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GPART(8)                FreeBSD System Manager's Manual               GPART(8)

NAME
     gpart - control utility for the disk partitioning GEOM class

SYNOPSIS
     To add support for the disk partitioning GEOM class, place one or more of
     the following lines in your kernel configuration file:

           options GEOM_PART_APM
           options GEOM_PART_BSD
           options GEOM_PART_GPT
           options GEOM_PART_MBR
           options GEOM_PART_PC98
           options GEOM_PART_VTOC8

     The GEOM_PART_APM option adds support for the Apple Partition Map (APM)
     found on Apple Macintosh computers.  The GEOM_PART_BSD option adds
     support for the traditional BSD disklabel.  The GEOM_PART_GPT option adds
     support for the GUID Partition Table (GPT) found on Intel Itanium
     computers and Intel-based Macintosh computers.  The GEOM_PART_MBR option
     adds support for the Master Boot Record (MBR) found on PCs and used on
     many removable media.  The GEOM_PART_PC98 option adds support for the MBR
     variant as used on NEC PC-98 computers.  The GEOM_PART_VTOC8 option adds
     support for Sun's SMI VTOC8 label as found on computers based on SPARC64
     and UltraSPARC.

     Usage of the gpart(8) utility:

     gpart add -b start -s size -t type [-i index] [-l label] [-f flags] geom
     gpart bootcode [-b bootcode] [-p partcode -i index] [-f flags] geom
     gpart commit geom
     gpart create -s scheme [-n entries] [-f flags] provider
     gpart delete -i index [-f flags] geom
     gpart destroy [-f flags] geom
     gpart modify -i index [-l label] [-t type] [-f flags] geom
     gpart set -a attrib -i index [-f flags] geom
     gpart show [geom ...]
     gpart undo geom
     gpart unset -a attrib -i index [-f flags] geom

DESCRIPTION
     The gpart utility is used to partition GEOM providers, normally disks.
     The first argument of which is the action to be taken:

     add          Add a new partition to the partitioning scheme given by
                  geom.  The partition begins on the logical block address
                  given by the -b start option.  Its size is expressed in
                  logical block numbers and given by the -s size option.  The
                  type of the partition is given by the -t type option.
                  Partition types are discussed in the section entitled
                  "Partition Types".

                  Addition options include:

                  -i index           The index in the partition table at which
                                     the new partition is to be placed. The
                                     index determines the name of the device
                                     special file used to represent the
                                     partition.

                  -l label           The label attached to the partition.
                                     This option is only valid when used on
                                     partitioning schemes that support
                                     partition labels.

                  -f flags           Additional operational flags.  See the
                                     section entitled "Operational flags"
                                     below for a discussion about its use.

     bootcode     Embed bootstrap code into the partitioning scheme's metadata
                  on the geom (using -b bootcode) or write bootstrap code into
                  a partition (using -p partcode and -i index).  Not all
                  partitioning schemes have embedded bootstrap code, so the -b
                  bootcode option is scheme-specific in nature.  For the GPT
                  scheme, embedded bootstrap code is supported.  The bootstrap
                  code is embedded in the protective MBR rather than the GPT.
                  The -b bootcode option specifies a file that contains the
                  bootstrap code.  The contents and size of the file are
                  determined by the partitioning scheme.  For the MBR scheme,
                  it's a 512 byte file of which the first 446 bytes are
                  installed as bootstrap code.  The -p partcode option
                  specifies a file that contains the bootstrap code intended
                  to be written to a partition.  For the VTOC8 scheme, it is a
                  8192 byte file of which the last 7680 bytes are installed as
                  bootstrap code.  The partition is specified by the -i index
                  option.  For the VTOC8 scheme, if the -i index option is
                  omitted, the bootstrap code is written to all sufficiently
                  large partitions.  The size of the file must be smaller than
                  the size of the partition.

