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gm(1)			    General Commands Manual			 gm(1)

       NAME

	      gm  - command-line utility to create, edit, compare, convert, or
	      display images

SYNOPSIS
       gm animate [ options ...	] file [ [ options ... ] file ... ]

       gm batch	[ options ... ]	[ script ]

       gm benchmark [ options ... ] subcommand

       gm compare [ options ...	] reference-image [ options ...	]  compare-im-
       age [ options ... ]

       gm  composite  [	 options  ... ]	change-image base-image	[ mask-image ]
       output-image

       gm conjure [ options ] script.msl [ [ options ] script.msl ]

       gm convert [ [ options ... ] [ input-file ...  ]	[ options ... ]	] out-
       put-file

       gm display [ options ...	] file ...  [ [options ... ]file ... ]

       gm identify file	[ file ... ]

       gm import [ options ... ] file

       gm mogrify [ options ...	] file ...

       gm  montage  [  options ... ] file [ [ options ... ] file ... ] output-
       file

       gm time subcommand

       gm version

DESCRIPTION
	GraphicsMagick's gm provides a suite of	utilities for  creating,  com-
       paring,	converting, editing, and displaying images.  All of the	utili-
       ties are	provided as sub-commands of a single gm	executable:

       animate displays	an animation (e.g. a GIF file) on any workstation dis-
       play running an X server.

       batch  executes	an  arbitary number of the utility commands (e.g. con-
       vert) in	the form of a simple linear batch script in order  to  improve
       execution  efficiency,  and/or to allow use as a	subordinate co-process
       under the control of an arbitrary script	or program.

       benchmark executes one of the other utility commands (e.g. convert) for
       a specified number of iterations, or execution time, and	reports	execu-
       tion time and other profiling  information  such	 as  CPU  utilization.
       Benchmark provides various operating modes including executing the com-
       mand with a varying number of threads, and alternate reporting  formats
       such as comma-separated value (CSV).

       compare compares	two images and reports difference statistics according
       to specified metrics and/or outputs an image with a visual  representa-
       tion  of	 the  differences.   It	may also be used to test if images are
       similar within a	particular range and  specified	 metric,  returning  a
       truth value to the executing environment.

       composite  composites images (blends or merges images together) to cre-
       ate new images.

       conjure interprets and executes scripts in the  Magick  Scripting  Lan-
       guage (MSL).

       convert converts	an input file using one	image format to	an output file
       with the	same or	differing image	format	while  applying	 an  arbitrary
       number of image transformations.

       display is a machine architecture independent image processing and dis-
       play facility. It can display an	image on any workstation display  run-
       ning an X server.

       identify	 describes the format and characteristics of one or more image
       files. It will also report if an	image is incomplete or corrupt.

       import reads an image from any visible window on	an X server  and  out-
       puts  it	 as an image file. You can capture a single window, the	entire
       screen, or any rectangular portion of the screen.

       mogrify transforms an image or a	sequence of images.  These  transforms
       include image scaling, image rotation, color reduction, and others. The
       transmogrified image overwrites the original image.

       montage creates a composite by combining	several	separate  images.  The
       images  are tiled on the	composite image	with the name of the image op-
       tionally	appearing just below the individual tile.

       time executes a subcommand and reports the user,	system,	and total exe-
       cution time consumed.

       version	reports	 the  GraphicsMagick  release version, maximum sample-
       depth, copyright	notice,	supported features, and	the options used while
       building	the software.

       The GraphicsMagick utilities recognize the following image formats:

