) that
	      the name of the key owner	matches	the name in the	user ID	on the
	      key, and finally that you	verified (by exchange of  email)  that
	      the email	address	on the key belongs to the key owner.

	      Note  that  the examples given above for levels 2	and 3 are just
	      that: examples. In the end, it is	up to you to decide just  what
	      "casual" and "extensive" mean to you.

	      This option defaults to 0	(no particular claim).

       --min-cert-level
	      When  building  the  trust database, treat any signatures	with a
	      certification level below	this as	invalid. Defaults to 2,	 which
	      disregards  level	1 signatures. Note that	level 0	"no particular
	      claim" signatures	are always accepted.

       --trusted-key long key ID
	      Assume that the specified	key (which must	be given as a  full  8
	      byte  key	 ID) is	as trustworthy as one of your own secret keys.
	      This option is useful if you don't want to keep your secret keys
	      (or  one	of them) online	but still want to be able to check the
	      validity of a given recipient's or signator's key.

       --trust-model pgp|classic|direct|always|auto
	      Set what trust model GnuPG should	follow.	The models are:

	      pgp    This is the Web of	Trust combined with  trust  signatures
		     as	 used  in PGP 5.x and later. This is the default trust
		     model when	creating a new trust database.

	      classic
		     This is the standard Web of Trust as used in PGP 2.x  and
		     earlier.

	      direct Key  validity  is set directly by the user	and not	calcu-
		     lated via the Web of Trust.

	      always Skip key validation and assume that used keys are	always
		     fully  trusted.  You  generally won't use this unless you
		     are using some external validation	 scheme.  This	option
		     also suppresses the "[uncertain]" tag printed with	signa-
		     ture checks when there is no evidence that	the user ID is
		     bound  to the key.	 Note that this	trust model still does
		     not allow the use of expired, revoked, or disabled	keys.

	      auto   Select the	trust model depending on whatever the internal
		     trust  database says. This	is the default model if	such a
		     database already exists.

       --auto-key-locate parameters

       --no-auto-key-locate
	      GnuPG can	automatically locate and retrieve keys as needed using
	      this  option.  This  happens when	encrypting to an email address
	      (in the "user@example.com" form),	and there  are	no  user@exam-
	      ple.com keys on the local	keyring.  This option takes any	number
	      of the following mechanisms, in the order	they are to be tried:

	      cert   Locate a key using	DNS CERT, as specified in rfc4398.

	      pka    Locate a key using	DNS PKA.

	      ldap   Using DNS Service Discovery, check	the domain in question
		     for  any  LDAP keyservers to use.	If this	fails, attempt
		     to	locate the key	using  the  PGP	 Universal  method  of
		     checking 'ldap://keys.(thedomain)'.

	      keyserver
		     Locate  a	key  using whatever keyserver is defined using
		     the --keyserver option.

	      keyserver-URL
		     In	addition, a keyserver URL as used in  the  --keyserver
		     option  may  be  used  here to query that particular key-
		     server.

	      local  Locate the	key using the local keyrings.  This  mechanism
		     allows  to	 select	 the order a local key lookup is done.
		     Thus using	 '--auto-key-locate  local'  is	 identical  to
		     --no-auto-key-locate.

	      nodefault
		     This  flag	 disables  the standard	local key lookup, done
		     before any	of the mechanisms defined by  the  --auto-key-
		     locate  are tried.	 The position of this mechanism	in the
		     list does not matter.  It is not  required	 if  local  is
		     also used.

	      clear  Clear all defined mechanisms.  This is useful to override
		     mechanisms	given in a config file.

       --keyid-format short|0xshort|long|0xlong
	      Select how to  display  key  IDs.	 "short"  is  the  traditional
	      8-character key ID. "long" is the	more accurate (but less	conve-
	      nient) 16-character key ID. Add an "0x" to either	to include  an
	      "0x"  at	the  beginning	of the key ID, as in 0x99242560.  Note
	      that this	option is ignored if the option	--with-colons is used.

       --keyserver name
	      Use name as your keyserver. This is the server that --recv-keys,
	      --send-keys,  and	--search-keys will communicate with to receive
	      keys from, send keys to, and search for keys on. The  format  of
	      the  name	is a URI: `scheme:[//]keyservername[:port]' The	scheme
	      is the type of keyserver:	"hkp" for  the	HTTP  (or  compatible)
	      keyservers,  "ldap" for the LDAP keyservers, or "mailto" for the
	      Graff email keyserver. Note that your particular installation of
	      GnuPG  may  have	other  keyserver types available as well. Key-
	      server schemes are case-insensitive. After the  keyserver	 name,
	      optional	keyserver configuration	options	may be provided. These
	      are the same as the global --keyserver-options from  below,  but
	      apply only to this particular keyserver.

	      Most  keyservers synchronize with	each other, so there is	gener-
	      ally no need to send keys	to more	than one server. The keyserver
	      hkp://keys.gnupg.net  uses  round	 robin DNS to give a different
	      keyserver	each time you use it.

       --keyserver-options name=value1
	      This is a	space or comma delimited string	that gives options for
	      the  keyserver. Options can be prefixed with a `no-' to give the
	      opposite meaning.	Valid import-options or	export-options may  be
	      used  here as well to apply to importing (--recv-key) or export-
	      ing (--send-key) a key from a keyserver. While not  all  options
	      are available for	all keyserver types, some common options are:

	      include-revoked
		     When searching for	a key with --search-keys, include keys
		     that are marked on	the keyserver as  revoked.  Note  that
		     not  all keyservers differentiate between revoked and un-
		     revoked keys, and for  such  keyservers  this  option  is
		     meaningless.  Note	 also that most	keyservers do not have
		     cryptographic verification	of  key	 revocations,  and  so
		     turning  this option off may result in skipping keys that
		     are incorrectly marked as revoked.

	      include-disabled
		     When searching for	a key with --search-keys, include keys
		     that  are	marked on the keyserver	as disabled. Note that
		     this option is not	used with HKP keyservers.

	      auto-key-retrieve
		     This option enables the automatic retrieving of keys from
		     a	keyserver  when	verifying signatures made by keys that
		     are not on	the local keyring.

		     Note that this option makes a  "web  bug"	like  behavior
		     possible.	Keyserver operators can	see which keys you re-
		     quest, so by sending you a	message	signed by a brand  new
		     key  (which  you  naturally  will	not have on your local
		     keyring), the operator can	tell both your IP address  and
		     the time when you verified	the signature.

	      honor-keyserver-url
		     When  using  --refresh-keys, if the key in	question has a
		     preferred keyserver URL, then  use	 that  preferred  key-
		     server to refresh the key from. In	addition, if auto-key-
		     retrieve is set, and the signature	being verified	has  a
		     preferred	keyserver  URL,	 then  use that	preferred key-
		     server to fetch the key from. Defaults to yes.

	      honor-pka-record
		     If	auto-key-retrieve is set, and the signature being ver-
		     ified  has	 a PKA record, then use	the PKA	information to
		     fetch the key. Defaults to	yes.

	      include-subkeys
		     When receiving a key, include subkeys as  potential  tar-
		     gets.  Note  that	this  option is	not used with HKP key-
		     servers, as they do not support retrieving	keys by	subkey
		     id.

	      use-temp-files
		     On	 most Unix-like	platforms, GnuPG communicates with the
		     keyserver helper program via pipes, which is the most ef-
		     ficient method. This option forces	GnuPG to use temporary
		     files to communicate. On some platforms  (such  as	 Win32
		     and RISC OS), this	option is always enabled.

	      keep-temp-files
		     If	 using	`use-temp-files', do not delete	the temp files
		     after using them. This option is useful to	learn the key-
		     server  communication  protocol  by reading the temporary
		     files.

	      verbose
		     Tell the keyserver	helper program	to  be	more  verbose.
		     This  option  can	be repeated multiple times to increase
		     the verbosity level.

