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GPG(1)			     GNU Privacy Guard 1.4			GPG(1)

NAME
       gpg - OpenPGP encryption	and signing tool

SYNOPSIS
       gpg [--homedir dir] [--options file] [options] command [args]

DESCRIPTION
       gpg is the OpenPGP only version of the GNU Privacy Guard	(GnuPG). It is
       a tool to provide digital encryption and	 signing  services  using  the
       OpenPGP	standard.  gpg	features complete key management and all bells
       and whistles you	can expect from	a decent OpenPGP implementation.

       This is the standalone version of gpg.  For desktop use you should con-
       sider using gpg2	from the GnuPG-2 package
	([On some platforms gpg2 is installed under the	name gpg]).

RETURN VALUE
       The program returns 0 if	everything was fine, 1 if at least a signature
       was bad,	and other error	codes for fatal	errors.

WARNINGS
       Use a *good* password for your user account and a *good*	passphrase  to
       protect	your  secret  key.  This passphrase is the weakest part	of the
       whole system. Programs to do dictionary attacks on your secret  keyring
       are  very  easy	to  write  and	so you should protect your "~/.gnupg/"
       directory very well.

       Keep in mind that, if this program is used over a network (telnet),  it
       is *very* easy to spy out your passphrase!

       If you are going	to verify detached signatures, make sure that the pro-
       gram knows about	it; either give	both filenames on the command line  or
       use '-' to specify STDIN.

INTEROPERABILITY
       GnuPG  tries  to	be a very flexible implementation of the OpenPGP stan-
       dard. In	particular, GnuPG implements many of the optional parts	of the
       standard,  such as the SHA-512 hash, and	the ZLIB and BZIP2 compression
       algorithms. It is important to be aware that not	all  OpenPGP  programs
       implement  these	 optional algorithms and that by forcing their use via
       the --cipher-algo, --digest-algo,  --cert-digest-algo,  or  --compress-
       algo  options  in  GnuPG,  it  is  possible to create a perfectly valid
       OpenPGP message,	but one	that cannot be read by the intended recipient.

       There are dozens	of variations of OpenPGP programs available, and  each
       supports	a slightly different subset of these optional algorithms.  For
       example,	until recently,	no (unhacked) version  of  PGP	supported  the
       BLOWFISH	cipher algorithm. A message using BLOWFISH simply could	not be
       read by a PGP user. By default, GnuPG uses the standard OpenPGP prefer-
       ences  system  that  will always	do the right thing and create messages
       that are	usable by all recipients, regardless of	which OpenPGP  program
       they  use.  Only	override this safe default if you really know what you
       are doing.

       If you absolutely must override the safe	default, or if the preferences
       on  a  given  key  are  invalid for some	reason,	you are	far better off
       using the --pgp6, --pgp7, or --pgp8 options. These options are safe  as
       they  do	 not  force any	particular algorithms in violation of OpenPGP,
       but rather reduce the available algorithms to a "PGP-safe" list.

COMMANDS
       Commands	are not	distinguished from options except for  the  fact  that
       only one	command	is allowed.

       gpg  may	 be run	with no	commands, in which case	it will	perform	a rea-
       sonable action depending	on the type of file it is given	as  input  (an
       encrypted  message  is  decrypted, a signature is verified, a file con-
       taining keys is listed).

       Please remember that option as well as command parsing stops as soon as
       a  non-option  is encountered, you can explicitly stop parsing by using
       the special option --.

   Commands not	specific to the	function

       --version
	      Print the	program	version	and licensing information.  Note  that
	      you cannot abbreviate this command.

       --help

       -h     Print  a	usage message summarizing the most useful command line
	      options.	Note that you cannot abbreviate	this command.

       --warranty
	      Print warranty information.

       --dump-options
	      Print a list of all available options and	commands.   Note  that
	      you cannot abbreviate this command.

   Commands to select the type of operation

       --sign

       -s     Make  a  signature.  This	command	may be combined	with --encrypt
	      (for a signed and	encrypted message), --symmetric	(for a	signed
	      and symmetrically	encrypted message), or --encrypt and --symmet-
	      ric together (for	a signed message that may be decrypted	via  a
	      secret  key or a passphrase).  The key to	be used	for signing is
	      chosen by	default	or  can	 be  set  with	the  --local-user  and
	      --default-key options.

       --clearsign
	      Make a clear text	signature.  The	content	in a clear text	signa-
	      ture is readable without any special software. OpenPGP  software
	      is  only	needed to verify the signature.	 Clear text signatures
	      may modify end-of-line whitespace	for platform independence  and
	      are not intended to be reversible.  The key to be	used for sign-
	      ing is chosen by default or can be set with the --local-user and
	      --default-key options.

       --detach-sign

       -b     Make a detached signature.

       --encrypt

       -e     Encrypt  data.  This  option  may	be combined with --sign	(for a
	      signed and encrypted message), --symmetric (for a	 message  that
	      may  be  decrypted  via a	secret key or a	passphrase), or	--sign
	      and --symmetric together (for  a	signed	message	 that  may  be
	      decrypted	via a secret key or a passphrase).

       --symmetric

       -c     Encrypt  with a symmetric	cipher using a passphrase. The default
	      symmetric	cipher used is AES128, but  may	 be  chosen  with  the
	      --cipher-algo  option.  This  option may be combined with	--sign
	      (for a signed and	symmetrically  encrypted  message),  --encrypt
	      (for  a  message	that  may  be  decrypted via a secret key or a
	      passphrase), or --sign and --encrypt together (for a signed mes-
	      sage that	may be decrypted via a secret key or a passphrase).

       --store
	      Store only (make a simple	RFC1991	literal	data packet).

       --decrypt

       -d     Decrypt  the file	given on the command line (or STDIN if no file
	      is specified) and	write it to STDOUT (or the file	specified with
	      --output).  If  the  decrypted  file is signed, the signature is
	      also verified. This command differs from the default  operation,
	      as it never writes to the	filename which is included in the file
	      and it rejects files which don't begin with  an  encrypted  mes-
	      sage.

       --verify
	      Assume  that  the	 first argument	is a signed file and verify it
	      without generating any output.  With no arguments, the signature
	      packet  is read from STDIN.  If only a one argument is given, it
	      is expected to be	a complete signature.

	      With more	than 1 argument, the first should be a detached	signa-
	      ture and the remaining files ake up the the signed data. To read
	      the signed data from STDIN, use '-' as the second	filename.  For
	      security	reasons	 a  detached  signature	cannot read the	signed
	      material from STDIN without denoting it in the above way.

	      Note: If the option --batch is not used, gpg may assume  that  a
	      single  argument is a file with a	detached signature and it will
	      try to find a matching data file by stripping certain  suffixes.
	      Using  this historical feature to	verify a detached signature is
	      strongly discouraged; always specify the data file too.

	      Note: When verifying a cleartext signature,  gpg	verifies  only
	      what  makes  up the cleartext signed data	and not	any extra data
	      outside of the cleartext signature  or  header  lines  following
	      directly	the dash marker	line.  The option --output may be used
	      to write out the actual signed data; but there  are  other  pit-
	      falls with this format as	well.  It is suggested to avoid	clear-
	      text signatures in favor of detached signatures.

       --multifile
	      This modifies certain other commands to  accept  multiple	 files
	      for  processing on the command line or read from STDIN with each
	      filename on a separate line. This	allows for many	 files	to  be
	      processed	 at once. --multifile may currently be used along with
	      --verify,	--encrypt, and --decrypt. Note that --multifile	--ver-
	      ify may not be used with detached	signatures.

       --verify-files
	      Identical	to --multifile --verify.

       --encrypt-files
	      Identical	to --multifile --encrypt.

       --decrypt-files
	      Identical	to --multifile --decrypt.

       --list-keys

       -k

       --list-public-keys
	      List  all	 keys from the public keyrings,	or just	the keys given
	      on the command line.

	      -k is slightly different from --list-keys	in that	it allows only
	      for one argument and takes the second argument as	the keyring to
	      search.  This is for command line	compatibility with PGP	2  and
	      has been removed in gpg2.

	      Avoid  using the output of this command in scripts or other pro-
	      grams as it is likely to change as GnuPG	changes.  See  --with-
	      colons  for  a  machine-parseable	 key  listing  command that is
	      appropriate for use in scripts and other programs.

       --list-secret-keys

       -K     List all keys from the secret keyrings, or just the  ones	 given
	      on  the  command	line. A	# after	the letters sec	means that the
	      secret key is not	usable (for example, if	 it  was  created  via
	      --export-secret-subkeys).

       --list-sigs
	      Same as --list-keys, but the signatures are listed too.

	      For  each	 signature  listed, there are several flags in between
	      the "sig"	tag and	keyid. These flags give	additional information
	      about  each  signature. From left	to right, they are the numbers
	      1-3 for certificate check	level (see --ask-cert-level), "L"  for
	      a	local or non-exportable	signature (see --lsign-key), "R" for a
	      nonRevocable signature (see the  --edit-key  command  "nrsign"),
	      "P"  for a signature that	contains a policy URL (see --cert-pol-
	      icy-url),	"N" for	a signature  that  contains  a	notation  (see
	      --cert-notation),	 "X" for an eXpired signature (see --ask-cert-
	      expire), and the numbers 1-9 or "T" for 10 and above to indicate
	      trust signature levels (see the --edit-key command "tsign").

       --check-sigs
	      Same as --list-sigs, but the signatures are verified.  Note that
	      for performance reasons the revocation status of a  signing  key
	      is not shown.

	      The  status  of the verification is indicated by a flag directly
	      following	the "sig" tag (and thus	 before	 the  flags  described
	      above  for --list-sigs).	A "!" indicates	that the signature has
	      been successfully	verified, a "-"	denotes	a bad signature	and  a
	      "%"  is  used  if	an error occurred while	checking the signature
	      (e.g. a non supported algorithm).

       --fingerprint
	      List all keys (or	the specified ones) along with	their  finger-
	      prints.  This  is	 the  same  output as --list-keys but with the
	      additional output	of a line with the fingerprint.	 May  also  be
	      combined	with  --list-sigs or --check-sigs.  If this command is
	      given twice, the fingerprints of all secondary keys  are	listed
	      too.

       --list-packets
	      List  only  the  sequence	 of packets. This is mainly useful for
	      debugging.

       --card-edit
	      Present a	menu to	work with a smartcard. The  subcommand	"help"
	      provides	an  overview  on  available  commands.	For a detailed
	      description, please see the Card HOWTO at	https://gnupg.org/doc-
	      umentation/howtos.html#GnuPG-cardHOWTO .

       --card-status
	      Show the content of the smart card.

       --change-pin
	      Present  a  menu	to allow changing the PIN of a smartcard. This
	      functionality is also available as the subcommand	"passwd"  with
	      the --card-edit command.

       --delete-key name
	      Remove  key  from	the public keyring. In batch mode either --yes
	      is required or the key must be specified by fingerprint. This is
	      a	safeguard against accidental deletion of multiple keys.

       --delete-secret-key name
	      Remove  key  from	the secret keyring. In batch mode the key must
	      be specified by fingerprint.

       --delete-secret-and-public-key name
	      Same as --delete-key, but	if a secret key	 exists,  it  will  be
	      removed  first.  In batch	mode the key must be specified by fin-
	      gerprint.

       --export
	      Either export all	keys from all keyrings (default	 keyrings  and
	      those  registered	via option --keyring), or if at	least one name
	      is given,	those of the given name. The exported keys are written
	      to  STDOUT  or  to  the  file  given  with option	--output.  Use
	      together with --armor to mail those keys.

       --send-keys key IDs
	      Similar to --export but sends the	keys to	a keyserver.   Finger-
	      prints  may  be used instead of key IDs. Option --keyserver must
	      be used to give the name of this keyserver. Don't	send your com-
	      plete  keyring  to  a keyserver --- select only those keys which
	      are new or changed by you.  If no	key IDs	are  given,  gpg  does
	      nothing.

       --export-secret-keys

       --export-secret-subkeys
	      Same  as	--export,  but	exports	 the secret keys instead.  The
	      exported keys are	written	to STDOUT or to	the  file  given  with
	      option  --output.	  This	command	 is  often used	along with the
	      option --armor to	allow easy  printing  of  the  key  for	 paper
	      backup; however the external tool	paperkey does a	better job for
	      creating backups on paper.  Note that exporting a	secret key can
	      be  a  security risk if the exported keys	are send over an inse-
	      cure channel.

	      The second form of the command has the special property to  ren-
	      der  the	secret	part of	the primary key	useless; this is a GNU
	      extension	to  OpenPGP  and  other	 implementations  can  not  be
	      expected to successfully import such a key.  Its intended	use is
	      to generated a full key with an additional signing subkey	 on  a
	      dedicated	 machine and then using	this command to	export the key
	      without the primary key to the main machine.

	      See the option --simple-sk-checksum if you  want	to  import  an
	      exported secret key into ancient OpenPGP implementations.

       --import

       --fast-import
	      Import/merge  keys. This adds the	given keys to the keyring. The
	      fast version is currently	just a synonym.

	      There are	a few other options which  control  how	 this  command
	      works.   Most  notable  here  is the --import-options merge-only
	      option which does	not insert new keys but	does only the  merging
	      of new signatures, user-IDs and subkeys.

       --recv-keys key IDs
	      Import  the keys with the	given key IDs from a keyserver.	Option
	      --keyserver must be used to give the name	of this	keyserver.