                  Addition options include:

                  -f flags          Additional operational flags.  See the
                                    section entitled "Operational flags" below
                                    for a discussion about its use.

     commit       Commit any pending changes for geom geom.  All actions are
                  being committed by default and will not result in pending
                  changes.  Actions can be modified with the -f flags option
                  so that they are not being committed by default.  As such,
                  they become pending.  Pending changes are reflected by the
                  geom and the gpart utility, but they are not actually
                  written to disk.  The commit action will write any and all
                  pending changes to disk.

     create       Create a new partitioning scheme on a provider given by
                  provider.  The -s scheme option determines the scheme to
                  use.  The kernel needs to have support for a particular
                  scheme before that scheme can be used to partition a disk.

                  Addition options include:

                  -n entries        The number of entries in the partition
                                    table.  Every partitioning scheme has a
                                    minimum and a maximum number of entries
                                    and this option allows tables to be
                                    created with the number of entries that
                                    lies anywhere between the minimum and the
                                    maximum.  Some schemes have a maximum
                                    equal to the minimum and some schemes have
                                    a maximum large enough to be considered
                                    unlimited.  By default, partition tables
                                    are created with the minimum number of
                                    entries.

                  -f flags          Additional operational flags.  See the
                                    section entitled "Operational flags" below
                                    for a discussion about its use.

     delete       Delete a partition from geom geom and further identified by
                  the -i index option.  The partition cannot be actively used
                  by the kernel.

                  Addition options include:

                  -f flags          Additional operational flags.  See the
                                    section entitled "Operational flags" below
                                    for a discussion about its use.

     destroy      Destroy the partitioning scheme as implemented by geom geom.

                  Addition options include:

                  -f flags          Additional operational flags.  See the
                                    section entitled "Operational flags" below
                                    for a discussion about its use.

     modify       Modify a partition from geom geom and further identified by
                  the -i index option.  Only the the type and/or label of the
                  partition can be modified.  To change the type of a
                  partition, specify the new type with the -t type option.  To
                  change the label of a partition, specify the new label with
                  the -l label option.  Not all partitioning schemes support
                  labels and it is invalid to try to change a partition label
                  in such cases.

                  Addition options include:

                  -f flags          Additional operational flags.  See the
                                    section entitled "Operational flags" below
                                    for a discussion about its use.

     set          Set the named attribute on the partition entry.

                  Addition options include:

                  -f flags          Additional operational flags.  See the
                                    section entitled "Operational flags" below
                                    for a discussion about its use.

     show         Show the current partition information of the specified
                  geoms or all geoms if none are specified.

     undo         Revert any pending changes.  This action is the opposite of
                  the commit action and can be used to undo any changes that
                  have not been committed.

     unset        Clear the named attribute on the partition entry.

                  Addition options include:

                  -f flags          Additional operational flags.  See the
                                    section entitled "Operational flags" below
                                    for a discussion about its use.

PARTITION TYPES
     The gpart utility uses symbolic names for common partition types to avoid
     that the user needs to know what the partitioning scheme in question is
     and what the actual number or identification needs to be used for a
     particular type.  the gpart utility also allows the user to specify
     scheme-specific partition types for partition types that don't have
     symbol names.  The symbolic names currently understood are:

     efi            The system partition for computers that use the Extensible
                    Firmware Interface (EFI).  In such cases, the GPT
                    partitioning scheme is being used and the actual partition
                    type for the system partition can also be specified as
                    "!c12a7328-f81f-11d2-ba4b-00a0c93ec93ab".

     freebsd        A FreeBSD partition that uses the BSD disklabel to sub-
                    divide the partition into file systems.  This is a legacy
                    partition type and should not be used for the APM or GPT
                    schemes.  The scheme-specific types are "!165" for MBR,
                    "!FreeBSD" for APM, and
                    "!516e7cb4-6ecf-11d6-8ff8-00022d09712b" for GPT.