	      timeout
		     Tell the keyserver	helper program how long	 (in  seconds)
		     to	 try  and perform a keyserver action before giving up.
		     Note that performing multiple actions at  the  same  time
		     uses  this	 timeout  value	per action.  For example, when
		     retrieving	multiple keys via --recv-keys, the timeout ap-
		     plies  separately	to  each key retrieval,	and not	to the
		     --recv-keys command as a whole. Defaults to 30 seconds.

	      http-proxy=value
		     Set the proxy to use for HTTP and HKP  keyservers.	  This
		     overrides the "http_proxy"	environment variable, if any.

	      max-cert-size
		     When  retrieving  a key via DNS CERT, only	accept keys up
		     to	this size.  Defaults to	16384 bytes.

	      debug  Turn on debug output in  the  keyserver  helper  program.
		     Note  that	 the  details of debug output depends on which
		     keyserver helper program is being used, and in  turn,  on
		     any  libraries that the keyserver helper program uses in-
		     ternally (libcurl,	openldap, etc).

	      check-cert
		       Enable certificate checking if the  keyserver  presents
		     one (for hkps or
		       ldaps).	Defaults to on.

	      ca-cert-file
		       Provide	a certificate store to override	the system de-
		     fault.  Only
		       necessary if check-cert is enabled, and	the  keyserver
		     is	using a
		       certificate  that  is  not  present in a	system default
		     certificate list.

		       Note that depending on the SSL library  that  the  key-
		     server helper is
		       built with, this	may actually be	a directory or a file.

       --completes-needed n
	      Number of	completely trusted users to introduce a	new key	signer
	      (defaults	to 1).

       --marginals-needed n
	      Number of	marginally trusted users to introduce a	new key	signer
	      (defaults	to 3)

       --max-cert-depth	n
	      Maximum depth of a certification chain (default is 5).

       --simple-sk-checksum
	      Secret  keys  are	integrity protected by using a SHA-1 checksum.
	      This method is part of the upcoming enhanced OpenPGP  specifica-
	      tion  but	GnuPG already uses it as a countermeasure against cer-
	      tain attacks.  Old applications don't understand this  new  for-
	      mat, so this option may be used to switch	back to	the old	behav-
	      iour. Using this option bears a security risk. Note  that	 using
	      this option only takes effect when the secret key	is encrypted -
	      the simplest way to make this happen is to change	the passphrase
	      on the key (even changing	it to the same value is	acceptable).

       --no-sig-cache
	      Do not cache the verification status of key signatures.  Caching
	      gives a much better performance in key listings. However,	if you
	      suspect that your	public keyring is not save against write modi-
	      fications, you can use this option to disable  the  caching.  It
	      probably	does  not make sense to	disable	it because all kind of
	      damage can be done if someone else has write access to your pub-
	      lic keyring.

       --no-sig-create-check
	      This option is obsolete.	It has no function.

       --auto-check-trustdb

       --no-auto-check-trustdb
	      If  GnuPG	 feels that its	information about the Web of Trust has
	      to be updated, it	automatically runs the --check-trustdb command
	      internally.   This  may  be a time consuming process. --no-auto-
	      check-trustdb disables this option.

       --use-agent

       --no-use-agent
	      This is dummy option. gpg2 always	requires the agent.

       --gpg-agent-info
	      This is dummy option. It has no effect when used with gpg2.

       --agent-program file
	      Specify an agent program to be used for secret  key  operations.
	      The  default  value  is  the `/usr/bin/gpg-agent'.  This is only
	      used as a	fallback when the environment variable	GPG_AGENT_INFO
	      is not set or a running agent cannot be connected.

       --lock-once
	      Lock the databases the first time	a lock is requested and	do not
	      release the lock until the process terminates.

       --lock-multiple
	      Release the locks	every time a lock is  no  longer  needed.  Use
	      this to override a previous --lock-once from a config file.

       --lock-never
	      Disable  locking	entirely.  This	 option	should be used only in
	      very special environments, where it can be assured that only one
	      process  is  accessing  those  files.  A	bootable floppy	with a
	      stand-alone encryption system will probably use  this.  Improper
	      usage of this option may lead to data and	key corruption.

       --exit-on-status-write-error
	      This  option will	cause write errors on the status FD to immedi-
	      ately terminate the process. That	should in fact be the  default
	      but  it  never worked this way and thus we need an option	to en-
	      able this, so that the change  won't  break  applications	 which
	      close  their  end	of a status fd connected pipe too early. Using
	      this option along	with --enable-progress-filter may be  used  to
	      cleanly cancel long running gpg operations.

       --limit-card-insert-tries n
	      With  n  greater than 0 the number of prompts asking to insert a
	      smartcard	gets limited to	N-1. Thus with a value of 1 gpg	 won't
	      at  all  ask  to	insert	a  card	 if  none has been inserted at
	      startup. This option is useful in	the configuration file in case
	      an  application  does  not  know about the smartcard support and
	      waits ad infinitum for an	inserted card.

       --no-random-seed-file
	      GnuPG uses a file	to store its internal random pool over invoca-
	      tions.   This  makes random generation faster; however sometimes
	      write operations are not desired.	This option  can  be  used  to
	      achieve that with	the cost of slower random generation.

       --no-greeting
	      Suppress the initial copyright message.

       --no-secmem-warning
	      Suppress the warning about "using	insecure memory".

       --no-permission-warning
	      Suppress	the  warning  about  unsafe  file  and	home directory
	      (--homedir) permissions. Note that the  permission  checks  that
	      GnuPG  performs are not intended to be authoritative, but	rather
	      they simply warn about certain common  permission	 problems.  Do
	      not  assume that the lack	of a warning means that	your system is
	      secure.

	      Note that	the warning for	unsafe --homedir permissions cannot be
	      suppressed in the	gpg.conf file, as this would allow an attacker
	      to place an unsafe gpg.conf file in place, and use this file  to
	      suppress	warnings about itself. The --homedir permissions warn-
	      ing may only be suppressed on the	command	line.

       --no-mdc-warning
	      Suppress the warning about missing MDC integrity protection.

       --require-secmem

       --no-require-secmem
	      Refuse to	run if GnuPG cannot get	secure memory. Defaults	to  no
	      (i.e. run, but give a warning).

       --require-cross-certification

       --no-require-cross-certification
	      When  verifying  a signature made	from a subkey, ensure that the
	      cross certification "back	signature" on the  subkey  is  present
	      and  valid.   This protects against a subtle attack against sub-
	      keys that	can sign.  Defaults  to	 --require-cross-certification
	      for gpg2.

       --expert

       --no-expert
	      Allow  the user to do certain nonsensical	or "silly" things like
	      signing an expired or revoked key, or certain potentially	incom-
	      patible things like generating unusual key types.	This also dis-
	      ables certain warning messages  about  potentially  incompatible
	      actions.	As  the	name implies, this option is for experts only.
	      If you don't fully understand the	implications of	what it	allows
	      you to do, leave this off. --no-expert disables this option.

   Key related options

       --recipient name

       -r     Encrypt  for  user id name. If this option or --hidden-recipient
	      is not specified,	GnuPG asks for the user-id  unless  --default-
	      recipient	is given.

       --hidden-recipient name

       -R     Encrypt  for  user  ID  name, but	hide the key ID	of this	user's
	      key. This	option helps to	hide the receiver of the  message  and
	      is  a  limited  countermeasure against traffic analysis. If this
	      option or	--recipient is not specified, GnuPG asks for the  user
	      ID unless	--default-recipient is given.

       --encrypt-to name
	      Same  as --recipient but this one	is intended for	use in the op-
	      tions file and may be used with your own user-id as an "encrypt-
	      to-self".	 These keys are	only used when there are other recipi-
	      ents given either	by use of --recipient or by the	asked user id.
	      No  trust	checking is performed for these	user ids and even dis-
	      abled keys can be	used.