       --refresh-keys
	      Request updates from a keyserver for keys	that already exist  on
	      the  local  keyring.  This is useful for updating	a key with the
	      latest signatures, user IDs, etc.	Calling	this with no arguments
	      will refresh the entire keyring. Option --keyserver must be used
	      to give the name of the keyserver	for all	keys that do not  have
	      preferred	 keyservers  set  (see	--keyserver-options honor-key-
	      server-url).

       --search-keys names
	      Search the keyserver for the given names.	Multiple  names	 given
	      here will	be joined together to create the search	string for the
	      keyserver.  Option --keyserver must be used to give the name  of
	      this  keyserver.	Keyservers that	support	different search meth-
	      ods allow	using the syntax specified in "How to specify  a  user
	      ID" below. Note that different keyserver types support different
	      search methods. Currently	only LDAP supports them	all.

       --fetch-keys URIs
	      Retrieve keys located at the specified URIs. Note	that different
	      installations  of	 GnuPG	may support different protocols	(HTTP,
	      FTP, LDAP, etc.)

       --update-trustdb
	      Do trust database	maintenance. This command  iterates  over  all
	      keys and builds the Web of Trust.	This is	an interactive command
	      because it may have to ask for the "ownertrust" values for keys.
	      The  user	 has  to  give an estimation of	how far	she trusts the
	      owner of the displayed key to  correctly	certify	 (sign)	 other
	      keys. GnuPG only asks for	the ownertrust value if	it has not yet
	      been assigned to a key. Using the	--edit-key menu, the  assigned
	      value can	be changed at any time.

       --check-trustdb
	      Do  trust	 database  maintenance	without	user interaction. From
	      time to time the trust database must be updated so that  expired
	      keys or signatures and the resulting changes in the Web of Trust
	      can be tracked. Normally,	GnuPG  will  calculate	when  this  is
	      required	and do it automatically	unless --no-auto-check-trustdb
	      is set. This command can be used to force	a trust	database check
	      at  any  time.  The processing is	identical to that of --update-
	      trustdb but it skips keys	with a not yet defined "ownertrust".

	      For use with cron	jobs, this command can be used	together  with
	      --batch in which case the	trust database check is	done only if a
	      check is needed. To force	a run  even  in	 batch	mode  add  the
	      option --yes.

       --export-ownertrust
	      Send  the	ownertrust values to STDOUT. This is useful for	backup
	      purposes as these	values are the only ones which	can't  be  re-
	      created from a corrupted trustdb.	 Example:
		  gpg --export-ownertrust > otrust.txt

       --import-ownertrust
	      Update  the  trustdb  with the ownertrust	values stored in files
	      (or STDIN	if not given); existing	values	will  be  overwritten.
	      In  case	of a severely damaged trustdb and if you have a	recent
	      backup of	the ownertrust values (e.g. in the file	 `otrust.txt',
	      you may re-create	the trustdb using these	commands:
		  cd ~/.gnupg
		  rm trustdb.gpg
		  gpg --import-ownertrust < otrust.txt

       --rebuild-keydb-caches
	      When updating from version 1.0.6 to 1.0.7	this command should be
	      used to create signature caches in  the  keyring.	 It  might  be
	      handy in other situations	too.

       --print-md algo

       --print-mds
	      Print  message  digest  of algorithm ALGO	for all	given files or
	      STDIN.  With the second form  (or	 a  deprecated	"*"  as	 algo)
	      digests for all available	algorithms are printed.

       --gen-random 0|1|2 count
	      Emit count random	bytes of the given quality level 0, 1 or 2. If
	      count is not given or zero, an endless sequence of random	 bytes
	      will be emitted.	If used	with --armor the output	will be	base64
	      encoded.	PLEASE,	don't use this command unless  you  know  what
	      you are doing; it	may remove precious entropy from the system!

       --gen-prime mode	bits
	      Use  the source, Luke :-). The output format is still subject to
	      change.

       --enarmor

       --dearmor
	      Pack or unpack an	arbitrary input	 into/from  an	OpenPGP	 ASCII
	      armor.   This is a GnuPG extension to OpenPGP and	in general not
	      very useful.

   How to manage your keys

       This section explains the main commands for key management

       --gen-key
	      Generate a new key pair using the	 current  default  parameters.
	      This is the standard command to create a new key.

	      There is also a feature which allows you to create keys in batch
	      mode. See	the the	manual section ``Unattended  key  generation''
	      on how to	use this.

       --gen-revoke name
	      Generate	a  revocation  certificate  for	 the  complete key. To
	      revoke a subkey or a signature, use the --edit command.

       --desig-revoke name
	      Generate a designated revocation certificate  for	 a  key.  This
	      allows  a	 user (with the	permission of the keyholder) to	revoke
	      someone else's key.

       --edit-key
	      Present a	menu which enables you to do most of the  key  manage-
	      ment  related  tasks.   It expects the specification of a	key on
	      the command line.

	      uid n  Toggle selection of user ID or photographic user ID  with
		     index n.  Use * to	select all and 0 to deselect all.

	      key n  Toggle selection of subkey	with index n.  Use * to	select
		     all and 0 to deselect all.

	      sign   Make a signature on key of	user name If the  key  is  not
		     yet  signed  by the default user (or the users given with
		     -u), the program displays	the  information  of  the  key
		     again,  together with its fingerprint and asks whether it
		     should be signed. This question is	repeated for all users
		     specified with -u.

	      lsign  Same  as  "sign"  but  the	 signature  is	marked as non-
		     exportable	and will therefore never be  used  by  others.
		     This  may	be  used  to make keys valid only in the local
		     environment.

	      nrsign Same as "sign" but	the signature is marked	as non-revoca-
		     ble and can therefore never be revoked.

	      tsign  Make a trust signature. This is a signature that combines
		     the notions of certification (like	a regular  signature),
		     and  trust	 (like	the  "trust" command). It is generally
		     only useful in distinct communities or groups.

	      Note that	"l" (for local / non-exportable), "nr" (for  non-revo-
	      cable,  and  "t" (for trust) may be freely mixed and prefixed to
	      "sign" to	create a signature of any type desired.

	      delsig Delete a signature. Note  that  it	 is  not  possible  to
		     retract  a	signature, once	it has been send to the	public
		     (i.e. to a	keyserver).   In  that	case  you  better  use
		     revsig.

	      revsig Revoke  a	signature.  For	every signature	which has been
		     generated by one of the secret keys, GnuPG	asks whether a
		     revocation	certificate should be generated.

	      check  Check the signatures on all selected user IDs.

	      adduid Create an additional user ID.

	      addphoto
		     Create  a	photographic  user  ID.	This will prompt for a
		     JPEG file that will be embedded into the  user  ID.  Note
		     that  a  very  large JPEG will make for a very large key.
		     Also note that  some  programs  will  display  your  JPEG
		     unchanged (GnuPG),	and some programs will scale it	to fit
		     in	a dialog box (PGP).

	      showphoto
		     Display the selected photographic user ID.

	      deluid Delete a user ID or photographic user ID.	Note  that  it
		     is	 not  possible	to retract a user id, once it has been
		     send to the public	(i.e. to a keyserver).	In  that  case
		     you better	use revuid.

	      revuid Revoke a user ID or photographic user ID.

	      primary
		     Flag  the current user id as the primary one, removes the
		     primary user id flag from all other user ids and sets the
		     timestamp	of  all	 affected  self-signatures  one	second
		     ahead. Note that setting a	photo user ID as primary makes
		     it	primary	over other photo user IDs, and setting a regu-
		     lar user ID as primary makes it primary over other	 regu-
		     lar user IDs.

	      keyserver
		     Set  a  preferred keyserver for the specified user	ID(s).
		     This allows other users to	know where you prefer they get
		     your  key	from. See --keyserver-options honor-keyserver-
		     url for more on how  this	works.	 Setting  a  value  of
		     "none" removes an existing	preferred keyserver.

	      notation
		     Set  a  name=value	notation for the specified user	ID(s).
		     See --cert-notation for more on how this works. Setting a
		     value of "none" removes all notations, setting a notation
		     prefixed with a minus sign	(-) removes that notation, and
		     setting  a	 notation  name	 (without the =value) prefixed
		     with a minus sign removes all notations with that name.

	      pref   List preferences from the selected	user  ID.  This	 shows
		     the  actual  preferences,	without	 including any implied
		     preferences.

	      showpref
		     More verbose preferences listing for  the	selected  user
		     ID. This shows the	preferences in effect by including the
		     implied preferences of 3DES (cipher), SHA-1 (digest), and
		     Uncompressed   (compression)  if  they  are  not  already
		     included in the preference	list. In  addition,  the  pre-
		     ferred  keyserver	and  signature	notations (if any) are
		     shown.

	      setpref string
		     Set the list of user ID preferences to string for all (or
		     just  the	selected)  user	 IDs.  Calling setpref with no
		     arguments sets the	preference list	to the default (either
		     built-in or set via --default-preference-list), and call-
		     ing setpref with "none" as	the  argument  sets  an	 empty
		     preference	 list.	Use  gpg  --version  to	 get a list of
		     available algorithms. Note	that while you can change  the
		     preferences  on  an  attribute  user ID (aka "photo ID"),
		     GnuPG does	not select keys	 via  attribute	 user  IDs  so
		     these preferences will not	be used	by GnuPG.

		     When  setting preferences,	you should list	the algorithms
		     in	the order which	you'd like to see them used by someone
		     else when encrypting a message to your key.  If you don't
		     include 3DES, it will be automatically added at the  end.
		     Note that there are many factors that go into choosing an
		     algorithm (for example, your key  may  not	 be  the  only
		     recipient),  and  so the remote OpenPGP application being
		     used to send to you may or	may not	follow your exact cho-
		     sen  order	 for  a	given message.	It will, however, only
		     choose an algorithm that is  present  on  the  preference
		     list of every recipient key.  See also the	INTEROPERABIL-
		     ITY WITH OTHER OPENPGP PROGRAMS section below.

	      addkey Add a subkey to this key.

	      addcardkey
		     Generate a	subkey on a card and add it to this key.

	      keytocard
		     Transfer the selected secret subkey (or the  primary  key
		     if	 no  subkey  has  been	selected)  to a	smartcard. The
		     secret key	in the keyring will be replaced	by a  stub  if
		     the  key could be stored successfully on the card and you
		     use the save command later. Only certain key types	may be
		     transferred  to the card. A sub menu allows you to	select
		     on	what card to store the key. Note that it is not	possi-
		     ble to get	that key back from the card - if the card gets
		     broken your secret	key will be lost  unless  you  have  a
		     backup somewhere.

	      bkuptocard file
		     Restore  the  given  file	to a card. This	command	may be
		     used to restore a backup key (as  generated  during  card
		     initialization)  to  a new	card. In almost	all cases this
		     will be the encryption key. You should use	 this  command
		     only with the corresponding public	key and	make sure that
		     the file given  as	 argument  is  indeed  the  backup  to
		     restore.  You  should then	select 2 to restore as encryp-
		     tion  key.	  You  will  first  be	asked  to  enter   the
		     passphrase	 of  the backup	key and	then for the Admin PIN
		     of	the card.

	      delkey Remove a subkey (secondart	key). Note that	it is not pos-
		     sible  to	retract	a subkey, once it has been send	to the
		     public (i.e. to a keyserver).  In that  case  you	better
		     use revkey.

	      revkey Revoke a subkey.

	      expire Change  the key or	subkey expiration time.	If a subkey is
		     selected, the expiration time  of	this  subkey  will  be
		     changed.  With  no	 selection,  the key expiration	of the
		     primary key is changed.

	      trust  Change the	owner trust value for the  key.	 This  updates
		     the trust-db immediately and no save is required.

	      disable

	      enable Disable  or  enable an entire key.	A disabled key can not
		     normally be used for encryption.

	      addrevoker
		     Add a designated revoker  to  the	key.  This  takes  one
		     optional  argument:  "sensitive". If a designated revoker
		     is	marked as  sensitive,  it  will	 not  be  exported  by
		     default (see export-options).

	      passwd Change the	passphrase of the secret key.

	      toggle Toggle between public and secret key listing.

	      clean  Compact  (by  removing all	signatures except the selfsig)
		     any user ID that is no longer usable  (e.g.  revoked,  or
		     expired). Then, remove any	signatures that	are not	usable
		     by	the trust calculations.	  Specifically,	 this  removes
		     any  signature that does not validate, any	signature that
		     is	superseded by a	later signature,  revoked  signatures,
		     and signatures issued by keys that	are not	present	on the
		     keyring.

	      minimize
		     Make the key as small as possible.	This removes all  sig-
		     natures  from  each  user	ID  except for the most	recent
		     self-signature.

	      cross-certify
		     Add cross-certification  signatures  to  signing  subkeys
		     that  may	not  currently	have them. Cross-certification
		     signatures	protect	against	a subtle attack	against	 sign-
		     ing  subkeys. See --require-cross-certification.  All new
		     keys generated have this signature	by  default,  so  this
		     option is only useful to bring older keys up to date.

	      save   Save all changes to the key rings and quit.

	      quit   Quit the program without updating the key rings.

