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gnome-mount(1)		    General Commands Manual		gnome-mount(1)

       gnome-mount - Mount drives and volumes using HAL	and read settings from
       the GNOME desktop configuration system gconf.

       gnome-mount  [-?|--help]	 [-v]  [-n]  [-t]  [-b]	 [-d  /dev/file	 |  -h
       /org/fd/Hal/udi	| -p nickname] [--unmount | --eject | --write-settings
       | --erase-settings |  --show-settings]  [--mount-point  where-to-mount]
       [--mount-options	      opt1,opt2=foo,opt3]	[--extra-mount-options
       opt4,opt5=bar] [--fstype	fstype-to-use]

       This program is used to mount and unmount file systems for GNOME	 desk-
       top  users. It can also be used to eject	discs from CD drives and other
       devices that needs to be	ejected. For example,  iPod's  needs  this  to
       make the	"Do not	disconnect" message go away.

       Normally,  this	program	 is  invoked  by  software  in the GNOME stack
       (specifically gnome-vfs-daemon and gnome-volume-manager	).  End	 users
       should  never  have  to	deal  with gnome-mount directly	on the command
       line, nor should	they have to read this manual page.

       Mounting	a file system into the root file system	involves a certain de-
       gree of configuration and as such is subject to whatever	preferences an
       user might have.	 gnome-mount allows the	 user  to  control  the	 mount
       point  location,	 the  mount  options  and  what	file system to use for
       mounting	a file system. The settings are	read from the  gconf  database
       (which  is per-user) and	can also be overridden on the command line us-
       ing the appropriate parameters. See below.

       The target (e.g.	the partition or file  system  to  mount,  unmount  or
       eject)  can  be specified using the HAL UDI (Unique Device Identifier),
       e.g.  /org/freedesktop/Hal/devices/volume_uuid_E18B_10EC	, the name  of
       the special device file,	e.g.  /dev/sda1	or a pseudonym.	 The latter is
       a textual string	used to	locate the target  and	it  makes  gnome-mount
       search  for  the	 target	 by  comparing the given textual string	to the
       mount points and	file system labels.

       Settings	(e.g. mount point, mount options, file system type)  are  read
       in  the order below. Note that each option is treated individually; for
       example it is valid for a drive to only specify the mount point setting
       and  not	the mount options. Also	note that the even if the drive	speci-
       fies mount options, these can be	overridden on a	per-volume basis.

	      First, default mount options are read  from  /system/storage/de-
	      faults/FS_TYPE/  for  the	probed file system type	of the volume.
	      The option uid=, is treated specially by gnome-mount and will be
	      replaced	by  uid=UID_OF_USER to cope with the fact that the uid
	      is a function of the user	calling	it.

       PER DRIVE
	      Second, the gconf	tree  at  /system/storage/drives/UDI_OF_DRIVE/
	      is  consulted  for  options that depend on what drive the	volume
	      belongs to. For example, this is	useful	for  configuring  that
	      volumes  inserted	 into  a  given	drive is always	mounted	at the
	      same  location.  For  example,  this  can	 be  used  to  emulate
	      /etc/fstab behaviour by where CD media is	always mounted at e.g.

	      Third, the gconf tree  at	 /system/storage/drives/UDI_OF_VOLUME/
	      is consulted for options that are	specific to a particular piece
	      of media and as such depends on either  the  file	 system	 label
	      (e.g.   EOS_DIGITAL ) or the file	system UUID (e.g.  E18B_10EC )
	      or both.

	      Users can	pass --mount-point , --mount-options  or  --fstype  on
	      the commandline to override settings.

	      Finally,	if  mount options are passed via --extra-mount-options
	      these are	not replacing  the  mount  options,  they  are	simply
	      added.  This is useful for doing e.g.

	       gnome-mount --extra-mount-options remount,exec -d /dev/sda1

	      to  remount a volumes such that programs can be run from the me-
	      dia.  This is useful for e.g. gnome-volume-manager if it discov-
	      ers an autorun file on the media.

       gnome-mount   supports	passworded  media  through  the	 org.freedesk-
       top.Hal.Device.Volume.Crypto interface supported	by HAL	and  this  in-
       cludes  volumes formatted in a way that adheres to the LUKS (Linux Uni-
       fied Key	Setup) specification. In  addition,  gnome-mount  uses	gnome-
       keyring	to  retrieve  and  store the pass phrase. If no	key can	be re-
       trieved,	gnome-mount will prompt	the user for one. In addition, if  the
       keyring	is  locked, the	user may be prompted to	unlock it via standard
       gnome-keyring mechanisms.

       gnome-mount is intended for unprivileged	users and HAL ultimately  con-
       trols if	the calling user is allowed to mount, unmount or eject volumes
       as well as what mount options are valid.	As such, requests may  be  de-
       nied.  See the (human readable) exception returned from HAL for details
       if a request fails.

       Note that HAL has a notion of what mount	options	are valid for a	 given
       volume.	They are listed	in the HAL property volume.mount.valid_options
       on the device object representing the volume to mount. Consult lshal(1)
       for  details.  Also note	that HAL by default appends the	options	nosuid
       and nodev to prevent privilege escalation.