       --hidden-encrypt-to name
	      Same as --hidden-recipient but this one is intended for  use  in
	      the options file and may be used with your own user-id as	a hid-
	      den "encrypt-to-self". These keys	are only used when  there  are
	      other  recipients	 given	either by use of --recipient or	by the
	      asked user id.  No trust checking	is performed  for  these  user
	      ids and even disabled keys can be	used.

       --no-encrypt-to
	      Disable  the  use	 of  all  --encrypt-to and --hidden-encrypt-to
	      keys.

       --group name=value1
	      Sets up a	named group, which is similar to aliases in email pro-
	      grams.   Any time	the group name is a recipient (-r or --recipi-
	      ent), it will be expanded	 to  the  values  specified.  Multiple
	      groups with the same name	are automatically merged into a	single
	      group.

	      The values are key IDs or	fingerprints, but any key  description
	      is accepted. Note	that a value with spaces in it will be treated
	      as two different values. Note also there is only	one  level  of
	      expansion	 ---  you  cannot make an group	that points to another
	      group. When used from the	command	line, it may be	 necessary  to
	      quote  the  argument  to	this  option to	prevent	the shell from
	      treating it as multiple arguments.

       --ungroup name
	      Remove a given entry from	the --group list.

       --no-groups
	      Remove all entries from the --group list.

       --local-user name

       -u     Use name as the key to sign with.	Note that  this	 option	 over-
	      rides --default-key.

       --try-all-secrets
	      Don't  look  at  the key ID as stored in the message but try all
	      secret keys in turn to find the right decryption key.  This  op-
	      tion  forces the behaviour as used by anonymous recipients (cre-
	      ated by using --throw-keyids or  --hidden-recipient)  and	 might
	      come  handy  in case where an encrypted message contains a bogus
	      key ID.

       --skip-hidden-recipients

       --no-skip-hidden-recipients
	      During decryption	skip all anonymous  recipients.	  This	option
	      helps  in	the case that people use the hidden recipients feature
	      to hide there own	encrypt-to key from others.   If  oneself  has
	      many  secret keys	this may lead to a major annoyance because all
	      keys are tried in	turn to	decrypt	soemthing which	was not	really
	      intended for it.	The drawback of	this option is that it is cur-
	      rently not possible to decrypt a	message	 which	includes  real
	      anonymous	recipients.

   Input and Output

       --armor

       -a     Create  ASCII  armored output.  The default is to	create the bi-
	      nary OpenPGP format.

       --no-armor
	      Assume the input data is not in ASCII armored format.

       --output	file

       -o file
	      Write output to file.

       --max-output n
	      This option sets a limit on the number of	 bytes	that  will  be
	      generated	when processing	a file.	Since OpenPGP supports various
	      levels of	compression, it	is possible that the  plaintext	 of  a
	      given  message  may  be  significantly  larger than the original
	      OpenPGP message. While GnuPG works properly with such  messages,
	      there  is	often a	desire to set a	maximum	file size that will be
	      generated	before processing is forced to stop by the OS  limits.
	      Defaults to 0, which means "no limit".

       --import-options	parameters
	      This is a	space or comma delimited string	that gives options for
	      importing	keys. Options can be prepended with a  `no-'  to  give
	      the opposite meaning. The	options	are:

	      import-local-sigs
		     Allow importing key signatures marked as "local". This is
		     not generally useful unless a shared  keyring  scheme  is
		     being used.  Defaults to no.

	      import-keep-ownertrust
		     Normally  possible	 still existing	ownertrust values of a
		     key are cleared if	a key is imported.  This is in general
		     desirable	so  that a formerly deleted key	does not auto-
		     matically gain an ownertrust values merely	due to import.
		     On	 the other hand	it is sometimes	necessary to re-import
		     a trusted set of keys again but keeping already  assigned
		     ownertrust	values.	 This can be achived by	using this op-
		     tion.

	      repair-pks-subkey-bug
		     During import, attempt to repair the damage caused	by the
		     PKS  keyserver  bug (pre version 0.9.6) that mangles keys
		     with multiple subkeys. Note that this  cannot  completely
		     repair the	damaged	key as some crucial data is removed by
		     the keyserver, but	it does	at least  give	you  back  one
		     subkey.  Defaults	to  no for regular --import and	to yes
		     for keyserver --recv-keys.

	      merge-only
		     During import, allow key updates to existing keys,	but do
		     not allow any new keys to be imported. Defaults to	no.

	      import-clean
		     After  import,  compact (remove all signatures except the
		     self-signature) any user IDs from the new	key  that  are
		     not usable.  Then,	remove any signatures from the new key
		     that are not usable.  This	includes signatures that  were
		     issued  by	keys that are not present on the keyring. This
		     option is the same	 as  running  the  --edit-key  command
		     "clean" after import. Defaults to no.

	      import-minimal
		     Import the	smallest key possible. This removes all	signa-
		     tures except the most recent self-signature on each  user
		     ID.  This	option	is  the	same as	running	the --edit-key
		     command "minimize"	after import.  Defaults	to no.

       --export-options	parameters
	      This is a	space or comma delimited string	that gives options for
	      exporting	 keys.	Options	 can be	prepended with a `no-' to give
	      the opposite meaning. The	options	are:

	      export-local-sigs
		     Allow exporting key signatures marked as "local". This is
		     not  generally  useful  unless a shared keyring scheme is
		     being used.  Defaults to no.

	      export-attributes
		     Include attribute user IDs	(photo IDs)  while  exporting.
		     This  is  useful  to  export keys if they are going to be
		     used by an	OpenPGP	program	that does not accept attribute
		     user IDs. Defaults	to yes.

	      export-sensitive-revkeys
		     Include designated	revoker	information that was marked as
		     "sensitive". Defaults to no.

	      export-reset-subkey-passwd
		     When using	the --export-secret-subkeys command, this  op-
		     tion  resets  the passphrases for all exported subkeys to
		     empty. This is useful when	the exported subkey is	to  be
		     used  on an unattended machine where a passphrase doesn't
		     necessarily make sense. Defaults to no.

	      export-clean
		     Compact (remove all signatures from) user IDs on the  key
		     being  exported  if the user IDs are not usable. Also, do
		     not export	any signatures that are	not usable.  This  in-
		     cludes  signatures	 that were issued by keys that are not
		     present on	the keyring. This option is the	same  as  run-
		     ning  the --edit-key command "clean" before export	except
		     that the local copy of the	key is not modified.  Defaults
		     to	no.

	      export-minimal
		     Export the	smallest key possible. This removes all	signa-
		     tures except the most recent self-signature on each  user
		     ID.  This	option	is  the	same as	running	the --edit-key
		     command "minimize"	before export except  that  the	 local
		     copy of the key is	not modified. Defaults to no.

       --with-colons
	      Print  key  listings  delimited  by colons. Note that the	output
	      will be encoded in UTF-8	regardless  of	any  --display-charset
	      setting. This format is useful when GnuPG	is called from scripts
	      and other	programs as it is easily machine parsed.  The  details
	      of  this	format are documented in the file `doc/DETAILS', which
	      is included in the GnuPG source distribution.

       --fixed-list-mode
	      Do not merge primary user	ID and	primary	 key  in  --with-colon
	      listing	mode   and  print  all	timestamps  as	seconds	 since
	      1970-01-01.  Since GnuPG 2.0.10, this mode is  always  used  and
	      thus this	option is obsolete; it does not	harm to	use it though.

       --with-fingerprint
	      Same as the command --fingerprint	but changes only the format of
	      the output and may be used together with another command.

   OpenPGP protocol specific options.