	      The  listing  shows  you the key with its	secondary keys and all
	      user ids.	 The primary user  id  is  indicated  by  a  dot,  and
	      selected	keys  or  user	ids are	indicated by an	asterisk.  The
	      trust value is displayed with the	primary	key: the first is  the
	      assigned	owner  trust  and  the	second is the calculated trust
	      value. Letters are used for the values:

	      -	     No	ownertrust assigned / not yet calculated.

	      e	     Trust calculation has failed; probably due	to an  expired
		     key.

	      q	     Not enough	information for	calculation.

	      n	     Never trust this key.

	      m	     Marginally	trusted.

	      f	     Fully trusted.

	      u	     Ultimately	trusted.

       --sign-key name
	      Signs a public key with your secret key. This is a shortcut ver-
	      sion of the subcommand "sign" from --edit.

       --lsign-key name
	      Signs a public key with your secret key but  marks  it  as  non-
	      exportable. This is a shortcut version of	the subcommand "lsign"
	      from --edit-key.

OPTIONS
       gpg features a bunch of options to control the exact behaviour  and  to
       change the default configuration.

       Long    options	  can	be   put   in	an   options   file   (default
       "~/.gnupg/gpg.conf"). Short option names	will not work -	 for  example,
       "armor"	is  a  valid option for	the options file, while	"a" is not. Do
       not write the 2 dashes, but simply the  name  of	 the  option  and  any
       required	 arguments.  Lines  with  a hash ('#') as the first non-white-
       space character are ignored. Commands may be put	in this	file too,  but
       that  is	not generally useful as	the command will execute automatically
       with every execution of gpg.

       Please remember that option parsing stops as soon as  a	non-option  is
       encountered,  you  can  explicitly  stop	 parsing  by using the special
       option --.

   How to change the configuration

       These options are used to change	 the  configuration  and  are  usually
       found in	the option file.

       --default-key name
	      Use  name	as the default key to sign with. If this option	is not
	      used, the	default	key is the  first  key	found  in  the	secret
	      keyring.	Note that -u or	--local-user overrides this option.

       --default-recipient name
	      Use  name	as default recipient if	option --recipient is not used
	      and don't	ask if this is a valid one. name must be non-empty.

       --default-recipient-self
	      Use the default key as default recipient if  option  --recipient
	      is  not  used  and don't ask if this is a	valid one. The default
	      key is the first one from	the secret keyring or the one set with
	      --default-key.

       --no-default-recipient
	      Reset --default-recipient	and --default-recipient-self.

       -v, --verbose
	      Give  more  information  during  processing.  If used twice, the
	      input data is listed in detail.

       --no-verbose
	      Reset verbose level to 0.

       -q, --quiet
	      Try to be	as quiet as possible.

       --batch

       --no-batch
	      Use batch	mode.  Never ask, do not allow	interactive  commands.
	      --no-batch  disables  this option.  This option is commonly used
	      for unattended operations.

	      WARNING: Unattended operation  bears  a  higher  risk  of	 being
	      exposed  to  security attacks.  In particular any	unattended use
	      of GnuPG which involves the use of secret	keys should take  care
	      not to provide an	decryption oracle.  There are several standard
	      pre-cautions against being used as an oracle.  For example never
	      return  detailed	error  messages	 or any	diagnostics printed by
	      your software to the remote site.	 Consult  with	an  expert  in
	      case of doubt.

	      Note  that  even	with a filename	given on the command line, gpg
	      might still need to read from STDIN (in particular if  gpg  fig-
	      ures that	the input is a detached	signature and no data file has
	      been specified).	Thus if	you do	not  want  to  feed  data  via
	      STDIN, you should	connect	STDIN to `/dev/null'.

       --no-tty
	      Make  sure that the TTY (terminal) is never used for any output.
	      This option is needed in	some  cases  because  GnuPG  sometimes
	      prints warnings to the TTY even if --batch is used.

       --yes  Assume "yes" on most questions.

       --no   Assume "no" on most questions.

       --list-options parameters
	      This  is	a  space  or comma delimited string that gives options
	      used when	listing	keys and  signatures  (that  is,  --list-keys,
	      --list-sigs,  --list-public-keys,	 --list-secret-keys,  and  the
	      --edit-key functions).  Options can  be  prepended  with	a  no-
	      (after  the  two	dashes)	 to  give  the	opposite meaning.  The
	      options are:

	      show-photos
		     Causes --list-keys, --list-sigs, --list-public-keys,  and
		     --list-secret-keys	 to  display any photo IDs attached to
		     the key.  Defaults	to no. See also	--photo-viewer.	  Does
		     not  work	with --with-colons: see	--attribute-fd for the
		     appropriate way to	get photo data for scripts  and	 other
		     frontends.

	      show-usage
		     Show  usage information for keys and subkeys in the stan-
		     dard key listing.	This is	a list of  letters  indicating
		     the  allowed  usage  for  a key (E=encryption, S=signing,
		     C=certification, A=authentication).  Defaults to no.

	      show-policy-urls
		     Show policy URLs in the --list-sigs or --check-sigs list-
		     ings.  Defaults to	no.

	      show-notations

	      show-std-notations

	      show-user-notations
		     Show  all,	IETF standard, or user-defined signature nota-
		     tions  in	the  --list-sigs  or  --check-sigs   listings.
		     Defaults to no.

	      show-keyserver-urls
		     Show  any	preferred  keyserver URL in the	--list-sigs or
		     --check-sigs listings. Defaults to	no.

	      show-uid-validity
		     Display the calculated validity of	user  IDs  during  key
		     listings.	Defaults to no.

	      show-unusable-uids
		     Show  revoked  and	 expired  user	IDs  in	 key listings.
		     Defaults to no.

	      show-unusable-subkeys
		     Show  revoked  and	 expired  subkeys  in  key   listings.
		     Defaults to no.

	      show-keyring
		     Display  the  keyring name	at the head of key listings to
		     show which	keyring	a given	key resides  on.  Defaults  to
		     no.

	      show-sig-expire
		     Show  signature  expiration dates (if any)	during --list-
		     sigs or --check-sigs listings. Defaults to	no.

	      show-sig-subpackets
		     Include signature subpackets in  the  key	listing.  This
		     option can	take an	optional argument list of the subpack-
		     ets to list. If no	argument is passed, list all  subpack-
		     ets.  Defaults to no. This	option is only meaningful when
		     using --with-colons along with  --list-sigs  or  --check-
		     sigs.

       --verify-options	parameters
	      This  is	a  space  or comma delimited string that gives options
	      used when	verifying signatures. Options can be prepended with  a
	      `no-' to give the	opposite meaning. The options are:

	      show-photos
		     Display  any photo	IDs present on the key that issued the
		     signature.	 Defaults to no. See also --photo-viewer.

	      show-policy-urls
		     Show  policy  URLs	 in  the  signature  being   verified.
		     Defaults to no.

	      show-notations

	      show-std-notations

	      show-user-notations
		     Show  all,	IETF standard, or user-defined signature nota-
		     tions in the signature being verified. Defaults  to  IETF
		     standard.

	      show-keyserver-urls
		     Show  any	preferred keyserver URL	in the signature being
		     verified.	Defaults to no.

	      show-uid-validity
		     Display the calculated validity of	the user  IDs  on  the
		     key that issued the signature. Defaults to	no.

	      show-unusable-uids
		     Show  revoked and expired user IDs	during signature veri-
		     fication.	Defaults to no.

	      show-primary-uid-only
		     Show only the primary user	ID during signature  verifica-
		     tion.  That is all	the AKA	lines as well as photo Ids are
		     not shown with the	signature verification status.

	      pka-lookups
		     Enable PKA	lookups	to verify sender addresses. Note  that
		     PKA is based on DNS, and so enabling this option may dis-
		     close information on when and what	signatures  are	 veri-
		     fied or to	whom data is encrypted.	This is	similar	to the
		     "web bug" described for the auto-key-retrieve feature.

	      pka-trust-increase
		     Raise the trust in	a signature to full if	the  signature
		     passes  PKA validation. This option is only meaningful if
		     pka-lookups is set.

       --enable-large-rsa

       --disable-large-rsa
	      With --gen-key and --batch, enable the creation  of  larger  RSA
	      secret  keys  than  is  generally	recommended (up	to 8192	bits).
	      These large keys are more	expensive to use, and their signatures
	      and certifications are also larger.

       --enable-dsa2

       --disable-dsa2
	      Enable hash truncation for all DSA keys even for old DSA Keys up
	      to 1024 bit.  This is also the  default  with  --openpgp.	  Note
	      that  older  versions  of	GnuPG also required this flag to allow
	      the generation of	DSA larger than	1024 bit.

       --photo-viewer string
	      This is the command line that should be run to view a photo  ID.
	      "%i"  will  be expanded to a filename containing the photo. "%I"
	      does the same, except the	file will  not	be  deleted  once  the
	      viewer exits.  Other flags are "%k" for the key ID, "%K" for the
	      long key ID, "%f"	for the	key fingerprint, "%t" for  the	exten-
	      sion  of	the image type (e.g. "jpg"), "%T" for the MIME type of
	      the image	(e.g. "image/jpeg"),  "%v"  for	 the  single-character
	      calculated  validity  of the image being viewed (e.g. "f"), "%V"
	      for the calculated validity as a string (e.g.  "full"), "%U" for
	      a	 base32	 encoded  hash	of the user ID,	and "%%" for an	actual
	      percent sign. If neither %i or %I	are present,  then  the	 photo
	      will be supplied to the viewer on	standard input.

	      The  default  viewer  is	"xloadimage -fork -quiet -title	'KeyID
	      0x%k' STDIN". Note that if your  image  viewer  program  is  not
	      secure, then executing it	from GnuPG does	not make it secure.

       --exec-path string
	      Sets  a list of directories to search for	photo viewers and key-
	      server helpers. If not provided, keyserver helpers use the  com-
	      piled-in	default	 directory,  and  photo	 viewers use the $PATH
	      environment variable.  Note, that	on W32 system  this  value  is
	      ignored when searching for keyserver helpers.

       --keyring file
	      Add  file	to the current list of keyrings. If file begins	with a
	      tilde and	a slash, these are replaced by the $HOME directory. If
	      the  filename  does  not contain a slash,	it is assumed to be in
	      the GnuPG	home directory ("~/.gnupg" if --homedir	or  $GNUPGHOME
	      is not used).

	      Note that	this adds a keyring to the current list. If the	intent
	      is to use	the specified keyring alone, use --keyring along  with
	      --no-default-keyring.

       --secret-keyring	file
	      Same as --keyring	but for	the secret keyrings.

       --primary-keyring file
	      Designate	 file  as  the primary public keyring. This means that
	      newly imported keys (via --import	or keyserver --recv-from) will
	      go to this keyring.

       --trustdb-name file
	      Use  file	 instead of the	default	trustdb. If file begins	with a
	      tilde and	a slash, these are replaced by the $HOME directory. If
	      the  filename  does  not contain a slash,	it is assumed to be in
	      the GnuPG	home directory (`~/.gnupg' if --homedir	or  $GNUPGHOME
	      is not used).

       --homedir dir
	      Set the name of the home directory to dir. If this option	is not
	      used, the	home directory defaults	to  `~/.gnupg'.	  It  is  only
	      recognized  when	given  on the command line.  It	also overrides
	      any home	directory  stated  through  the	 environment  variable
	      `GNUPGHOME'  or  (on  Windows  systems) by means of the Registry
	      entry HKCU\Software\GNU\GnuPG:HomeDir.

	      On Windows systems it is possible	to install GnuPG as a portable
	      application.  In this case only this command line	option is con-
	      sidered, all other ways to set a home directory are ignored.

	      To install GnuPG as a portable application under Windows,	create
	      an  empty	 file  name `gpgconf.ctl' in the same directory	as the
	      tool `gpgconf.exe'.  The root of the installation	is  than  that
	      directory;  or,  if  `gpgconf.exe'  has  been installed directly
	      below a directory	named `bin', its parent	directory.   You  also
	      need  to	make sure that the following directories exist and are
	      writable:	   `ROOT/home'	  for	 the	GnuPG	  home	   and
	      `ROOT/var/cache/gnupg' for internal cache	files.

       --pcsc-driver file
	      Use  file	to access the smartcard	reader.	The current default is
	      `libpcsclite.so.1'   for	  GLIBC	   based    systems,	`/Sys-
	      tem/Library/Frameworks/PCSC.framework/PCSC'  for MAC OS X, `win-
	      scard.dll' for Windows and `libpcsclite.so' for other systems.

       --disable-ccid
	      Disable the integrated support for CCID compliant	readers.  This
	      allows  falling  back  to	 one  of the other drivers even	if the
	      internal CCID driver can handle the reader. Note,	that CCID sup-
	      port is only available if	libusb was available at	build time.

       --reader-port number_or_string
	      This  option  may	be used	to specify the port of the card	termi-
	      nal. A value of 0	refers to the first serial device;  add	 32768
	      to  access USB devices. The default is 32768 (first USB device).
	      PC/SC or CCID readers might need a string	here; run the  program
	      in  verbose mode to get a	list of	available readers. The default
	      is then the first	reader found.

       --display-charset name
	      Set the name of the native character set.	This is	used  to  con-
	      vert  some  informational	 strings  like	user IDs to the	proper
	      UTF-8 encoding.  Note that this has nothing to do	with the char-
	      acter  set  of  data  to	be encrypted or	signed;	GnuPG does not
	      recode user-supplied data. If  this  option  is  not  used,  the
	      default  character  set is determined from the current locale. A
	      verbosity	level of 3 shows the chosen  set.   Valid  values  for
	      name are:

	      iso-8859-1
		     This is the Latin 1 set.

	      iso-8859-2
		     The Latin 2 set.

	      iso-8859-15
		     This is currently an alias	for the	Latin 1	set.

	      koi8-r The usual Russian set (rfc1489).

	      utf-8  Bypass  all  translations	and  assume  that  the OS uses
		     native UTF-8 encoding.