       In addition to using HAL	as the mechanism for  mounting	file  systems,
       the  /etc/fstab	file is	also consulted as HAL will refuse to mount any
       file system listed in this file as it would violate system  policy.  If
       this  is	the case, gnome-mount will invoke mount(1) as the calling user
       rather than invoking the	Mount method  on  the  org.freedesktop.Hal.De-
       vice.Volume  interface  on  the device object representing the volume /
       drive. This means that settings (mount point, mount options, file  sys-
       tem type) read by gnome-mount are not passed along as these are already
       specified in the	/etc/fstab file	and there are no mechanism to override
       them.  When  parsing the	/etc/fstab file, gnome-mount (and also HAL for
       that matter) resolves symbolic links and	also respects the  LABEL=  and
       UUID= notations.	For example, if	this line is in	/etc/fstab

	LABEL=MyVolume /mnt/myvolume auto user,defaults	0 0

       then  gnome-mount  mounts  the  file system with	the label MyVolume via
       mount(1)	and /etc/fstab rather than using the HAL mechanisms.

       Options available for the gnome-mount command:

       -v, --verbose
	      Verbose operation, shows debug messages.

       -n, --no-ui
	      Don't show any dialogs the user needs  to	 dismiss.  If  X11  is
	      available, gnome-mount may pop up	transient notification bubbles
	      e.g. suggesting the user to remount a volume with	different  op-
	      tions  to	 streamline  access to file systems with ownership at-
	      tributes.	This is	the option that	storage	policy daemons such as
	      gnome-volume-manager  should  invoke  gnome-mount	 in. File man-
	      agers, however, such as Nautilus , should	never use this	option
	      as  the  user should get e.g. an error dialog if he tries	to ac-
	      cess a volume with a missing, unsupported	or unknown  file  sys-

       -b, --block
	      Allow gnome-mount	to block even if an error occured. By default,
	      gnome-mount will daemonize so it can return control to  the  in-
	      voking  application  as soon as possible (e.g. when an operation
	      either fails or succeeds ) while still showing an	 error	dialog
	      to the end user. Useful when debugging.

       -u, --unmount
	      Use  this	for unmounting rather than mounting. If	gnome-mount is
	      invoked as gnome-umount (a symlink to gnome-mount	 )  then  this
	      option is	automatically selected.

       -e, --eject
	      Use  this	 for  ejecting rather than mounting. If	gnome-mount is
	      invoked as gnome-eject (a	symlink	to gnome-mount ) then this op-
	      tion is automatically selected.

       -d, --device
	      Specify target volume by the special device file.

       -h, --hal-udi
	      Specify target volume by HAL UDI (Unique Device Identifier).

       -p, --pseudonym
	      Specify  target  volume  by  pseudonym.  See  above for how this

       -t, --text
	      Never use	X11 dialogs or notification bubbles  even  if  an  X11
	      server  is available. Also prohibits the use of gnome-keyring to
	      retrieve pass phrases for	passworded media  because  this	 might
	      require  unlocking the keyring which happens through an X11 dia-
	      log out of process. Useful for command line operation.

       -m, --mount-point
	      Specify mount point to use; don't	include	/media as this is  au-
	      tomatically appened by the mechanism used	to mount, e.g. the HAL

       -o, --mount-options
	      Specify mount options. Separate by comma.

       -f, --fstype
	      Specify file system type.	This is	useful for using e.g. the  ms-
	      dos file system instead of the vfat file system.

	      Instead  of  mounting  a drive, specify what options to store in
	      the gconf	database. Can be used on both drives and  volumes.  Be
	      careful  using  this  with the --device option as	optical	drives
	      (among others) use the same special device  file	for  both  the
	      drive  and  the volume. One trick	is to ensure the optical drive
	      has no media when	configuring it via this	option.	 Another  pos-
	      sibility is to use the HAL UDI instead.

	      Display settings for a drive or volume.

	      Erase settings for a drive or volume.

       gnome-mount will	return zero if the request succeeded or	non-zero if it
       failed. Note that gnome-mount is	specifically  designed	to  run	 in  a
       graphical user environment and as such all error	reporting (and resolu-
       tion) is	through	X11 dialogs. For example, if HAL reports that a	volume
       could  not  be  mounted because of a missing file system	driver,	gnome-
       mount might, one	day, launch a tool to ask the  user  if	 he  wants  to
       download	 and  install  the driver. In a	similar	way, all error dialogs
       are presented via X11 dialogs to	the user as well.

       We want to make sure that the discs inserted into an optical drive  are
       always  mounted at /media/cdrecorder instead of using the default which
       is using	the label specified in the iso9660 or udf file system  header.
       Assuming	 that  the  drive is empty and the special device file for the
       drive is	/dev/hdc the following command will work

	   gnome-mount --write-settings
		       --device	/dev/hdc
		       --mount-point cdrecorder

       This can	be inspected via the --display-settings	option	and  the  set-
       tings  can  also	 be  erased via	the --erase-settings option. Also note
       that gconf-editor(1) can	be used	for tasks like these.

       HAL polls most storage devices for media	insertion / removal and	 main-
       tains  the  list	 of devices exported. However, some hardware cannot be
       polled for media	changes	without	making noise or	for other reasons.  PC
       floppy drives, Zip drives connected through an IDE interface and	broken
       optical drives falls into this category.

       For such	hardware HAL only exports the drive and	rather than  exporting
       volume  as  childs  of the drive, the org.freedesktop.Hal.Device.Volume
       interface is exported on	the drive itself.  gnome-mount	supports  this
       but it means that it is impossible to know ahead	of time	what file sys-
       tem is on the media in the problematic drive, so	in  this  case	gnome-
       mount  passes auto as the file system type and passes the mount options
       uid=UID_OF_USER as most media in	such devices are formatted with	either
       the vfat	, udf or iso9660 file systems.

       This also means that per-volume settings	are not	possible; one can only
       specify settings	per-drive.

       gnome-mount was written by David	Zeuthen	<>.

       fstab(5), mount(8), umount(8), eject(1),	cryptsetup(8), gconftool-2(1),
       gconf-editor(1),	lshal(1)



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