       -t, --textmode

       --no-textmode
	      Treat input files	as text	and store them in the OpenPGP  canoni-
	      cal  text	form with standard "CRLF" line endings.	This also sets
	      the necessary flags to inform the	recipient that	the  encrypted
	      or  signed  data is text and may need its	line endings converted
	      back to whatever the local system	uses. This  option  is	useful
	      when  communicating  between  two	 platforms that	have different
	      line ending conventions (UNIX-like to Mac, Mac to	Windows, etc).
	      --no-textmode disables this option, and is the default.

       --force-v3-sigs

       --no-force-v3-sigs
	      OpenPGP  states that an implementation should generate v4	signa-
	      tures but	PGP versions 5 through 7 only recognize	v4  signatures
	      on key material. This option forces v3 signatures	for signatures
	      on data.	Note that this option implies --no-ask-sig-expire, and
	      unsets  --sig-policy-url,	 --sig-notation,  and --sig-keyserver-
	      url, as these features cannot be used with v3 signatures.	 --no-
	      force-v3-sigs disables this option.  Defaults to no.

       --force-v4-certs

       --no-force-v4-certs
	      Always  use  v4 key signatures even on v3	keys. This option also
	      changes the default hash algorithm for v3	RSA keys from  MD5  to
	      SHA-1.  --no-force-v4-certs disables this	option.

       --force-mdc
	      Force  the use of	encryption with	a modification detection code.
	      This is always used with the newer ciphers (those	with a	block-
	      size  greater than 64 bits), or if all of	the recipient keys in-
	      dicate MDC support in their feature flags.

       --disable-mdc
	      Disable the use of the modification detection code. Note that by
	      using this option, the encrypted message becomes vulnerable to a
	      message modification attack.

       --personal-cipher-preferences string
	      Set the list of personal cipher preferences to string.  Use gpg2
	      --version	to get a list of available algorithms, and use none to
	      set no preference	at all.	 This allows the user to safely	 over-
	      ride  the	 algorithm chosen by the recipient key preferences, as
	      GPG will only select an algorithm	that is	usable by all  recipi-
	      ents.   The  most	highly ranked cipher in	this list is also used
	      for the --symmetric encryption command.

       --personal-digest-preferences string
	      Set the list of personal digest preferences to string.  Use gpg2
	      --version	to get a list of available algorithms, and use none to
	      set no preference	at all.	 This allows the user to safely	 over-
	      ride  the	 algorithm chosen by the recipient key preferences, as
	      GPG will only select an algorithm	that is	usable by all  recipi-
	      ents.   The  most	highly ranked digest algorithm in this list is
	      also used	when signing without encryption	(e.g.  --clearsign  or
	      --sign).

       --personal-compress-preferences string
	      Set the list of personal compression preferences to string.  Use
	      gpg2 --version to	get a list of available	 algorithms,  and  use
	      none  to	set  no	 preference  at	 all.  This allows the user to
	      safely override the algorithm chosen by the recipient key	 pref-
	      erences,	as GPG will only select	an algorithm that is usable by
	      all recipients.  The most	highly ranked compression algorithm in
	      this  list is also used when there are no	recipient keys to con-
	      sider (e.g. --symmetric).

       --s2k-cipher-algo name
	      Use name as the cipher algorithm used to	protect	 secret	 keys.
	      The  default  cipher is CAST5. This cipher is also used for sym-
	      metric encryption	with a passphrase if --personal-cipher-prefer-
	      ences and	--cipher-algo is not given.

       --s2k-digest-algo name
	      Use name as the digest algorithm used to mangle the passphrases.
	      The default algorithm is SHA-1.

       --s2k-mode n
	      Selects  how  passphrases	 are  mangled.	If  n  is  0  a	 plain
	      passphrase  (which  is not recommended) will be used, a 1	adds a
	      salt to the passphrase and a 3 (the default) iterates the	 whole
	      process  a  number of times (see --s2k-count).  Unless --rfc1991
	      is used, this mode is also used for symmetric encryption with  a
	      passphrase.

       --s2k-count n
	      Specify  how  many  times	 the  passphrase mangling is repeated.
	      This value may range between 1024	and 65011712  inclusive.   The
	      default is inquired from gpg-agent.  Note	that not all values in
	      the 1024-65011712	range are legal	and if an illegal value	is se-
	      lected,  GnuPG  will  round up to	the nearest legal value.  This
	      option is	only meaningful	if --s2k-mode is 3.

   Compliance options

       These options control what GnuPG	is compliant to. Only one of these op-
       tions may be active at a	time. Note that	the default setting of this is
       nearly always the correct one.  See  the	 INTEROPERABILITY  WITH	 OTHER
       OPENPGP PROGRAMS	section	below before using one of these	options.

       --gnupg
	      Use  standard GnuPG behavior. This is essentially	OpenPGP	behav-
	      ior (see --openpgp), but with some  additional  workarounds  for
	      common compatibility problems in different versions of PGP. This
	      is the default option, so	it is not generally needed, but	it may
	      be  useful  to  override	a  different  compliance option	in the
	      gpg.conf file.

       --openpgp
	      Reset all	packet,	cipher and digest options  to  strict  OpenPGP
	      behavior.	 Use  this  option  to reset all previous options like
	      --s2k-*, --cipher-algo,  --digest-algo  and  --compress-algo  to
	      OpenPGP compliant	values.	All PGP	workarounds are	disabled.

       --rfc4880
	      Reset  all  packet, cipher and digest options to strict RFC-4880
	      behavior.	 Note  that  this  is  currently  the  same  thing  as
	      --openpgp.

       --rfc2440
	      Reset  all  packet, cipher and digest options to strict RFC-2440
	      behavior.

       --rfc1991
	      Try to be	more RFC-1991 (PGP 2.x)	compliant.

       --pgp2 Set up all options to be as PGP 2.x compliant as	possible,  and
	      warn  if	an  action is taken (e.g. encrypting to	a non-RSA key)
	      that will	create a message that PGP 2.x will not be able to han-
	      dle.  Note  that `PGP 2.x' here means `MIT PGP 2.6.2'. There are
	      other versions of	PGP 2.x	available, but the MIT	release	 is  a
	      good common baseline.

	      This  option implies --rfc1991 --disable-mdc --no-force-v4-certs
	      --escape-from-lines  --force-v3-sigs   --allow-weak-digest-algos
	      --cipher-algo  IDEA  --digest-algo  MD5 --compress-algo ZIP.  It
	      also disables --textmode when encrypting.

       --pgp6 Set up all options to be as PGP 6	compliant  as  possible.  This
	      restricts	 you  to  the  ciphers IDEA (if	the IDEA plugin	is in-
	      stalled),	3DES, and CAST5, the hashes MD5, SHA1  and  RIPEMD160,
	      and  the compression algorithms none and ZIP. This also disables
	      --throw-keyids, and making signatures with  signing  subkeys  as
	      PGP 6 does not understand	signatures made	by signing subkeys.

	      This  option  implies --disable-mdc --escape-from-lines --force-
	      v3-sigs.

       --pgp7 Set up all options to be as PGP 7	compliant as possible. This is
	      identical	 to  --pgp6 except that	MDCs are not disabled, and the
	      list of allowable	ciphers	is expanded  to	 add  AES128,  AES192,
	      AES256, and TWOFISH.

       --pgp8 Set  up  all options to be as PGP	8 compliant as possible. PGP 8
	      is a lot closer to the OpenPGP standard than  previous  versions
	      of PGP, so all this does is disable --throw-keyids and set --es-
	      cape-from-lines.	All algorithms	are  allowed  except  for  the
	      SHA224, SHA384, and SHA512 digests.

   Doing things	one usually doesn't want to do.

       -n

       --dry-run
	      Don't make any changes (this is not completely implemented).

       --list-only
	      Changes  the  behaviour of some commands.	This is	like --dry-run
	      but different in some cases. The semantic	of this	command	may be
	      extended	in  the	future.	Currently it only skips	the actual de-
	      cryption pass and	therefore enables a fast listing  of  the  en-
	      cryption keys.