       --utf8-strings

       --no-utf8-strings
	      Assume that command line arguments are given  as	UTF8  strings.
	      The  default (--no-utf8-strings) is to assume that arguments are
	      encoded in the character set as specified	by  --display-charset.
	      These  options  affect all following arguments. Both options may
	      be used multiple times.

       --options file
	      Read options from	file and do not	try  to	 read  them  from  the
	      default options file in the homedir (see --homedir). This	option
	      is ignored if used in an options file.

       --no-options
	      Shortcut for --options /dev/null.	This option is detected	before
	      an  attempt to open an option file.  Using this option will also
	      prevent the creation of a	`~/.gnupg' homedir.

       -z n

       --compress-level	n

       --bzip2-compress-level n
	      Set compression level to n for  the  ZIP	and  ZLIB  compression
	      algorithms.  The default is to use the default compression level
	      of zlib (normally	6). --bzip2-compress-level sets	 the  compres-
	      sion  level for the BZIP2	compression algorithm (defaulting to 6
	      as well).	This is	a different option from	--compress-level since
	      BZIP2  uses  a  significant amount of memory for each additional
	      compression level.  -z sets both.	A value	of 0  for  n  disables
	      compression.

       --bzip2-decompress-lowmem
	      Use a different decompression method for BZIP2 compressed	files.
	      This alternate method uses a bit more than half the memory,  but
	      also  runs  at  half the speed. This is useful under extreme low
	      memory circumstances when	the file was originally	compressed  at
	      a	high --bzip2-compress-level.

       --mangle-dos-filenames

       --no-mangle-dos-filenames
	      Older  version of	Windows	cannot handle filenames	with more than
	      one dot. --mangle-dos-filenames causes GnuPG to replace  (rather
	      than  add	 to) the extension of an output	filename to avoid this
	      problem. This option is off by default and has no	effect on non-
	      Windows platforms.

       --ask-cert-level

       --no-ask-cert-level
	      When  making  a key signature, prompt for	a certification	level.
	      If this option is	not specified, the certification level used is
	      set   via	 --default-cert-level.	See  --default-cert-level  for
	      information on the specific levels and how they are used.	 --no-
	      ask-cert-level disables this option. This	option defaults	to no.

       --default-cert-level n
	      The default to use for the check level when signing a key.

	      0	 means	you  make  no particular claim as to how carefully you
	      verified the key.

	      1	means you believe the key is owned by the person who claims to
	      own it but you could not,	or did not verify the key at all. This
	      is useful	for a "persona"	verification, where you	sign  the  key
	      of a pseudonymous	user.

	      2	 means	you  did  casual verification of the key. For example,
	      this could mean  that  you  verified  the	 key  fingerprint  and
	      checked the user ID on the key against a photo ID.

	      3	 means you did extensive verification of the key. For example,
	      this could mean that you verified	the key	fingerprint  with  the
	      owner  of	the key	in person, and that you	checked, by means of a
	      hard to forge document with a photo ID (such as a	passport) that
	      the name of the key owner	matches	the name in the	user ID	on the
	      key, and finally that you	verified (by exchange of  email)  that
	      the email	address	on the key belongs to the key owner.

	      Note  that  the examples given above for levels 2	and 3 are just
	      that: examples. In the end, it is	up to you to decide just  what
	      "casual" and "extensive" mean to you.

	      This option defaults to 0	(no particular claim).

       --min-cert-level
	      When  building  the  trust database, treat any signatures	with a
	      certification level below	this as	invalid. Defaults to 2,	 which
	      disregards  level	1 signatures. Note that	level 0	"no particular
	      claim" signatures	are always accepted.

       --trusted-key long key ID
	      Assume that the specified	key (which must	be given as a  full  8
	      byte  key	 ID) is	as trustworthy as one of your own secret keys.
	      This option is useful if you don't want to keep your secret keys
	      (or  one	of them) online	but still want to be able to check the
	      validity of a given recipient's or signator's key.

       --trust-model pgp|classic|direct|always|auto
	      Set what trust model GnuPG should	follow.	The models are:

	      pgp    This is the Web of	Trust combined with  trust  signatures
		     as	 used  in PGP 5.x and later. This is the default trust
		     model when	creating a new trust database.

	      classic
		     This is the standard Web of Trust as introduced by	PGP 2.

	      direct Key validity is set directly by the user and  not	calcu-
		     lated via the Web of Trust.

	      always Skip  key validation and assume that used keys are	always
		     fully valid. You generally	won't use this unless you  are
		     using  some  external validation scheme. This option also
		     suppresses	the "[uncertain]" tag printed  with  signature
		     checks  when  there  is  no  evidence that	the user ID is
		     bound to the key.	Note that this trust model still  does
		     not allow the use of expired, revoked, or disabled	keys.

	      auto   Select the	trust model depending on whatever the internal
		     trust database says. This is the default model if such  a
		     database already exists.

       --auto-key-locate parameters

       --no-auto-key-locate
	      GnuPG can	automatically locate and retrieve keys as needed using
	      this option. This	happens	when encrypting	to  an	email  address
	      (in  the	"user@example.com"  form), and there are no user@exam-
	      ple.com keys on the local	keyring.  This option takes any	number
	      of the following mechanisms, in the order	they are to be tried:

	      cert   Locate a key using	DNS CERT, as specified in rfc4398.

	      pka    Locate a key using	DNS PKA.

	      ldap   Using DNS Service Discovery, check	the domain in question
		     for any LDAP keyservers to	use.  If this  fails,  attempt
		     to	 locate	 the  key  using  the  PGP Universal method of
		     checking 'ldap://keys.(thedomain)'.

	      keyserver
		     Locate a key using	whatever keyserver  is	defined	 using
		     the --keyserver option.

	      keyserver-URL
		     In	 addition,  a keyserver	URL as used in the --keyserver
		     option may	be used	here to	 query	that  particular  key-
		     server.

	      local  Locate  the key using the local keyrings.	This mechanism
		     allows the	user to	select the order a local key lookup is
		     done.   Thus using	'--auto-key-locate local' is identical
		     to	--no-auto-key-locate.

	      nodefault
		     This flag disables	the standard local  key	 lookup,  done
		     before  any  of the mechanisms defined by the --auto-key-
		     locate are	tried.	The position of	this mechanism in  the
		     list  does	 not  matter.	It is not required if local is
		     also used.

	      clear  Clear all defined mechanisms.  This is useful to override
		     mechanisms	given in a config file.

       --keyid-format short|0xshort|long|0xlong
	      Select  how  to  display	key  IDs.  "short"  is the traditional
	      8-character key ID. "long" is the	more accurate (but less	conve-
	      nient)  16-character key ID. Add an "0x" to either to include an
	      "0x" at the beginning of the key ID,  as	in  0x99242560.	  Note
	      that this	option is ignored if the option	--with-colons is used.

       --keyserver name
	      Use name as your keyserver. This is the server that --recv-keys,
	      --send-keys, and --search-keys will communicate with to  receive
	      keys  from,  send	keys to, and search for	keys on. The format of
	      the name is a URI: `scheme:[//]keyservername[:port]' The	scheme
	      is  the  type  of	 keyserver: "hkp" for the HTTP (or compatible)
	      keyservers, "ldap" for the LDAP keyservers, or "mailto" for  the
	      Graff email keyserver. Note that your particular installation of
	      GnuPG may	have other keyserver types  available  as  well.  Key-
	      server  schemes  are case-insensitive. After the keyserver name,
	      optional keyserver configuration options may be provided.	 These
	      are  the	same as	the global --keyserver-options from below, but
	      apply only to this particular keyserver.

	      Most keyservers synchronize with each other, so there is	gener-
	      ally no need to send keys	to more	than one server. The keyserver
	      hkp://keys.gnupg.net uses	round robin DNS	to  give  a  different
	      keyserver	each time you use it.

       --keyserver-options name=value1
	      This is a	space or comma delimited string	that gives options for
	      the keyserver. Options can be prefixed with a `no-' to give  the
	      opposite	meaning. Valid import-options or export-options	may be
	      used here	as well	to apply to importing (--recv-key) or  export-
	      ing  (--send-key)	 a key from a keyserver. While not all options
	      are available for	all keyserver types, some common options are:

	      include-revoked
		     When searching for	a key with --search-keys, include keys
		     that  are	marked	on the keyserver as revoked. Note that
		     not all  keyservers  differentiate	 between  revoked  and
		     unrevoked	keys,  and  for	such keyservers	this option is
		     meaningless. Note also that most keyservers do  not  have
		     cryptographic  verification  of  key  revocations,	and so
		     turning this option off may result	in skipping keys  that
		     are incorrectly marked as revoked.

	      include-disabled
		     When searching for	a key with --search-keys, include keys
		     that are marked on	the keyserver as disabled.  Note  that
		     this option is not	used with HKP keyservers.

	      auto-key-retrieve
		     This option enables the automatic retrieving of keys from
		     a keyserver when verifying	signatures made	by  keys  that
		     are not on	the local keyring.

		     Note  that	 this  option  makes a "web bug" like behavior
		     possible.	Keyserver operators can	 see  which  keys  you
		     request,  so  by  sending you a message signed by a brand
		     new key (which you	naturally will not have	on your	 local
		     keyring),	the operator can tell both your	IP address and
		     the time when you verified	the signature.

	      honor-keyserver-url
		     When using	--refresh-keys,	if the key in question	has  a
		     preferred	keyserver  URL,	 then  use that	preferred key-
		     server to refresh the key from. In	addition, if auto-key-
		     retrieve  is  set,	and the	signature being	verified has a
		     preferred keyserver URL, then  use	 that  preferred  key-
		     server to fetch the key from. Defaults to yes.

	      honor-pka-record
		     If	auto-key-retrieve is set, and the signature being ver-
		     ified has a PKA record, then use the PKA  information  to
		     fetch the key. Defaults to	yes.

	      include-subkeys
		     When  receiving  a	key, include subkeys as	potential tar-
		     gets. Note	that this option is not	 used  with  HKP  key-
		     servers, as they do not support retrieving	keys by	subkey
		     id.

	      use-temp-files
		     On	most Unix-like platforms, GnuPG	communicates with  the
		     keyserver	helper	program	 via  pipes, which is the most
		     efficient method. This option forces GnuPG	to use	tempo-
		     rary  files  to  communicate.  On some platforms (such as
		     Win32 and RISC OS), this option is	always enabled.

	      keep-temp-files
		     If	using `use-temp-files',	do not delete the  temp	 files
		     after using them. This option is useful to	learn the key-
		     server communication protocol by  reading	the  temporary
		     files.

	      verbose
		     Tell  the	keyserver  helper  program to be more verbose.
		     This option can be	repeated multiple  times  to  increase
		     the verbosity level.

	      timeout
		     Tell  the	keyserver helper program how long (in seconds)
		     to	try and	perform	a keyserver action before  giving  up.
		     Note  that	 performing  multiple actions at the same time
		     uses this timeout value per action.   For	example,  when
		     retrieving	 multiple  keys	 via  --recv-keys, the timeout
		     applies separately	to each	key retrieval, and not to  the
		     --recv-keys command as a whole. Defaults to 30 seconds.

	      http-proxy=value
		     Set  the  proxy to	use for	HTTP and HKP keyservers.  This
		     overrides the "http_proxy"	environment variable, if any.

	      max-cert-size
		     When retrieving a key via DNS CERT, only accept  keys  up
		     to	this size.  Defaults to	16384 bytes.

	      debug  Turn  on  debug  output  in the keyserver helper program.
		     Note that the details of debug output  depends  on	 which
		     keyserver	helper	program	is being used, and in turn, on
		     any libraries that	 the  keyserver	 helper	 program  uses
		     internally	(libcurl, openldap, etc).

	      check-cert
		     Enable certificate	checking if the	keyserver presents one
		     (for hkps or ldaps).  Defaults to on.

	      ca-cert-file
		     Provide  a	 certificate  store  to	 override  the	system
		     default.	Only  necessary	 if check-cert is enabled, and
		     the keyserver is using a certificate that is not  present
		     in	a system default certificate list.

		     Note that depending on the	SSL library that the keyserver
		     helper is built with, this	may actually be	a directory or
		     a file.

       --completes-needed n
	      Number of	completely trusted users to introduce a	new key	signer
	      (defaults	to 1).

       --marginals-needed n
	      Number of	marginally trusted users to introduce a	new key	signer
	      (defaults	to 3)

       --max-cert-depth	n
	      Maximum depth of a certification chain (default is 5).

       --simple-sk-checksum
	      Secret  keys  are	integrity protected by using a SHA-1 checksum.
	      This method is part of the upcoming enhanced OpenPGP  specifica-
	      tion  but	GnuPG already uses it as a countermeasure against cer-
	      tain attacks.  Old applications don't understand this  new  for-
	      mat, so this option may be used to switch	back to	the old	behav-
	      iour. Using this option bears a security risk. Note  that	 using
	      this option only takes effect when the secret key	is encrypted -
	      the simplest way to make this happen is to change	the passphrase
	      on the key (even changing	it to the same value is	acceptable).