     freebsd-boot   A FreeBSD partition dedicated to bootstrap code.  The
                    scheme-specific type is "!83bd6b9d-7f41-11dc-
                    be0b-001560b84f0f" for GPT.

     freebsd-swap   A FreeBSD partition dedicated to swap space.  The scheme-
                    specific types are "!FreeBSD-swap" for APM,
                    "!516e7cb5-6ecf-11d6-8ff8-00022d09712b" for GPT, and tag
                    0x0901 for VTOC8.

     freebsd-ufs    A FreeBSD partition that contains a UFS or UFS2 file
                    system.  the scheme-specific types are "!FreeBSD-UFS" for
                    APM, "!516e7cb6-6ecf-11d6-8ff8-00022d09712b" for GPT, and
                    tag 0x0902 for VTOC8.

     freebsd-vinum  A FreeBSD partition that contains a Vinum volume.  The
                    scheme-specific types are "!FreeBSD-Vinum" for APM,
                    "!516e7cb8-6ecf-11d6-8ff8-00022d09712b" for GPT, and tag
                    0x0903 for VTOC8.

     freebsd-zfs    A FreeBSD partition that contains a ZFS volume.  The
                    scheme-specific types are "!FreeBSD-ZFS" for APM,
                    "!516e7cba-6ecf-11d6-8ff8-00022d09712b" for GPT, and
                    0x0904 for VTOC8.

     mbr            A partition that is sub-partitioned by a master boot
                    record (MBR).  This type is known as
                    "!024dee41-33e7-11d3-9d69-0008c781f39f" by GPT.

OPERATIONAL FLAGS
     Actions other than the commit and undo actions take an optional -f flags
     option.  This option is used to specify action-specific operational
     flags.  By default, the gpart utility defines the 'C' flag so that the
     action is immediately committed.  The user can specify -f x to have the
     action result in a pending change that can later, with other pending
     changes, be committed as a single compound change with the commit action
     or reverted with the undo action.

EXIT STATUS
     Exit status is 0 on success, and 1 if the command fails.

EXAMPLES
     Create GPT scheme on ad0.

           /sbin/gpart create -s GPT ad0

     Embed GPT bootstrap code into protective MBR.

           /sbin/gpart bootcode -b /boot/pmbr ad0

     Create a dedicated freebsd-boot partition that can boot FreeBSD from a
     freebsd-ufs partition, and install bootstrap code into it.  This
     partition must be larger than /boot/gptboot, or the GPT boot you are
     planning to write.  A size of 15 blocks (7680 bytes) would be sufficient
     for booting from UFS but lets use 128 blocks (64 KB) here in this
     example, in order to reserve some space for potential future need (e.g.
     from a ZFS partition).

           /sbin/gpart add -b 34 -s 128 -t freebsd-boot ad0
           /sbin/gpart bootcode -p /boot/gptboot -i 1 ad0

     Create a 512MB-sized freebsd-ufs partition that would contain UFS where
     the system boots from.

           /sbin/gpart add -b 162 -s 1048576 -t freebsd-ufs ad0

     Create VTOC8 scheme on da0.

           /sbin/gpart create -s VTOC8 da0

     Create a 512MB-sized freebsd-ufs partition that would contain UFS where
     the system boots from.

           /sbin/gpart add -b 0 -s 1048576 -t freebsd-ufs da0

     After having created all required partitions, embed bootstrap code into
     them.

           /sbin/gpart bootcode -p /boot/boot1 da0

SEE ALSO
     geom(4), geom(8),

HISTORY
     The gpart utility appeared in FreeBSD 7.0.

AUTHORS
     Marcel Moolenaar <marcel@FreeBSD.org>

FreeBSD 11.0-PRERELEASE          June 3, 2010          FreeBSD 11.0-PRERELEASE

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | PARTITION TYPES | OPERATIONAL FLAGS | EXIT STATUS | EXAMPLES | SEE ALSO | HISTORY | AUTHORS

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