       -i

       --interactive
	      Prompt before overwriting	any files.

       --debug-level level
	      Select  the debug	level for investigating	problems. level	may be
	      a	numeric	value or by a keyword:

	      none   No	debugging at all.  A value of less than	1 may be  used
		     instead of	the keyword.

	      basic  Some  basic  debug	messages.  A value between 1 and 2 may
		     be	used instead of	the keyword.

	      advanced
		     More verbose debug	messages.  A value between 3 and 5 may
		     be	used instead of	the keyword.

	      expert Even more detailed	messages.  A value between 6 and 8 may
		     be	used instead of	the keyword.

	      guru   All of the	debug messages you can get.  A	value  greater
		     than  8 may be used instead of the	keyword.  The creation
		     of	hash tracing files is only enabled if the  keyword  is
		     used.

       How  these  messages  are  mapped  to the actual	debugging flags	is not
       specified and may change	with newer releases of this program. They  are
       however carefully selected to best aid in debugging.

       --debug flags
	      Set  debugging flags. All	flags are or-ed	and flags may be given
	      in C syntax (e.g.	0x0042).

       --debug-all
	      Set all useful debugging flags.

       --faked-system-time epoch
	      This option is only useful for testing; it sets the system  time
	      back  or	forth  to epoch	which is the number of seconds elapsed
	      since the	year 1970.  Alternatively epoch	may be given as	a full
	      ISO time string (e.g. "20070924T154812").

       --enable-progress-filter
	      Enable  certain  PROGRESS	 status	 outputs.  This	 option	allows
	      frontends	to display a progress indicator	while gpg is  process-
	      ing  larger files.  There	is a slight performance	overhead using
	      it.

       --status-fd n
	      Write special status strings to the file descriptor n.  See  the
	      file DETAILS in the documentation	for a listing of them.

       --status-file file
	      Same  as	--status-fd, except the	status data is written to file
	      file.

       --logger-fd n
	      Write log	output to file descriptor n and	not to STDERR.

       --log-file file

       --logger-file file
	      Same as --logger-fd, except the logger data is written  to  file
	      file.  Note that --log-file is only implemented for GnuPG-2.

       --attribute-fd n
	      Write  attribute	subpackets  to	the file descriptor n. This is
	      most useful for use with --status-fd, since the status  messages
	      are  needed  to  separate	 out  the  various subpackets from the
	      stream delivered to the file descriptor.

       --attribute-file	file
	      Same as --attribute-fd, except the attribute data	is written  to
	      file file.

       --comment string

       --no-comments
	      Use  string  as  a  comment  string in clear text	signatures and
	      ASCII armored messages or	keys (see --armor). The	default	behav-
	      ior  is  not  to use a comment string. --comment may be repeated
	      multiple times to	get multiple  comment  strings.	 --no-comments
	      removes all comments.  It	is a good idea to keep the length of a
	      single comment below 60 characters to avoid problems  with  mail
	      programs wrapping	such lines.  Note that comment lines, like all
	      other header lines, are not protected by the signature.

       --emit-version

       --no-emit-version
	      Force inclusion of the version string in ASCII  armored  output.
	      If  given	once only the name of the program and the major	number
	      is emitted (default), given twice	the  minor  is	also  emitted,
	      given  triple  the  micro	 is added, and given quad an operating
	      system identification is also emitted.   --no-emit-version  dis-
	      ables the	version	line.

       --sig-notation name=value

       --cert-notation name=value

       -N, --set-notation name=value
	      Put  the	name  value  pair into the signature as	notation data.
	      name must	consist	only of	printable characters  or  spaces,  and
	      must  contain  a	'@' character in the form keyname@domain.exam-
	      ple.com (substituting the	appropriate keyname and	 domain	 name,
	      of  course).   This is to	help prevent pollution of the IETF re-
	      served notation namespace. The --expert flag overrides  the  '@'
	      check.  value may	be any printable string; it will be encoded in
	      UTF8, so you should check	that  your  --display-charset  is  set
	      correctly.  If you prefix	name with an exclamation mark (!), the
	      notation data will be flagged  as	 critical  (rfc4880:5.2.3.16).
	      --sig-notation sets a notation for data signatures. --cert-nota-
	      tion sets	a notation for key signatures (certifications).	--set-
	      notation sets both.

	      There are	special	codes that may be used in notation names. "%k"
	      will be expanded into the	key ID of the key being	 signed,  "%K"
	      into the long key	ID of the key being signed, "%f" into the fin-
	      gerprint of the key being	signed,	"%s" into the key  ID  of  the
	      key  making  the signature, "%S" into the	long key ID of the key
	      making the signature, "%g" into the fingerprint of the key  mak-
	      ing  the signature (which	might be a subkey), "%p" into the fin-
	      gerprint of the primary key of the  key  making  the  signature,
	      "%c"  into  the  signature count from the	OpenPGP	smartcard, and
	      "%%" results in a	single "%". %k,	%K, and	%f are only meaningful
	      when  making  a  key  signature  (certification),	and %c is only
	      meaningful when using the	OpenPGP	smartcard.

       --sig-policy-url	string

       --cert-policy-url string

       --set-policy-url	string
	      Use string as a Policy URL  for  signatures  (rfc4880:5.2.3.20).
	      If  you  prefix  it with an exclamation mark (!),	the policy URL
	      packet will be flagged as	critical. --sig-policy-url sets	a pol-
	      icy url for data signatures. --cert-policy-url sets a policy url
	      for key signatures (certifications). --set-policy-url sets both.

	      The same %-expandos used for notation data are available here as
	      well.

       --sig-keyserver-url string
	      Use  string as a preferred keyserver URL for data	signatures. If
	      you prefix it with an exclamation	mark (!),  the	keyserver  URL
	      packet will be flagged as	critical.

	      The same %-expandos used for notation data are available here as
	      well.

       --set-filename string
	      Use string as the	filename  which	 is  stored  inside  messages.
	      This  overrides the default, which is to use the actual filename
	      of the file being	encrypted.

       --for-your-eyes-only

       --no-for-your-eyes-only
	      Set the `for your	eyes only' flag	in the	message.  This	causes
	      GnuPG  to	 refuse	to save	the file unless	the --output option is
	      given, and PGP to	use a "secure viewer" with a claimed  Tempest-
	      resistant	 font  to  display  the	message. This option overrides
	      --set-filename.  --no-for-your-eyes-only disables	this option.

       --use-embedded-filename

       --no-use-embedded-filename
	      Try to create a file with	a name as embedded in the  data.  This
	      can  be  a dangerous option as it	allows to overwrite files. De-
	      faults to	no.

       --cipher-algo name
	      Use name as cipher algorithm. Running the	program	with the  com-
	      mand --version yields a list of supported	algorithms. If this is
	      not used the cipher algorithm is selected	from  the  preferences
	      stored with the key. In general, you do not want to use this op-
	      tion as it allows	you to violate the OpenPGP  standard.	--per-
	      sonal-cipher-preferences	is the safe way	to accomplish the same
	      thing.

       --digest-algo name
	      Use name as the message digest algorithm.	 Running  the  program
	      with  the	 command  --version  yields  a list of supported algo-
	      rithms. In general, you do not want to use this option as	it al-
	      lows  you	 to  violate  the OpenPGP standard. --personal-digest-
	      preferences is the safe way to accomplish	the same thing.

       --compress-algo name
	      Use compression algorithm	name. "zlib" is	RFC-1950 ZLIB compres-
	      sion.  "zip"  is	RFC-1951 ZIP compression which is used by PGP.
	      "bzip2" is a more	modern compression scheme  that	 can  compress
	      some  things  better  than  zip or zlib, but at the cost of more
	      memory used during compression and decompression.	"uncompressed"
	      or  "none" disables compression. If this option is not used, the
	      default behavior is to examine the recipient key preferences  to
	      see  which algorithms the	recipient supports. If all else	fails,
	      ZIP is used for maximum compatibility.