       --no-sig-cache
	      Do not cache the verification status of key signatures.  Caching
	      gives a much better performance in key listings. However,	if you
	      suspect that your	public keyring is not save against write modi-
	      fications, you can use this option to disable  the  caching.  It
	      probably	does  not make sense to	disable	it because all kind of
	      damage can be done if someone else has write access to your pub-
	      lic keyring.

       --no-sig-create-check
	      This options is obsolete.	 It has	no function.

       --auto-check-trustdb

       --no-auto-check-trustdb
	      If  GnuPG	 feels that its	information about the Web of Trust has
	      to be updated, it	automatically runs the --check-trustdb command
	      internally.   This  may  be a time consuming process. --no-auto-
	      check-trustdb disables this option.

       --use-agent

       --no-use-agent
	      Try to use the GnuPG-Agent.  With	this option, GnuPG first tries
	      to  connect  to the agent	before it asks for a passphrase. --no-
	      use-agent	disables this option.  Note, that the tool gpg-preset-
	      passphrase, which	comes with GnuPG-2, cannot be used to preset a
	      passphrase for this version of GnuPG.

       --gpg-agent-info
	      Override the value of the	environment variable 'GPG_AGENT_INFO'.
	      This  is	only used when --use-agent has been given.  Given that
	      this option is not anymore used by gpg2, it should be avoided if
	      possible.

       --lock-once
	      Lock the databases the first time	a lock is requested and	do not
	      release the lock until the process terminates.

       --lock-multiple
	      Release the locks	every time a lock is  no  longer  needed.  Use
	      this to override a previous --lock-once from a config file.

       --lock-never
	      Disable  locking	entirely.  This	 option	should be used only in
	      very special environments, where it can be assured that only one
	      process  is  accessing  those  files.  A	bootable floppy	with a
	      stand-alone encryption system will probably use  this.  Improper
	      usage of this option may lead to data and	key corruption.

       --exit-on-status-write-error
	      This  option will	cause write errors on the status FD to immedi-
	      ately terminate the process. That	should in fact be the  default
	      but  it  never  worked  this  way	 and thus we need an option to
	      enable this, so that the change won't break  applications	 which
	      close  their  end	of a status fd connected pipe too early. Using
	      this option along	with --enable-progress-filter may be  used  to
	      cleanly cancel long running gpg operations.

       --limit-card-insert-tries n
	      With  n  greater than 0 the number of prompts asking to insert a
	      smartcard	gets limited to	N-1. Thus with a value of 1 gpg	 won't
	      at  all  ask  to	insert	a  card	 if  none has been inserted at
	      startup. This option is useful in	the configuration file in case
	      an  application  does  not  know about the smartcard support and
	      waits ad infinitum for an	inserted card.

       --no-random-seed-file
	      GnuPG uses a file	to store its internal random pool over invoca-
	      tions.   This  makes random generation faster; however sometimes
	      write operations are not desired.	This option  can  be  used  to
	      achieve that with	the cost of slower random generation.

       --no-greeting
	      Suppress the initial copyright message.

       --no-secmem-warning
	      Suppress the warning about "using	insecure memory".

       --no-permission-warning
	      Suppress	the  warning  about  unsafe  file  and	home directory
	      (--homedir) permissions. Note that the  permission  checks  that
	      GnuPG  performs are not intended to be authoritative, but	rather
	      they simply warn about certain common  permission	 problems.  Do
	      not  assume that the lack	of a warning means that	your system is
	      secure.

	      Note that	the warning for	unsafe --homedir permissions cannot be
	      suppressed in the	gpg.conf file, as this would allow an attacker
	      to place an unsafe gpg.conf file in place, and use this file  to
	      suppress	warnings about itself. The --homedir permissions warn-
	      ing may only be suppressed on the	command	line.

       --no-mdc-warning
	      Suppress the warning about missing MDC integrity protection.

       --require-secmem

       --no-require-secmem
	      Refuse to	run if GnuPG cannot get	secure memory. Defaults	to  no
	      (i.e. run, but give a warning).

       --require-cross-certification

       --no-require-cross-certification
	      When  verifying  a signature made	from a subkey, ensure that the
	      cross certification "back	signature" on the  subkey  is  present
	      and  valid.   This protects against a subtle attack against sub-
	      keys that	can sign.  Defaults  to	 --require-cross-certification
	      for gpg.

       --expert

       --no-expert
	      Allow  the user to do certain nonsensical	or "silly" things like
	      signing an expired or revoked key, or certain potentially	incom-
	      patible things like generating unusual key types.	This also dis-
	      ables certain warning messages  about  potentially  incompatible
	      actions.	As  the	name implies, this option is for experts only.
	      If you don't fully understand the	implications of	what it	allows
	      you to do, leave this off. --no-expert disables this option.

   Key related options

       --recipient name

       -r     Encrypt  for  user id name. If this option or --hidden-recipient
	      is not specified,	GnuPG asks for the user-id  unless  --default-
	      recipient	is given.

       --hidden-recipient name

       -R     Encrypt  for  user  ID  name, but	hide the key ID	of this	user's
	      key. This	option helps to	hide the receiver of the  message  and
	      is  a  limited  countermeasure against traffic analysis. If this
	      option or	--recipient is not specified, GnuPG asks for the  user
	      ID unless	--default-recipient is given.

       --encrypt-to name
	      Same  as	--recipient  but  this	one is intended	for use	in the
	      options file and may  be	used  with  your  own  user-id	as  an
	      "encrypt-to-self". These keys are	only used when there are other
	      recipients given either by use of	--recipient or	by  the	 asked
	      user  id.	 No trust checking is performed	for these user ids and
	      even disabled keys can be	used.

       --hidden-encrypt-to name
	      Same as --hidden-recipient but this one is intended for  use  in
	      the options file and may be used with your own user-id as	a hid-
	      den "encrypt-to-self". These keys	are only used when  there  are
	      other  recipients	 given	either by use of --recipient or	by the
	      asked user id.  No trust checking	is performed  for  these  user
	      ids and even disabled keys can be	used.

       --no-encrypt-to
	      Disable  the  use	 of  all  --encrypt-to and --hidden-encrypt-to
	      keys.

       --group name=value1
	      Sets up a	named group, which is similar to aliases in email pro-
	      grams.   Any time	the group name is a recipient (-r or --recipi-
	      ent), it will be expanded	 to  the  values  specified.  Multiple
	      groups with the same name	are automatically merged into a	single
	      group.

	      The values are key IDs or	fingerprints, but any key  description
	      is accepted. Note	that a value with spaces in it will be treated
	      as two different values. Note also there is only	one  level  of
	      expansion	 ---  you  cannot make an group	that points to another
	      group. When used from the	command	line, it may be	 necessary  to
	      quote  the  argument  to	this  option to	prevent	the shell from
	      treating it as multiple arguments.

       --ungroup name
	      Remove a given entry from	the --group list.

       --no-groups
	      Remove all entries from the --group list.

       --local-user name

       -u     Use name as the key to sign with.	Note that  this	 option	 over-
	      rides --default-key.

       --try-all-secrets
	      Don't  look  at  the key ID as stored in the message but try all
	      secret keys in turn to  find  the	 right	decryption  key.  This
	      option  forces  the  behaviour  as  used by anonymous recipients
	      (created by  using  --throw-keyids  or  --hidden-recipient)  and
	      might  come  handy in case where an encrypted message contains a
	      bogus key	ID.

   Input and Output

       --armor

       -a     Create ASCII armored output.   The  default  is  to  create  the
	      binary OpenPGP format.

       --no-armor
	      Assume the input data is not in ASCII armored format.

       --output	file

       -o file
	      Write output to file.

       --max-output n
	      This  option  sets  a  limit on the number of bytes that will be
	      generated	when processing	a file.	Since OpenPGP supports various
	      levels  of  compression,	it is possible that the	plaintext of a
	      given message may	be  significantly  larger  than	 the  original
	      OpenPGP  message.	While GnuPG works properly with	such messages,
	      there is often a desire to set a maximum file size that will  be
	      generated	 before	processing is forced to	stop by	the OS limits.
	      Defaults to 0, which means "no limit".

       --import-options	parameters
	      This is a	space or comma delimited string	that gives options for
	      importing	 keys.	Options	 can be	prepended with a `no-' to give
	      the opposite meaning. The	options	are:

	      import-local-sigs
		     Allow importing key signatures marked as "local". This is
		     not  generally  useful  unless a shared keyring scheme is
		     being used.  Defaults to no.

	      keep-ownertrust
		     Normally possible still existing ownertrust values	 of  a
		     key are cleared if	a key is imported.  This is in general
		     desirable so that a formerly deleted key does  not	 auto-
		     matically gain an ownertrust values merely	due to import.
		     On	the other hand it is sometimes necessary to  re-import
		     a	trusted	set of keys again but keeping already assigned
		     ownertrust	values.	 This can be  achived  by  using  this
		     option.

	      repair-pks-subkey-bug
		     During import, attempt to repair the damage caused	by the
		     PKS keyserver bug (pre version 0.9.6) that	 mangles  keys
		     with  multiple  subkeys. Note that	this cannot completely
		     repair the	damaged	key as some crucial data is removed by
		     the  keyserver,  but  it  does at least give you back one
		     subkey. Defaults to no for	regular	--import  and  to  yes
		     for keyserver --recv-keys.

	      merge-only
		     During import, allow key updates to existing keys,	but do
		     not allow any new keys to be imported. Defaults to	no.

	      import-clean
		     After import, compact (remove all signatures  except  the
		     self-signature)  any  user	 IDs from the new key that are
		     not usable.  Then,	remove any signatures from the new key
		     that  are not usable.  This includes signatures that were
		     issued by keys that are not present on the	keyring.  This
		     option  is	 the  same  as	running	the --edit-key command
		     "clean" after import. Defaults to no.

	      import-minimal
		     Import the	smallest key possible. This removes all	signa-
		     tures  except the most recent self-signature on each user
		     ID. This option is	the same  as  running  the  --edit-key
		     command "minimize"	after import.  Defaults	to no.

       --export-options	parameters
	      This is a	space or comma delimited string	that gives options for
	      exporting	keys. Options can be prepended with a  `no-'  to  give
	      the opposite meaning. The	options	are:

	      export-local-sigs
		     Allow exporting key signatures marked as "local". This is
		     not generally useful unless a shared  keyring  scheme  is
		     being used.  Defaults to no.

	      export-attributes
		     Include  attribute	 user IDs (photo IDs) while exporting.
		     This is useful to export keys if they  are	 going	to  be
		     used by an	OpenPGP	program	that does not accept attribute
		     user IDs. Defaults	to yes.

	      export-sensitive-revkeys
		     Include designated	revoker	information that was marked as
		     "sensitive". Defaults to no.

	      export-reset-subkey-passwd
		     When  using  the  --export-secret-subkeys	command,  this
		     option resets the passphrases for all exported subkeys to
		     empty.  This  is useful when the exported subkey is to be
		     used on an	unattended machine where a passphrase  doesn't
		     necessarily make sense. Defaults to no.

	      export-clean
		     Compact  (remove all signatures from) user	IDs on the key
		     being exported if the user	IDs are	not usable.  Also,  do
		     not  export  any  signatures  that	 are  not usable. This
		     includes signatures that were issued by keys that are not
		     present  on  the keyring. This option is the same as run-
		     ning the --edit-key command "clean" before	export	except
		     that  the local copy of the key is	not modified. Defaults
		     to	no.

	      export-minimal
		     Export the	smallest key possible. This removes all	signa-
		     tures  except the most recent self-signature on each user
		     ID. This option is	the same  as  running  the  --edit-key
		     command  "minimize"  before  export except	that the local
		     copy of the key is	not modified. Defaults to no.

       --with-colons
	      Print key	listings delimited by colons.  Note  that  the	output
	      will  be	encoded	 in  UTF-8 regardless of any --display-charset
	      setting. This format is useful when GnuPG	is called from scripts
	      and  other  programs as it is easily machine parsed. The details
	      of this format are documented in the file	 `doc/DETAILS',	 which
	      is included in the GnuPG source distribution.

       --fixed-list-mode
	      Do  not  merge  primary  user ID and primary key in --with-colon
	      listing  mode  and  print	 all  timestamps  as   seconds	 since
	      1970-01-01.

       --with-fingerprint
	      Same as the command --fingerprint	but changes only the format of
	      the output and may be used together with another command.

   OpenPGP protocol specific options.

       -t, --textmode

       --no-textmode
	      Treat input files	as text	and store them in the OpenPGP  canoni-
	      cal  text	form with standard "CRLF" line endings.	This also sets
	      the necessary flags to inform the	recipient that	the  encrypted
	      or  signed  data is text and may need its	line endings converted
	      back to whatever the local system	uses. This  option  is	useful
	      when  communicating  between  two	 platforms that	have different
	      line ending conventions (UNIX-like to Mac, Mac to	Windows, etc).
	      --no-textmode disables this option, and is the default.

	      If  -t  (but  not	--textmode) is used together with armoring and
	      signing, this  enables  clearsigned  messages.  This  kludge  is
	      needed for command-line compatibility with command-line versions
	      of PGP; normally you would use --sign or --clearsign  to	select
	      the type of the signature.

       --force-v3-sigs

       --no-force-v3-sigs
	      OpenPGP  states that an implementation should generate v4	signa-
	      tures but	PGP versions 5 through 7 only recognize	v4  signatures
	      on key material. This option forces v3 signatures	for signatures
	      on data.	Note that this option implies --no-ask-sig-expire, and
	      unsets  --sig-policy-url,	 --sig-notation,  and --sig-keyserver-
	      url, as these features cannot be used with v3 signatures.	 --no-
	      force-v3-sigs disables this option.  Defaults to no.

       --force-v4-certs

       --no-force-v4-certs
	      Always  use  v4 key signatures even on v3	keys. This option also
	      changes the default hash algorithm for v3	RSA keys from  MD5  to
	      SHA-1.  --no-force-v4-certs disables this	option.

       --force-mdc
	      Force  the use of	encryption with	a modification detection code.
	      This is always used with the newer ciphers (those	with a	block-
	      size  greater  than  64  bits),  or if all of the	recipient keys
	      indicate MDC support in their feature flags.

       --disable-mdc
	      Disable the use of the modification detection code. Note that by
	      using this option, the encrypted message becomes vulnerable to a
	      message modification attack.

       --personal-cipher-preferences string
	      Set the list of personal cipher preferences to string.  Use  gpg
	      --version	to get a list of available algorithms, and use none to
	      set no preference	at all.	 This allows the user to safely	 over-
	      ride  the	 algorithm chosen by the recipient key preferences, as
	      GPG will only select an algorithm	that is	usable by all  recipi-
	      ents.   The  most	highly ranked cipher in	this list is also used
	      for the --symmetric encryption command.

       --personal-digest-preferences string
	      Set the list of personal digest preferences to string.  Use  gpg
	      --version	to get a list of available algorithms, and use none to
	      set no preference	at all.	 This allows the user to safely	 over-
	      ride  the	 algorithm chosen by the recipient key preferences, as
	      GPG will only select an algorithm	that is	usable by all  recipi-
	      ents.   The  most	highly ranked digest algorithm in this list is
	      also used	when signing without encryption	(e.g.  --clearsign  or
	      --sign).

       --personal-compress-preferences string
	      Set the list of personal compression preferences to string.  Use
	      gpg --version to get a list of  available	 algorithms,  and  use
	      none  to	set  no	 preference  at	 all.  This allows the user to
	      safely override the algorithm chosen by the recipient key	 pref-
	      erences,	as GPG will only select	an algorithm that is usable by
	      all recipients.  The most	highly ranked compression algorithm in
	      this  list is also used when there are no	recipient keys to con-
	      sider (e.g. --symmetric).

       --s2k-cipher-algo name
	      Use name as the cipher algorithm used to	protect	 secret	 keys.
	      The  default cipher is AES128. This cipher is also used for con-
	      ventional	 encryption   if   --personal-cipher-preferences   and
	      --cipher-algo is not given.

       --s2k-digest-algo name
	      Use name as the digest algorithm used to mangle the passphrases.
	      The default algorithm is SHA-1.

       --s2k-mode n
	      Selects  how  passphrases	 are  mangled.	If  n  is  0  a	 plain
	      passphrase  (which  is not recommended) will be used, a 1	adds a
	      salt to the passphrase and a 3 (the default) iterates the	 whole
	      process  a  number of times (see --s2k-count).  Unless --rfc1991
	      is used, this mode is also used for conventional encryption.

       --s2k-count n
	      Specify how many times  the  passphrase  mangling	 is  repeated.
	      This  value  may range between 1024 and 65011712 inclusive.  The
	      default is inquired from gpg-agent.  Note	that not all values in
	      the  1024-65011712  range	 are  legal and	if an illegal value is
	      selected,	GnuPG will round up to the nearest legal value.	  This
	      option is	only meaningful	if --s2k-mode is 3.

   Compliance options

       These  options  control	what  GnuPG is compliant to. Only one of these
       options may be active at	a time.	Note that the default setting of  this
       is  nearly  always the correct one. See the INTEROPERABILITY WITH OTHER
       OPENPGP PROGRAMS	section	below before using one of these	options.

       --gnupg
	      Use standard GnuPG behavior. This	is essentially OpenPGP	behav-
	      ior  (see	 --openpgp),  but with some additional workarounds for
	      common compatibility problems in different versions of PGP. This
	      is the default option, so	it is not generally needed, but	it may
	      be useful	to override  a	different  compliance  option  in  the
	      gpg.conf file.

       --openpgp
	      Reset  all  packet,  cipher and digest options to	strict OpenPGP
	      behavior.	Use this option	to reset  all  previous	 options  like
	      --s2k-*,	--cipher-algo,	--digest-algo  and  --compress-algo to
	      OpenPGP compliant	values.	All PGP	workarounds are	disabled.

       --rfc4880
	      Reset all	packet,	cipher and digest options to  strict  RFC-4880
	      behavior.	 Note  that  this  is  currently  the  same  thing  as
	      --openpgp.

       --rfc2440
	      Reset all	packet,	cipher and digest options to  strict  RFC-2440
	      behavior.

       --rfc1991
	      Try  to  be  more	 RFC-1991 (PGP 2.x) compliant.	This option is
	      deprecated will be removed in GnuPG 2.1.

       --pgp2 Set up all options to be as PGP 2.x compliant as	possible,  and
	      warn  if	an  action is taken (e.g. encrypting to	a non-RSA key)
	      that will	create a message that PGP 2.x will not be able to han-
	      dle.  Note  that `PGP 2.x' here means `MIT PGP 2.6.2'. There are
	      other versions of	PGP 2.x	available, but the MIT	release	 is  a
	      good common baseline.

	      This option implies --rfc1991 --disable-mdc --no-force-v4-certs
	       --escape-from-lines  --force-v3-sigs --allow-weak-digest-algos
	       --cipher-algo  IDEA  --digest-algo MD5 --compress-algo ZIP.  It
	      also disables --textmode when encrypting.

	      This option is deprecated	will be	removed	 in  GnuPG  2.1.   The
	      reason  for  dropping  PGP-2 support is that the PGP 2 format is
	      not anymore considered safe (for example due to the use  of  the
	      broken  MD5  algorithm).	Note that the decryption of PGP-2 cre-
	      ated messages will continue to work.

       --pgp6 Set up all options to be as PGP 6	compliant  as  possible.  This
	      restricts	 you  to  the  ciphers	IDEA  (if  the	IDEA plugin is
	      installed), 3DES,	and CAST5, the hashes MD5, SHA1	and RIPEMD160,
	      and  the compression algorithms none and ZIP. This also disables
	      --throw-keyids, and making signatures with  signing  subkeys  as
	      PGP 6 does not understand	signatures made	by signing subkeys.

	      This  option  implies --disable-mdc --escape-from-lines --force-
	      v3-sigs.

       --pgp7 Set up all options to be as PGP 7	compliant as possible. This is
	      identical	 to  --pgp6 except that	MDCs are not disabled, and the
	      list of allowable	ciphers	is expanded  to	 add  AES128,  AES192,
	      AES256, and TWOFISH.

       --pgp8 Set  up  all options to be as PGP	8 compliant as possible. PGP 8
	      is a lot closer to the OpenPGP standard than  previous  versions
	      of  PGP,	so  all	 this  does  is	disable	--throw-keyids and set
	      --escape-from-lines.  All	algorithms are allowed except for  the
	      SHA224, SHA384, and SHA512 digests.

   Doing things	one usually doesn't want to do.

       -n

       --dry-run
	      Don't make any changes (this is not completely implemented).

       --list-only
	      Changes  the  behaviour of some commands.	This is	like --dry-run
	      but different in some cases. The semantic	of this	command	may be
	      extended	in  the	 future.  Currently  it	 only skips the	actual
	      decryption pass and therefore enables  a	fast  listing  of  the
	      encryption keys.

       -i

       --interactive
	      Prompt before overwriting	any files.

       --debug-level level
	      Select  the debug	level for investigating	problems. level	may be
	      a	numeric	value or by a keyword:

	      none   No	debugging at all.  A value of less than	1 may be  used
		     instead of	the keyword.

	      basic  Some  basic  debug	messages.  A value between 1 and 2 may
		     be	used instead of	the keyword.

	      advanced
		     More verbose debug	messages.  A value between 3 and 5 may
		     be	used instead of	the keyword.

	      expert Even more detailed	messages.  A value between 6 and 8 may
		     be	used instead of	the keyword.

	      guru   All of the	debug messages you can get.  A	value  greater
		     than  8 may be used instead of the	keyword.  The creation
		     of	hash tracing files is only enabled if the  keyword  is
		     used.

       How  these  messages  are  mapped  to the actual	debugging flags	is not
       specified and may change	with newer releases of this program. They  are
       however carefully selected to best aid in debugging.

       --debug flags
	      Set  debugging flags. All	flags are or-ed	and flags may be given
	      in C syntax (e.g.	0x0042).

       --debug-all
	      Set all useful debugging flags.

       --debug-ccid-driver
	      Enable debug output from the included  CCID  driver  for	smart-
	      cards.  Note that	this option is only available on some system.

       --faked-system-time epoch
	      This  option is only useful for testing; it sets the system time
	      back or forth to epoch which is the number  of  seconds  elapsed
	      since the	year 1970.  Alternatively epoch	may be given as	a full
	      ISO time string (e.g. "20070924T154812").

       --enable-progress-filter
	      Enable certain PROGRESS status outputs. This option allows fron-
	      tends  to	 display  a progress indicator while gpg is processing
	      larger files.  There is a	slight performance overhead using it.

       --status-fd n
	      Write special status strings to the file descriptor n.  See  the
	      file DETAILS in the documentation	for a listing of them.

       --status-file file
	      Same  as	--status-fd, except the	status data is written to file
	      file.

       --logger-fd n
	      Write log	output to file descriptor n and	not to STDERR.

       --log-file file

       --logger-file file
	      Same as --logger-fd, except the logger data is written  to  file
	      file.  Note that --log-file is only implemented for GnuPG-2.

       --attribute-fd n
	      Write  attribute	subpackets  to	the file descriptor n. This is
	      most useful for use with --status-fd, since the status  messages
	      are  needed  to  separate	 out  the  various subpackets from the
	      stream delivered to the file descriptor.

       --attribute-file	file
	      Same as --attribute-fd, except the attribute data	is written  to
	      file file.

       --comment string

       --no-comments
	      Use  string  as  a  comment  string in clear text	signatures and
	      ASCII armored messages or	keys (see --armor). The	default	behav-
	      ior  is  not  to use a comment string. --comment may be repeated
	      multiple times to	get multiple  comment  strings.	 --no-comments
	      removes all comments.  It	is a good idea to keep the length of a
	      single comment below 60 characters to avoid problems  with  mail
	      programs wrapping	such lines.  Note that comment lines, like all
	      other header lines, are not protected by the signature.

       --emit-version

       --no-emit-version
	      Force inclusion of the version string in ASCII  armored  output.
	      If  given	once only the name of the program and the major	number
	      is emitted, given	twice the minor	is also	emitted, given	triple
	      the micro	is added, and given quad an operating system identifi-
	      cation is	also emitted.	--no-emit-version  (default)  disables
	      the version line.

       --sig-notation name=value

       --cert-notation name=value

       -N, --set-notation name=value
	      Put  the	name  value  pair into the signature as	notation data.
	      name must	consist	only of	printable characters  or  spaces,  and
	      must  contain  a	'@' character in the form keyname@domain.exam-
	      ple.com (substituting the	appropriate keyname and	 domain	 name,
	      of  course).   This  is  to  help	 prevent pollution of the IETF
	      reserved notation	namespace. The --expert	flag overrides the '@'
	      check.  value may	be any printable string; it will be encoded in
	      UTF8, so you should check	that  your  --display-charset  is  set
	      correctly.  If you prefix	name with an exclamation mark (!), the
	      notation data will be flagged  as	 critical  (rfc4880:5.2.3.16).
	      --sig-notation sets a notation for data signatures. --cert-nota-
	      tion sets	a notation for key signatures (certifications).	--set-
	      notation sets both.

	      There are	special	codes that may be used in notation names. "%k"
	      will be expanded into the	key ID of the key being	 signed,  "%K"
	      into the long key	ID of the key being signed, "%f" into the fin-
	      gerprint of the key being	signed,	"%s" into the key  ID  of  the
	      key  making  the signature, "%S" into the	long key ID of the key
	      making the signature, "%g" into the fingerprint of the key  mak-
	      ing  the signature (which	might be a subkey), "%p" into the fin-
	      gerprint of the primary key of the  key  making  the  signature,
	      "%c"  into  the  signature count from the	OpenPGP	smartcard, and
	      "%%" results in a	single "%". %k,	%K, and	%f are only meaningful
	      when  making  a  key  signature  (certification),	and %c is only
	      meaningful when using the	OpenPGP	smartcard.

       --sig-policy-url	string

       --cert-policy-url string

       --set-policy-url	string
	      Use string as a Policy URL  for  signatures  (rfc4880:5.2.3.20).
	      If  you  prefix  it with an exclamation mark (!),	the policy URL
	      packet will be flagged as	critical. --sig-policy-url sets	a pol-
	      icy url for data signatures. --cert-policy-url sets a policy url
	      for key signatures (certifications). --set-policy-url sets both.

	      The same %-expandos used for notation data are available here as
	      well.

       --sig-keyserver-url string
	      Use  string as a preferred keyserver URL for data	signatures. If
	      you prefix it with an exclamation	mark (!),  the	keyserver  URL
	      packet will be flagged as	critical.