	      ZLIB may give better compression results than ZIP, as  the  com-
	      pression	window	size is	not limited to 8k. BZIP2 may give even
	      better compression results than that, but	will  use  a  signifi-
	      cantly larger amount of memory while compressing and decompress-
	      ing. This	may be significant in  low  memory  situations.	 Note,
	      however,	that PGP (all versions)	only supports ZIP compression.
	      Using any	algorithm other	than ZIP or "none" will	make the  mes-
	      sage  unreadable	with  PGP.  In general,	you do not want	to use
	      this option as it	allows you to violate  the  OpenPGP  standard.
	      --personal-compress-preferences  is  the	safe way to accomplish
	      the same thing.

       --cert-digest-algo name
	      Use name as the message digest algorithm	used  when  signing  a
	      key.  Running  the  program  with	the command --version yields a
	      list of supported	algorithms. Be aware that if you choose	an al-
	      gorithm that GnuPG supports but other OpenPGP implementations do
	      not, then	some users will	not be able to use the key  signatures
	      you make,	or quite possibly your entire key.

       --disable-cipher-algo name
	      Never allow the use of name as cipher algorithm.	The given name
	      will not be checked so that a later loaded algorithm will	 still
	      get disabled.

       --disable-pubkey-algo name
	      Never  allow the use of name as public key algorithm.  The given
	      name will	not be checked so that a later loaded  algorithm  will
	      still get	disabled.

       --throw-keyids

       --no-throw-keyids
	      Do  not  put the recipient key IDs into encrypted	messages. This
	      helps to hide the	receivers of the  message  and	is  a  limited
	      countermeasure against traffic analysis. ([Using a little	social
	      engineering anyone who is	able to	decrypt	the message can	 check
	      whether  one  of	the other recipients is	the one	he suspects.])
	      On the receiving side, it	may slow down the  decryption  process
	      because  all  available  secret keys must	be tried.  --no-throw-
	      keyids disables this option. This	option is essentially the same
	      as using --hidden-recipient for all recipients.

       --not-dash-escaped
	      This option changes the behavior of cleartext signatures so that
	      they can be used for patch files.	You should not	send  such  an
	      armored  file  via email because all spaces and line endings are
	      hashed too. You can not use this option for  data	 which	has  5
	      dashes  at the beginning of a line, patch	files don't have this.
	      A	special	armor header line tells	 GnuPG	about  this  cleartext
	      signature	option.

       --escape-from-lines

       --no-escape-from-lines
	      Because  some  mailers  change  lines  starting  with "From " to
	      ">From " it is good to handle such lines in a special  way  when
	      creating	cleartext  signatures  to prevent the mail system from
	      breaking the signature. Note that	all other PGP versions	do  it
	      this  way	 too.  Enabled by default. --no-escape-from-lines dis-
	      ables this option.

       --passphrase-repeat n
	      Specify how many times gpg2 will request a new passphrase	be re-
	      peated.	This is	useful for helping memorize a passphrase.  De-
	      faults to	1 repetition.

       --passphrase-fd n
	      Read the passphrase from file descriptor n. Only the first  line
	      will  be	read  from  file descriptor n. If you use 0 for	n, the
	      passphrase will be read from STDIN. This can  only  be  used  if
	      only  one	 passphrase is supplied.  Note that this passphrase is
	      only used	if the option --batch has also been  given.   This  is
	      different	from gpg.

       --passphrase-file file
	      Read  the	passphrase from	file file. Only	the first line will be
	      read from	 file  file.  This  can	 only  be  used	 if  only  one
	      passphrase is supplied. Obviously, a passphrase stored in	a file
	      is of questionable security if other users can read  this	 file.
	      Don't  use  this	option	if  you	 can avoid it.	Note that this
	      passphrase is only used if the  option  --batch  has  also  been
	      given.  This is different	from gpg.

       --passphrase string
	      Use  string as the passphrase. This can only be used if only one
	      passphrase is supplied. Obviously, this is of very  questionable
	      security	on  a  multi-user system. Don't	use this option	if you
	      can avoid	it.  Note that this passphrase is only used if the op-
	      tion --batch has also been given.	 This is different from	gpg.

       --command-fd n
	      This is a	replacement for	the deprecated shared-memory IPC mode.
	      If this option is	enabled, user input on questions  is  not  ex-
	      pected  from  the	 TTY  but  from	 the given file	descriptor. It
	      should be	used together with --status-fd.	See the	 file  doc/DE-
	      TAILS in the source distribution for details on how to use it.

       --command-file file
	      Same  as	--command-fd, except the commands are read out of file
	      file

       --allow-non-selfsigned-uid

       --no-allow-non-selfsigned-uid
	      Allow the	import and use of keys with user  IDs  which  are  not
	      self-signed.  This is not	recommended, as	a non self-signed user
	      ID is trivial to forge. --no-allow-non-selfsigned-uid disables.

       --allow-freeform-uid
	      Disable all checks on the	form of	the user ID while generating a
	      new  one.	 This option should only be used in very special envi-
	      ronments as it does not ensure the de-facto standard  format  of
	      user IDs.

       --ignore-time-conflict
	      GnuPG  normally  checks that the timestamps associated with keys
	      and signatures have plausible values. However, sometimes a  sig-
	      nature  seems  to	 be  older than	the key	due to clock problems.
	      This option makes	these checks just a warning.  See  also	 --ig-
	      nore-valid-from for timestamp issues on subkeys.

       --ignore-valid-from
	      GnuPG  normally  does  not select	and use	subkeys	created	in the
	      future.  This option allows the use of such keys	and  thus  ex-
	      hibits  the  pre-1.0.7 behaviour.	You should not use this	option
	      unless there is some clock problem. See also  --ignore-time-con-
	      flict for	timestamp issues with signatures.

       --ignore-crc-error
	      The  ASCII  armor	used by	OpenPGP	is protected by	a CRC checksum
	      against transmission errors. Occasionally	the CRC	 gets  mangled
	      somewhere	 on  the  transmission	channel	but the	actual content
	      (which is	protected by the OpenPGP  protocol  anyway)  is	 still
	      okay. This option	allows GnuPG to	ignore CRC errors.

       --ignore-mdc-error
	      This  option  changes  a MDC integrity protection	failure	into a
	      warning.	This can be useful if a	message	is partially  corrupt,
	      but  it  is necessary to get as much data	as possible out	of the
	      corrupt message.	However, be aware that a MDC protection	 fail-
	      ure  may also mean that the message was tampered with intention-
	      ally by an attacker.

       --allow-weak-digest-algos
	      Signatures made with the broken MD5 algorithm are	 normally  re-
	      jected  with  an ``invalid digest	algorithm'' message.  This op-
	      tion allows the verification of signatures made with  such  weak
	      algorithms.

       --no-default-keyring
	      Do  not  add  the	default	keyrings to the	list of	keyrings. Note
	      that GnuPG will not operate without any keyrings,	so if you  use
	      this  option and do not provide alternate	keyrings via --keyring
	      or --secret-keyring, then	GnuPG will still use the default  pub-
	      lic or secret keyrings.

       --skip-verify
	      Skip  the	 signature verification	step. This may be used to make
	      the decryption faster  if	 the  signature	 verification  is  not
	      needed.

       --with-key-data
	      Print  key listings delimited by colons (like --with-colons) and
	      print the	public key data.

       --fast-list-mode
	      Changes the output of the	list commands to work faster; this  is
	      achieved	by  leaving  some parts	empty. Some applications don't
	      need the user ID and the trust information given	in  the	 list-
	      ings.  By	 using this options they can get a faster listing. The
	      exact behaviour of this option may change	 in  future  versions.
	      If you are missing some information, don't use this option.

       --no-literal
	      This  is	not  for normal	use. Use the source to see for what it
	      might be useful.

       --set-filesize
	      This is not for normal use. Use the source to see	 for  what  it
	      might be useful.

       --show-session-key
	      Display  the  session  key used for one message. See --override-
	      session-key for the counterpart of this option.

	      We think that Key	Escrow is a Bad	Thing; however the user	should
	      have  the	freedom	to decide whether to go	to prison or to	reveal
	      the content of one specific  message  without  compromising  all
	      messages	ever encrypted for one secret key. DON'T USE IT	UNLESS
	      YOU ARE REALLY FORCED TO DO SO.

       --override-session-key string
	      Don't use	the public key but the session key string. The	format
	      of this string is	the same as the	one printed by --show-session-
	      key. This	option is normally not used but	comes  handy  in  case
	      someone  forces  you  to reveal the content of an	encrypted mes-
	      sage; using this option you can do this without handing out  the
	      secret key.

       --ask-sig-expire

       --no-ask-sig-expire
	      When  making a data signature, prompt for	an expiration time. If
	      this option is not specified, the	expiration time	set via	 --de-
	      fault-sig-expire	is used. --no-ask-sig-expire disables this op-
	      tion.

       --default-sig-expire
	      The default expiration time to  use  for	signature  expiration.
	      Valid values are "0" for no expiration, a	number followed	by the
	      letter d (for days), w (for weeks), m (for months),  or  y  (for
	      years)  (for  example  "2m"  for	two  months,  or "5y" for five
	      years), or an absolute date in the form YYYY-MM-DD. Defaults  to
	      "0".

       --ask-cert-expire

       --no-ask-cert-expire
	      When  making  a key signature, prompt for	an expiration time. If
	      this option is not specified, the	expiration time	set via	 --de-
	      fault-cert-expire	 is  used.  --no-ask-cert-expire disables this
	      option.

       --default-cert-expire
	      The default expiration time to use for key signature expiration.
	      Valid values are "0" for no expiration, a	number followed	by the
	      letter d (for days), w (for weeks), m (for months),  or  y  (for
	      years)  (for  example  "2m"  for	two  months,  or "5y" for five
	      years), or an absolute date in the form YYYY-MM-DD. Defaults  to
	      "0".

       --allow-secret-key-import
	      This is an obsolete option and is	not used anywhere.

       --allow-multiple-messages

       --no-allow-multiple-messages
	      Allow  processing	 of  multiple  OpenPGP messages	contained in a
	      single file or stream.  Some programs that call GPG are not pre-
	      pared  to	 deal with multiple messages being processed together,
	      so this option defaults to no.  Note that	versions of GPG	 prior
	      to 1.4.7 always allowed multiple messages.

	      Warning:	Do  not	use this option	unless you need	it as a	tempo-
	      rary workaround!

       --enable-special-filenames
	      This options enables a mode  in  which  filenames	 of  the  form
	      `-_n',  where  n	is a non-negative decimal number, refer	to the
	      file descriptor n	and not	to a file with that name.

       --no-expensive-trust-checks
	      Experimental use only.

       --preserve-permissions
	      Don't change the permissions of a	secret keyring	back  to  user
	      read/write  only.	 Use  this option only if you really know what
	      you are doing.

       --default-preference-list string
	      Set the list of default preferences to string.  This  preference
	      list  is used for	new keys and becomes the default for "setpref"
	      in the edit menu.

       --default-keyserver-url name
	      Set the default keyserver	URL to name. This  keyserver  will  be
	      used as the keyserver URL	when writing a new self-signature on a
	      key, which includes key generation and changing preferences.

       --list-config
	      Display various internal configuration parameters	of GnuPG. This
	      option is	intended for external programs that call GnuPG to per-
	      form tasks, and is thus  not  generally  useful.	See  the  file
	      `doc/DETAILS'  in	 the  source  distribution  for	the details of
	      which configuration items	may be listed. --list-config  is  only
	      usable with --with-colons	set.

       --gpgconf-list
	      This command is similar to --list-config but in general only in-
	      ternally used by the gpgconf tool.

       --gpgconf-test
	      This is more or less dummy action.  However it parses  the  con-
	      figuration  file	and  returns with failure if the configuration
	      file would prevent gpg from startup.  Thus it may	be used	to run
	      a	syntax check on	the configuration file.

   Deprecated options

       --show-photos

       --no-show-photos
	      Causes  --list-keys, --list-sigs,	--list-public-keys, --list-se-
	      cret-keys, and verifying a signature to also display  the	 photo
	      ID  attached  to the key,	if any.	See also --photo-viewer. These
	      options  are  deprecated.	 Use  --list-options  [no-]show-photos
	      and/or --verify-options [no-]show-photos instead.

       --show-keyring
	      Display  the  keyring  name  at the head of key listings to show
	      which keyring a given key	resides	on. This option	is deprecated:
	      use --list-options [no-]show-keyring instead.

       --always-trust
	      Identical	to --trust-model always. This option is	deprecated.

       --show-notation

       --no-show-notation
	      Show  signature  notations  in  the  --list-sigs or --check-sigs
	      listings as well as when verifying a signature with  a  notation
	      in   it.	 These	options	 are  deprecated.  Use	--list-options
	      [no-]show-notation  and/or  --verify-options  [no-]show-notation
	      instead.

       --show-policy-url

       --no-show-policy-url
	      Show  policy URLs	in the --list-sigs or --check-sigs listings as
	      well as when verifying a signature with  a  policy  URL  in  it.
	      These  options are deprecated. Use --list-options	[no-]show-pol-
	      icy-url and/or --verify-options [no-]show-policy-url instead.

EXAMPLES
       gpg -se -r Bob file
	      sign and encrypt for user	Bob

       gpg --clearsign file
	      make a clear text	signature

       gpg -sb file
	      make a detached signature

       gpg -u 0x12345678 -sb file
	      make a detached signature	with the key 0x12345678

       gpg --list-keys user_ID
	      show keys

       gpg --fingerprint user_ID
	      show fingerprint

       gpg --verify pgpfile

       gpg --verify sigfile
	      Verify the signature of the file but do not output the data. The
	      second  form  is	used for detached signatures, where sigfile is
	      the detached signature (either ASCII armored or binary) and  are
	      the  signed  data;  if  this  is not given, the name of the file
	      holding the signed data is constructed by	cutting	off the	exten-
	      sion (".asc" or ".sig") of sigfile or by asking the user for the
	      filename.

HOW TO SPECIFY A USER ID
       There are different ways	to specify a user ID to	GnuPG.	Some  of  them
       are only	valid for gpg others are only good for gpgsm.  Here is the en-
       tire list of ways to specify a key:

       By key Id.
	      This format is deduced from the length of	 the  string  and  its
	      content or 0x prefix. The	key Id of an X.509 certificate are the
	      low 64 bits of its SHA-1 fingerprint.  The use  of  key  Ids  is
	      just  a  shortcut,  for all automated processing the fingerprint
	      should be	used.

	      When using gpg an	exclamation mark (!) may be appended to	 force
	      using  the specified primary or secondary	key and	not to try and
	      calculate	which primary or secondary key to use.

	      The last four lines of the example give the key ID in their long
	      form as internally used by the OpenPGP protocol. You can see the
	      long key ID using	the option --with-colons.

	 234567C4
	 0F34E556E
	 01347A56A
	 0xAB123456

	 234AABBCC34567C4
	 0F323456784E56EAB
	 01AB3FED1347A5612
	 0x234AABBCC34567C4

       By fingerprint.
	      This format is deduced from the length of	 the  string  and  its
	      content  or  the 0x prefix.  Note, that only the 20 byte version
	      fingerprint is available with gpgsm (i.e.	the SHA-1 hash of  the
	      certificate).

	      When  using gpg an exclamation mark (!) may be appended to force
	      using the	specified primary or secondary key and not to try  and
	      calculate	which primary or secondary key to use.