	      The same %-expandos used for notation data are available here as
	      well.

       --set-filename string
	      Use string as the	filename  which	 is  stored  inside  messages.
	      This  overrides the default, which is to use the actual filename
	      of the file being	encrypted.

       --for-your-eyes-only

       --no-for-your-eyes-only
	      Set the `for your	eyes only' flag	in the	message.  This	causes
	      GnuPG  to	 refuse	to save	the file unless	the --output option is
	      given, and PGP to	use a "secure viewer" with a claimed  Tempest-
	      resistant	 font  to  display  the	message. This option overrides
	      --set-filename.  --no-for-your-eyes-only disables	this option.

       --use-embedded-filename

       --no-use-embedded-filename
	      Try to create a file with	a name as embedded in the  data.  This
	      can  be  a  dangerous  option  as	 it enables overwriting	files.
	      Defaults to no.

       --cipher-algo name
	      Use name as cipher algorithm. Running the	program	with the  com-
	      mand --version yields a list of supported	algorithms. If this is
	      not used the cipher algorithm is selected	from  the  preferences
	      stored  with  the	 key.  In general, you do not want to use this
	      option as	it allows you to violate the OpenPGP standard.	--per-
	      sonal-cipher-preferences	is the safe way	to accomplish the same
	      thing.

       --digest-algo name
	      Use name as the message digest algorithm.	 Running  the  program
	      with  the	 command  --version  yields  a list of supported algo-
	      rithms. In general, you do not want to use  this	option	as  it
	      allows  you  to violate the OpenPGP standard. --personal-digest-
	      preferences is the safe way to accomplish	the same thing.

       --compress-algo name
	      Use compression algorithm	name. "zlib" is	RFC-1950 ZLIB compres-
	      sion.  "zip"  is	RFC-1951 ZIP compression which is used by PGP.
	      "bzip2" is a more	modern compression scheme  that	 can  compress
	      some  things  better  than  zip or zlib, but at the cost of more
	      memory used during compression and decompression.	"uncompressed"
	      or  "none" disables compression. If this option is not used, the
	      default behavior is to examine the recipient key preferences  to
	      see  which algorithms the	recipient supports. If all else	fails,
	      ZIP is used for maximum compatibility.

	      ZLIB may give better compression results than ZIP, as  the  com-
	      pression	window	size is	not limited to 8k. BZIP2 may give even
	      better compression results than that, but	will  use  a  signifi-
	      cantly larger amount of memory while compressing and decompress-
	      ing. This	may be significant in  low  memory  situations.	 Note,
	      however,	that PGP (all versions)	only supports ZIP compression.
	      Using any	algorithm other	than ZIP or "none" will	make the  mes-
	      sage  unreadable	with  PGP.  In general,	you do not want	to use
	      this option as it	allows you to violate  the  OpenPGP  standard.
	      --personal-compress-preferences  is  the	safe way to accomplish
	      the same thing.

       --cert-digest-algo name
	      Use name as the message digest algorithm	used  when  signing  a
	      key.  Running  the  program  with	the command --version yields a
	      list of supported	algorithms. Be aware that  if  you  choose  an
	      algorithm	 that GnuPG supports but other OpenPGP implementations
	      do not, then some	users will not be able to use the  key	signa-
	      tures you	make, or quite possibly	your entire key.

       --disable-cipher-algo name
	      Never allow the use of name as cipher algorithm.	The given name
	      will not be checked so that a later loaded algorithm will	 still
	      get disabled.

       --disable-pubkey-algo name
	      Never  allow the use of name as public key algorithm.  The given
	      name will	not be checked so that a later loaded  algorithm  will
	      still get	disabled.

       --throw-keyids

       --no-throw-keyids
	      Do  not  put the recipient key IDs into encrypted	messages. This
	      helps to hide the	receivers of the  message  and	is  a  limited
	      countermeasure against traffic analysis. ([Using a little	social
	      engineering anyone who is	able to	decrypt	the message can	 check
	      whether  one  of	the other recipients is	the one	he suspects.])
	      On the receiving side, it	may slow down the  decryption  process
	      because  all  available  secret keys must	be tried.  --no-throw-
	      keyids disables this option. This	option is essentially the same
	      as using --hidden-recipient for all recipients.

       --not-dash-escaped
	      This option changes the behavior of cleartext signatures so that
	      they can be used for patch files.	You should not	send  such  an
	      armored  file  via email because all spaces and line endings are
	      hashed too. You can not use this option for  data	 which	has  5
	      dashes  at the beginning of a line, patch	files don't have this.
	      A	special	armor header line tells	 GnuPG	about  this  cleartext
	      signature	option.

       --escape-from-lines

       --no-escape-from-lines
	      Because  some  mailers  change  lines  starting  with "From " to
	      ">From " it is good to handle such lines in a special  way  when
	      creating	cleartext  signatures  to prevent the mail system from
	      breaking the signature. Note that	all other PGP versions	do  it
	      this  way	 too.  Enabled by default. --no-escape-from-lines dis-
	      ables this option.

       --passphrase-repeat n
	      Specify how many times gpg will  request	a  new	passphrase  be
	      repeated.	  This	is  useful  for	helping	memorize a passphrase.
	      Defaults to 1 repetition.

       --passphrase-fd n
	      Read the passphrase from file descriptor n. Only the first  line
	      will  be	read  from  file descriptor n. If you use 0 for	n, the
	      passphrase will be read from STDIN. This can  only  be  used  if
	      only one passphrase is supplied.

       --passphrase-file file
	      Read  the	passphrase from	file file. Only	the first line will be
	      read from	 file  file.  This  can	 only  be  used	 if  only  one
	      passphrase is supplied. Obviously, a passphrase stored in	a file
	      is of questionable security if other users can read  this	 file.
	      Don't use	this option if you can avoid it.

       --passphrase string
	      Use  string as the passphrase. This can only be used if only one
	      passphrase is supplied. Obviously, this is of very  questionable
	      security	on  a  multi-user system. Don't	use this option	if you
	      can avoid	it.

       --command-fd n
	      This is a	replacement for	the deprecated shared-memory IPC mode.
	      If  this	option	is  enabled,  user  input  on questions	is not
	      expected from the	TTY but	from the  given	 file  descriptor.  It
	      should   be   used  together  with  --status-fd.	See  the  file
	      doc/DETAILS in the source	distribution for details on how	to use
	      it.

       --command-file file
	      Same  as	--command-fd, except the commands are read out of file
	      file

       --allow-non-selfsigned-uid

       --no-allow-non-selfsigned-uid
	      Allow the	import and use of keys with user  IDs  which  are  not
	      self-signed.  This is not	recommended, as	a non self-signed user
	      ID is trivial to forge. --no-allow-non-selfsigned-uid disables.

       --allow-freeform-uid
	      Disable all checks on the	form of	the user ID while generating a
	      new  one.	 This option should only be used in very special envi-
	      ronments as it does not ensure the de-facto standard  format  of
	      user IDs.

       --ignore-time-conflict
	      GnuPG  normally  checks that the timestamps associated with keys
	      and signatures have plausible values. However, sometimes a  sig-
	      nature  seems  to	 be  older than	the key	due to clock problems.
	      This  option  makes  these  checks  just	a  warning.  See  also
	      --ignore-valid-from for timestamp	issues on subkeys.

       --ignore-valid-from
	      GnuPG  normally  does  not select	and use	subkeys	created	in the
	      future.  This option allows  the	use  of	 such  keys  and  thus
	      exhibits the pre-1.0.7 behaviour.	You should not use this	option
	      unless there is some clock problem. See also  --ignore-time-con-
	      flict for	timestamp issues with signatures.

       --ignore-crc-error
	      The  ASCII  armor	used by	OpenPGP	is protected by	a CRC checksum
	      against transmission errors. Occasionally	the CRC	 gets  mangled
	      somewhere	 on  the  transmission	channel	but the	actual content
	      (which is	protected by the OpenPGP  protocol  anyway)  is	 still
	      okay. This option	allows GnuPG to	ignore CRC errors.

       --ignore-mdc-error
	      This  option  changes  a MDC integrity protection	failure	into a
	      warning.	This can be useful if a	message	is partially  corrupt,
	      but  it  is necessary to get as much data	as possible out	of the
	      corrupt message.	However, be aware that a MDC protection	 fail-
	      ure  may also mean that the message was tampered with intention-
	      ally by an attacker.

       --allow-weak-digest-algos
	      Signatures made with known-weak digest algorithms	 are  normally
	      rejected	with  an  ``invalid  digest algorithm''	message.  This
	      option allows the	verification of	signatures made	with such weak
	      algorithms.  MD5 is the only digest algorithm considered weak by
	      default.	See also --weak-digest to reject  other	 digest	 algo-
	      rithms.

       --weak-digest name
	      Treat  the  specified digest algorithm as	weak.  Signatures made
	      over weak	digests	algorithms are normally	rejected. This	option
	      can  be supplied multiple	times if multiple algorithms should be
	      considered weak.	See also --allow-weak-digest-algos to  disable
	      rejection	 of  weak digests.  MD5	is always considered weak, and
	      does not need to be listed explicitly.

       --no-default-keyring
	      Do not add the default keyrings to the list  of  keyrings.  Note
	      that  GnuPG will not operate without any keyrings, so if you use
	      this option and do not provide alternate keyrings	via  --keyring
	      or  --secret-keyring, then GnuPG will still use the default pub-
	      lic or secret keyrings.

       --skip-verify
	      Skip the signature verification step. This may be	used  to  make
	      the  decryption  faster  if  the	signature  verification	is not
	      needed.

       --with-key-data
	      Print key	listings delimited by colons (like --with-colons)  and
	      print the	public key data.

       --fast-list-mode
	      Changes  the output of the list commands to work faster; this is
	      achieved by leaving some parts empty.  Some  applications	 don't
	      need  the	 user  ID and the trust	information given in the list-
	      ings. By using this options they can get a faster	 listing.  The
	      exact  behaviour	of  this option	may change in future versions.
	      If you are missing some information, don't use this option.

       --no-literal
	      This is not for normal use. Use the source to see	 for  what  it
	      might be useful.

       --set-filesize
	      This  is	not  for normal	use. Use the source to see for what it
	      might be useful.

       --show-session-key
	      Display the session key used for one  message.  See  --override-
	      session-key for the counterpart of this option.

	      We think that Key	Escrow is a Bad	Thing; however the user	should
	      have the freedom to decide whether to go to prison or to	reveal
	      the  content  of	one  specific message without compromising all
	      messages ever encrypted for one secret key. DON'T	USE IT	UNLESS
	      YOU ARE REALLY FORCED TO DO SO.

       --override-session-key string
	      Don't  use the public key	but the	session	key string. The	format
	      of this string is	the same as the	one printed by --show-session-
	      key.  This  option  is normally not used but comes handy in case
	      someone forces you to reveal the content of  an  encrypted  mes-
	      sage;  using this	option you can do this without handing out the
	      secret key.

       --ask-sig-expire

       --no-ask-sig-expire
	      When making a data signature, prompt for an expiration time.  If
	      this  option  is	not  specified,	 the  expiration  time set via
	      --default-sig-expire is used. --no-ask-sig-expire	disables  this
	      option.

       --default-sig-expire
	      The  default  expiration	time  to use for signature expiration.
	      Valid values are "0" for no expiration, a	number followed	by the
	      letter  d	 (for  days), w	(for weeks), m (for months), or	y (for
	      years) (for example "2m"	for  two  months,  or  "5y"  for  five
	      years),  or an absolute date in the form YYYY-MM-DD. Defaults to
	      "0".

       --ask-cert-expire

       --no-ask-cert-expire
	      When making a key	signature, prompt for an expiration  time.  If
	      this  option  is	not  specified,	 the  expiration  time set via
	      --default-cert-expire  is	 used.	--no-ask-cert-expire  disables
	      this option.

       --default-cert-expire
	      The default expiration time to use for key signature expiration.
	      Valid values are "0" for no expiration, a	number followed	by the
	      letter  d	 (for  days), w	(for weeks), m (for months), or	y (for
	      years) (for example "2m"	for  two  months,  or  "5y"  for  five
	      years),  or an absolute date in the form YYYY-MM-DD. Defaults to
	      "0".

       --allow-secret-key-import
	      This is an obsolete option and is	not used anywhere.

       --allow-multiple-messages

       --no-allow-multiple-messages
	      Allow processing of multiple OpenPGP  messages  contained	 in  a
	      single file or stream.  Some programs that call GPG are not pre-
	      pared to deal with multiple messages being  processed  together,
	      so  this option defaults to no.  Note that versions of GPG prior
	      to 1.4.7 always allowed multiple messages.

	      Warning: Do not use this option unless you need it as  a	tempo-
	      rary workaround!

       --enable-special-filenames
	      This  options  enables  a	 mode  in  which filenames of the form
	      `-_n', where n is	a non-negative decimal number,	refer  to  the
	      file descriptor n	and not	to a file with that name.

       --no-expensive-trust-checks
	      Experimental use only.

       --preserve-permissions
	      Don't  change  the  permissions of a secret keyring back to user
	      read/write only. Use this	option only if you  really  know  what
	      you are doing.

       --default-preference-list string
	      Set  the	list of	default	preferences to string. This preference
	      list is used for new keys	and becomes the	default	for  "setpref"
	      in the edit menu.

       --default-keyserver-url name
	      Set  the	default	 keyserver URL to name.	This keyserver will be
	      used as the keyserver URL	when writing a new self-signature on a
	      key, which includes key generation and changing preferences.

       --list-config
	      Display various internal configuration parameters	of GnuPG. This
	      option is	intended for external programs that call GnuPG to per-
	      form  tasks,  and	 is  thus  not	generally useful. See the file
	      `doc/DETAILS' in the source  distribution	 for  the  details  of
	      which  configuration  items may be listed. --list-config is only
	      usable with --with-colons	set.

       --gpgconf-list
	      This command is similar to --list-config	but  in	 general  only
	      internally used by the gpgconf tool.

       --gpgconf-test
	      This  is	more or	less dummy action.  However it parses the con-
	      figuration file and returns with failure	if  the	 configuration
	      file would prevent gpg from startup.  Thus it may	be used	to run
	      a	syntax check on	the configuration file.

   Deprecated options

       --load-extension	name
	      Load an extension	module.	If name	does not contain a slash it is
	      searched	for  in	 the directory configured when GnuPG was built
	      (generally "/usr/local/lib/gnupg"). Extensions are not generally
	      useful anymore, and the use of this option is deprecated.

       --show-photos

       --no-show-photos
	      Causes  --list-keys,  --list-sigs,  --list-public-keys,  --list-
	      secret-keys, and verifying a signature to	also display the photo
	      ID  attached  to the key,	if any.	See also --photo-viewer. These
	      options  are  deprecated.	 Use  --list-options  [no-]show-photos
	      and/or --verify-options [no-]show-photos instead.

       --show-keyring
	      Display  the  keyring  name  at the head of key listings to show
	      which keyring a given key	resides	on. This option	is deprecated:
	      use --list-options [no-]show-keyring instead.

       --ctapi-driver file
	      Use  file	to access the smartcard	reader.	The current default is
	      `libtowitoko.so'.	Note that the use of this interface is	depre-
	      cated; it	may be removed in future releases.

       --always-trust
	      Identical	to --trust-model always. This option is	deprecated.

       --show-notation

       --no-show-notation
	      Show  signature  notations  in  the  --list-sigs or --check-sigs
	      listings as well as when verifying a signature with  a  notation
	      in   it.	 These	options	 are  deprecated.  Use	--list-options
	      [no-]show-notation  and/or  --verify-options  [no-]show-notation
	      instead.

       --show-policy-url

       --no-show-policy-url
	      Show  policy URLs	in the --list-sigs or --check-sigs listings as
	      well as when verifying a signature with  a  policy  URL  in  it.
	      These  options are deprecated. Use --list-options	[no-]show-pol-
	      icy-url and/or --verify-options [no-]show-policy-url instead.

EXAMPLES
       gpg -se -r Bob file
	      sign and encrypt for user	Bob

       gpg --clearsign file
	      make a clear text	signature

       gpg -sb file
	      make a detached signature

       gpg -u 0x12345678 -sb file
	      make a detached signature	with the key 0x12345678

       gpg --list-keys user_ID
	      show keys

       gpg --fingerprint user_ID
	      show fingerprint

       gpg --verify pgpfile

       gpg --verify sigfile
	      Verify the signature of the file but do not output the data. The
	      second  form  is	used for detached signatures, where sigfile is
	      the detached signature (either ASCII armored or binary) and  are
	      the  signed  data;  if  this  is not given, the name of the file
	      holding the signed data is constructed by	cutting	off the	exten-
	      sion (".asc" or ".sig") of sigfile or by asking the user for the
	      filename.

HOW TO SPECIFY A USER ID
       There are different ways	to specify a user ID to	GnuPG.	Some  of  them
       are  only  valid	 for  gpg others are only good for gpgsm.  Here	is the
       entire list of ways to specify a	key:

       By key Id.
	      This format is deduced from the length of	 the  string  and  its
	      content or 0x prefix. The	key Id of an X.509 certificate are the
	      low 64 bits of its SHA-1 fingerprint.  The use  of  key  Ids  is
	      just  a  shortcut,  for all automated processing the fingerprint
	      should be	used.

	      When using gpg an	exclamation mark (!) may be appended to	 force
	      using  the specified primary or secondary	key and	not to try and
	      calculate	which primary or secondary key to use.

	      The last four lines of the example give the key ID in their long
	      form as internally used by the OpenPGP protocol. You can see the
	      long key ID using	the option --with-colons.

	 234567C4
	 0F34E556E
	 01347A56A
	 0xAB123456

	 234AABBCC34567C4
	 0F323456784E56EAB
	 01AB3FED1347A5612
	 0x234AABBCC34567C4

       By fingerprint.
	      This format is deduced from the length of	 the  string  and  its
	      content  or  the 0x prefix.  Note, that only the 20 byte version
	      fingerprint is available with gpgsm (i.e.	the SHA-1 hash of  the
	      certificate).

	      When  using gpg an exclamation mark (!) may be appended to force
	      using the	specified primary or secondary key and not to try  and
	      calculate	which primary or secondary key to use.

	      The  best	 way  to specify a key Id is by	using the fingerprint.
	      This avoids any ambiguities in case that	there  are  duplicated
	      key IDs.

	 1234343434343434C434343434343434
	 123434343434343C3434343434343734349A3434
	 0E12343434343434343434EAB3484343434343434
	 0xE12343434343434343434EAB3484343434343434

       gpgsm  also  accepts  colons  between  each  pair of hexadecimal	digits
       because this is the de-facto standard on	how to present	X.509  finger-
       prints.	 gpg  also allows the use of the space separated SHA-1 finger-
       print as	printed	by the key listing commands.

       By exact	match on OpenPGP user ID.
	      This is denoted by a leading equal sign. It does not make	 sense
	      for X.509	certificates.

	 =Heinrich Heine <heinrichh@uni-duesseldorf.de>

       By exact	match on an email address.
	      This  is	indicated  by enclosing	the email address in the usual
	      way with left and	right angles.

	 <heinrichh@uni-duesseldorf.de>

       By word match.
	      All words	must match exactly (not	case sensitive)	but can	appear
	      in  any  order in	the user ID or a subjects name.	 Words are any
	      sequences	of letters, digits, the	underscore and all  characters
	      with bit 7 set.

	 +Heinrich Heine duesseldorf

       By exact	match on the subject's DN.
	      This  is	indicated by a leading slash, directly followed	by the
	      RFC-2253 encoded DN of the subject.  Note	that you can't use the
	      string  printed  by "gpgsm --list-keys" because that one as been
	      reordered	and modified for better	readability; use --with-colons
	      to print the raw (but standard escaped) RFC-2253 string

	 /CN=Heinrich Heine,O=Poets,L=Paris,C=FR

       By exact	match on the issuer's DN.
	      This is indicated	by a leading hash mark,	directly followed by a
	      slash and	then directly followed by the rfc2253  encoded	DN  of
	      the  issuer.   This  should  return the Root cert	of the issuer.
	      See note above.

	 #/CN=Root Cert,O=Poets,L=Paris,C=FR

       By exact	match on serial	number and issuer's DN.
	      This is indicated	by a hash mark,	followed  by  the  hexadecimal
	      representation  of  the  serial number, then followed by a slash
	      and the RFC-2253 encoded DN of the issuer. See note above.

	 #4F03/CN=Root Cert,O=Poets,L=Paris,C=FR

       By keygrip
	      This is indicated	by an ampersand	followed by the	40 hex	digits
	      of  a  keygrip.  gpgsm prints the	keygrip	when using the command
	      --dump-cert.  It does not	yet work for OpenPGP keys.

	 &D75F22C3F86E355877348498CDC92BD21010A480

       By substring match.
	      This is the default mode but applications	may want to explicitly
	      indicate	this  by  putting the asterisk in front.  Match	is not
	      case sensitive.

	 Heine
	 *Heine

       Please note that	we have	reused the hash	mark identifier	which was used
       in  old	GnuPG  versions	to indicate the	so called local-id.  It	is not
       anymore used and	there should be	 no  conflict  when  used  with	 X.509
       stuff.

       Using the RFC-2253 format of DNs	has the	drawback that it is not	possi-
       ble to map them back to the original encoding, however we don't have to
       do this because our key database	stores this encoding as	meta data.

FILES
       There are a few configuration files to control certain aspects of gpg's
       operation. Unless noted,	they are expected in the current  home	direc-
       tory (see: [option --homedir]).

       gpg.conf
	      This  is the standard configuration file read by gpg on startup.
	      It may contain any valid long option; the	leading	two dashes may
	      not  be  entered	and  the  option may not be abbreviated.  This
	      default name may be changed on  the  command  line  (see:	 [gpg-
	      option --options]).  You should backup this file.

       Note that on larger installations, it is	useful to put predefined files
       into the	directory `/etc/skel/.gnupg/'  so  that	 newly	created	 users
       start up	with a working configuration.

       For internal purposes gpg creates and maintains a few other files; They
       all live	in in the current home directory  (see:	 [option  --homedir]).
       Only the	gpg may	modify these files.

       ~/.gnupg/pubring.gpg
	      The public keyring.  You should backup this file.

       ~/.gnupg/pubring.gpg.lock
	      The lock file for	the public keyring.

       ~/.gnupg/pubring.kbx

       ~/.gnupg/pubring.kbx.lock
	      A	 public	keyring	and its	lock file used by GnuPG	versions >= 2.
	      It is ignored by GnuPG 1.x

       ~/.gnupg/secring.gpg
	      The secret keyring.  You should backup this file.

       ~/.gnupg/trustdb.gpg
	      The trust	database.  There is no need to backup this file; it is
	      better  to  backup the ownertrust	values (see: [option --export-
	      ownertrust]).

       ~/.gnupg/trustdb.gpg.lock
	      The lock file for	the trust database.

       ~/.gnupg/random_seed
	      A	file used to preserve the state	of the internal	random pool.

       ~/.gnupg/secring.gpg.lock
	      The lock file for	the secret keyring.

       ~/.gnupg/openpgp-revocs.d/
	      This is the directory where gpg stores pre-generated  revocation
	      certificates.   The file name corresponds	to the OpenPGP finger-
	      print of the respective key.  It is suggested  to	 backup	 those
	      certificates and if the primary private key is not stored	on the
	      disk to move them	to an external storage device.	Anyone who can
	      access  theses  files  is	 able to revoke	the corresponding key.
	      You may want to print them out.  You should backup all files  in
	      this directory and take care to keep this	backup closed away.

       /usr[/local]/share/gnupg/options.skel
	      The skeleton options file.

       /usr[/local]/lib/gnupg/
	      Default location for extensions.

       Operation is further controlled by a few	environment variables:

       HOME   Used to locate the default home directory.

       GNUPGHOME
	      If set directory used instead of "~/.gnupg".

       GPG_AGENT_INFO
	      Used  to locate the gpg-agent.  This is only honored when	--use-
	      agent is set.

	      The value	consists of 3 colon delimited fields: The first	is the
	      path  to	the Unix Domain	Socket,	the second the PID of the gpg-
	      agent and	the protocol version which should be set  to  1.  When
	      starting	the  gpg-agent as described in its documentation, this
	      variable is set to the correct value.  The  option  --gpg-agent-
	      info can be used to override it.

       PINENTRY_USER_DATA
	      This value is passed via gpg-agent to pinentry.  It is useful to
	      convey extra information to a custom pinentry.

       COLUMNS

       LINES  Used to size some	displays to the	full size of the screen.

       LANGUAGE
	      Apart from its use by GNU, it is used  in	 the  W32  version  to
	      override	the  language selection	done through the Registry.  If
	      used and set to a	valid and available  language  name  (langid),
	      the file with the	translation is loaded from

	      gpgdir/gnupg.nls/langid.mo.  Here	gpgdir is the directory	out of
	      which the	gpg binary has been loaded.  If	it can't be loaded the
	      Registry	is  tried and as last resort the native	Windows	locale
	      system is	used.

BUGS
       On older	systems	this program should be installed as setuid(root). This
       is  necessary  to  lock memory pages. Locking memory pages prevents the
       operating  system  from	writing	 memory	 pages	(which	 may   contain
       passphrases or other sensitive material)	to disk. If you	get no warning
       message about insecure memory your operating  system  supports  locking
       without being root. The program drops root privileges as	soon as	locked
       memory is allocated.

       Note also that some systems (especially laptops)	have  the  ability  to
       ``suspend  to  disk''  (also known as ``safe sleep'' or ``hibernate'').
       This writes all memory to disk before going into	a low  power  or  even
       powered off mode.  Unless measures are taken in the operating system to
       protect the saved memory, passphrases or	other sensitive	 material  may
       be recoverable from it later.

       Before  you  report  a bug you should first search the mailing list ar-
       chives for similar problems and second check whether  such  a  bug  has
       already been reported to	our bug	tracker	at http://bugs.gnupg.org .

SEE ALSO
       gpgv(1),

       The full	documentation for this tool is maintained as a Texinfo manual.
       If GnuPG	and the	info program are properly installed at your site,  the
       command

	 info gnupg

       should  give  you access	to the complete	manual including a menu	struc-
       ture and	an index.

GnuPG 1.4.21			  2017-07-02				GPG(1)

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | RETURN VALUE | WARNINGS | INTEROPERABILITY | COMMANDS | OPTIONS | EXAMPLES | HOW TO SPECIFY A USER ID | FILES | BUGS | SEE ALSO

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