	      The  best	 way  to specify a key Id is by	using the fingerprint.
	      This avoids any ambiguities in case that	there  are  duplicated
	      key IDs.

	 1234343434343434C434343434343434
	 123434343434343C3434343434343734349A3434
	 0E12343434343434343434EAB3484343434343434
	 0xE12343434343434343434EAB3484343434343434

       (gpgsm  also accepts colons between each	pair of	hexadecimal digits be-
       cause this is the de-facto standard on how  to  present	X.509  finger-
       prints.)

       By exact	match on OpenPGP user ID.
	      This  is denoted by a leading equal sign.	It does	not make sense
	      for X.509	certificates.

	 =Heinrich Heine <heinrichh@uni-duesseldorf.de>

       By exact	match on an email address.
	      This is indicated	by enclosing the email address	in  the	 usual
	      way with left and	right angles.

	 <heinrichh@uni-duesseldorf.de>

       By word match.
	      All words	must match exactly (not	case sensitive)	but can	appear
	      in any order in the user ID or a subjects	name.  Words  are  any
	      sequences	 of letters, digits, the underscore and	all characters
	      with bit 7 set.

	 +Heinrich Heine duesseldorf

       By exact	match on the subject's DN.
	      This is indicated	by a leading slash, directly followed  by  the
	      RFC-2253 encoded DN of the subject.  Note	that you can't use the
	      string printed by	"gpgsm --list-keys" because that one  as  been
	      reordered	and modified for better	readability; use --with-colons
	      to print the raw (but standard escaped) RFC-2253 string

	 /CN=Heinrich Heine,O=Poets,L=Paris,C=FR

       By exact	match on the issuer's DN.
	      This is indicated	by a leading hash mark,	directly followed by a
	      slash  and  then	directly followed by the rfc2253 encoded DN of
	      the issuer.  This	should return the Root	cert  of  the  issuer.
	      See note above.

	 #/CN=Root Cert,O=Poets,L=Paris,C=FR

       By exact	match on serial	number and issuer's DN.
	      This  is	indicated  by a	hash mark, followed by the hexadecimal
	      representation of	the serial number, then	followed  by  a	 slash
	      and the RFC-2253 encoded DN of the issuer. See note above.

	 #4F03/CN=Root Cert,O=Poets,L=Paris,C=FR

       By keygrip
	      This  is indicated by an ampersand followed by the 40 hex	digits
	      of a keygrip.  gpgsm prints the keygrip when using  the  command
	      --dump-cert.  It does not	yet work for OpenPGP keys.

	 &D75F22C3F86E355877348498CDC92BD21010A480

       By substring match.
	      This is the default mode but applications	may want to explicitly
	      indicate this by putting the asterisk in front.	Match  is  not
	      case sensitive.

	 Heine
	 *Heine

       Please note that	we have	reused the hash	mark identifier	which was used
       in old GnuPG versions to	indicate the so	called local-id.   It  is  not
       anymore	used  and  there  should  be  no conflict when used with X.509
       stuff.

       Using the RFC-2253 format of DNs	has the	drawback that it is not	possi-
       ble to map them back to the original encoding, however we don't have to
       do this because our key database	stores this encoding as	meta data.

FILES
       There are a few configuration  files  to	 control  certain  aspects  of
       gpg2's  operation.  Unless noted, they are expected in the current home
       directory (see: [option --homedir]).

       gpg.conf
	      This is the standard configuration file read by gpg2 on startup.
	      It may contain any valid long option; the	leading	two dashes may
	      not be entered and the option may	not be abbreviated.  This  de-
	      fault  name may be changed on the	command	line (see: [gpg-option
	      --options]).  You	should backup this file.

       Note that on larger installations, it is	useful to put predefined files
       into  the  directory  `/etc/skel/.gnupg/'  so  that newly created users
       start up	with a working configuration.  For existing users the a	 small
       helper script is	provided to create these files (see: [addgnupghome]).

       For  internal  purposes	gpg2  creates and maintains a few other	files;
       They all	live in	in the current home directory  (see:  [option  --home-
       dir]).  Only the	gpg2 may modify	these files.

       ~/.gnupg/pubring.gpg
	      The public keyring.  You should backup this file.

       ~/.gnupg/pubring.gpg.lock
	      The lock file for	the public keyring.

       ~/.gnupg/secring.gpg
		The secret keyring.  You should	backup this file.

       ~/.gnupg/trustdb.gpg
	      The trust	database.  There is no need to backup this file; it is
	      better to	backup the ownertrust values (see:  [option  --export-
	      ownertrust]).

       ~/.gnupg/trustdb.gpg.lock
	      The lock file for	the trust database.

       ~/.gnupg/random_seed
	      A	file used to preserve the state	of the internal	random pool.

       ~/.gnupg/secring.gpg.lock
	      The lock file for	the secret keyring.

       /usr[/local]/share/gnupg/options.skel
	      The skeleton options file.

       /usr[/local]/lib/gnupg/
	      Default location for extensions.

       Operation is further controlled by a few	environment variables:

       HOME   Used to locate the default home directory.

       GNUPGHOME
	      If set directory used instead of "~/.gnupg".

       GPG_AGENT_INFO
	      Used to locate the gpg-agent.
		The  value  consists of	3 colon	delimited fields: The first is
	      the path
		to the Unix Domain Socket, the second the PID of the gpg-agent
	      and the
		protocol  version  which should	be set to 1. When starting the
	      gpg-agent
		as described in	its documentation, this	variable is set	to the
	      correct
		value. The option --gpg-agent-info can be used to override it.

       PINENTRY_USER_DATA
	      This value is passed via gpg-agent to pinentry.  It is useful to
	      convey extra information to a custom pinentry.

       COLUMNS

       LINES  Used to size some	displays to the	full size of the screen.

       LANGUAGE
	      Apart from its use by GNU, it is used  in	 the  W32  version  to
	      override	the  language selection	done through the Registry.  If
	      used and set to a	valid and available  language  name  (langid),
	      the file with the	translation is loaded from

	      gpgdir/gnupg.nls/langid.mo.  Here	gpgdir is the directory	out of
	      which the	gpg binary has been loaded.  If	it can't be loaded the
	      Registry	is  tried and as last resort the native	Windows	locale
	      system is	used.

BUGS
       On older	systems	this program should be installed as setuid(root). This
       is  necessary  to  lock memory pages. Locking memory pages prevents the
       operating  system  from	writing	 memory	 pages	(which	 may   contain
       passphrases or other sensitive material)	to disk. If you	get no warning
       message about insecure memory your operating  system  supports  locking
       without being root. The program drops root privileges as	soon as	locked
       memory is allocated.

       Note also that some systems (especially laptops)	have  the  ability  to
       ``suspend  to  disk''  (also known as ``safe sleep'' or ``hibernate'').
       This writes all memory to disk before going into	a low  power  or  even
       powered off mode.  Unless measures are taken in the operating system to
       protect the saved memory, passphrases or	other sensitive	 material  may
       be recoverable from it later.

       Before  you  report  a bug you should first search the mailing list ar-
       chives for similar problems and second check whether such a bug has al-
       ready been reported to our bug tracker at http://bugs.gnupg.org .

SEE ALSO
       gpgv(1),	gpgsm(1), gpg-agent(1)

       The full	documentation for this tool is maintained as a Texinfo manual.
       If GnuPG	and the	info program are properly installed at your site,  the
       command

	 info gnupg

       should  give  you access	to the complete	manual including a menu	struc-
       ture and	an index.

GnuPG 2.0.30			  2017-07-08			       GPG2(1)

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | RETURN VALUE | WARNINGS | INTEROPERABILITY | COMMANDS | OPTIONS | EXAMPLES | HOW TO SPECIFY A USER ID | FILES | BUGS | SEE ALSO

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