       Name  Mode Description
	o  3FR	     r-- Hasselblad Photo RAW
	o  8BIM	     rw- Photoshop resource format
	o  8BIMTEXT  rw- Photoshop resource text format
	o  8BIMWTEXT rw- Photoshop resource wide text format
	o  APP1	     rw- Raw application information
	o  APP1JPEG  rw- Raw JPEG binary data
	o  ART	     r-- PF1: 1st Publisher
	o  ARW	     r-- Sony Alpha DSLR RAW
	o  AVS	     rw+ AVS X image
	o  BIE	     rw- Joint Bi-level	Image experts Group
			 interchange format
	o  BMP	     rw+ Microsoft Windows bitmap image
	o  BMP2	     -w- Microsoft Windows bitmap image	v2
	o  BMP3	     -w- Microsoft Windows bitmap image	v3
	o  CACHE     --- Magick	Persistent Cache image format
	o  CALS	     rw- Continuous Acquisition	and Life-cycle
			 Support Type 1	image
	o  CAPTION   r-- Caption (requires separate size info)
	o  CIN	     rw- Kodak Cineon Format
	o  CMYK	     rw- Raw cyan, magenta, yellow, and	black
			 samples (8 or 16 bits,	depending on
			 the image depth)
	o  CMYKA     rw- Raw cyan, magenta, yellow, black, and
			 matte samples (8 or 16	bits, depending
			 on the	image depth)
	o  CR2	     r-- Canon Photo RAW
	o  CRW	     r-- Canon Photo RAW
	o  CUR	     r-- Microsoft Cursor Icon
	o  CUT	     r-- DR Halo
	o  DCM	     r-- Digital Imaging and Communications in
			 Medicine image
	o  DCR	     r-- Kodak Photo RAW
	o  DCX	     rw+ ZSoft IBM PC multi-page Paintbrush
	o  DNG	     r-- Adobe Digital Negative
	o  DPS	     r-- Display PostScript Interpreter
	o  DPX	     rw- Digital Moving	Picture	Exchange
	o  EPDF	     rw- Encapsulated Portable Document	Format
	o  EPI	     rw- Adobe Encapsulated PostScript
			 Interchange format
	o  EPS	     rw- Adobe Encapsulated PostScript
	o  EPS2	     -w- Adobe Level II	Encapsulated PostScript
	o  EPS3	     -w- Adobe Level III Encapsulated PostScript
	o  EPSF	     rw- Adobe Encapsulated PostScript
	o  EPSI	     rw- Adobe Encapsulated PostScript
			 Interchange format
	o  EPT	     rw- Adobe Encapsulated PostScript with MS-DOS
			 TIFF preview
	o  EPT2	     rw- Adobe Level II	Encapsulated PostScript
			 with MS-DOS TIFF preview
	o  EPT3	     rw- Adobe Level III Encapsulated PostScript
			 with MS-DOS TIFF preview
	o  EXIF	     rw- Exif digital camera binary data
	o  FAX	     rw+ Group 3 FAX (Not TIFF Group3 FAX!)
	o  FITS	     rw- Flexible Image	Transport System
	o  FRACTAL   r-- Plasma	fractal	image
	o  FPX	     rw- FlashPix Format
	o  GIF	     rw+ CompuServe graphics interchange format
	o  GIF87     rw- CompuServe graphics interchange format
			 (version 87a)
	o  GRADIENT  r-- Gradual passing from one shade	to
			 another
	o  GRAY	     rw+ Raw gray samples (8/16/32 bits,
			 depending on the image	depth)
	o  HISTOGRAM -w- Histogram of the image
	o  HRZ	     r-- HRZ: Slow scan	TV
	o  HTML	     -w- Hypertext Markup Language and a
			 client-side image map
	o  ICB	     rw+ Truevision Targa image
	o  ICC	     rw- ICC Color Profile
	o  ICM	     rw- ICC Color Profile
	o  ICO	     r-- Microsoft icon
	o  ICON	     r-- Microsoft icon
	o  IDENTITY  r-- Hald CLUT identity image
	o  IMAGE     r-- GraphicsMagick	Embedded Image
	o  INFO	     -w+ Image descriptive information and
			  statistics
	o  IPTC	     rw- IPTC Newsphoto
	o  IPTCTEXT  rw- IPTC Newsphoto	text format
	o  IPTCWTEXT rw- IPTC Newsphoto	wide text format
	o  JBG	     rw+ Joint Bi-level	Image experts Group
			 interchange format
	o  JBIG	     rw+ Joint Bi-level	Image experts Group
			 interchange format
	o  JNG	     rw- JPEG Network Graphics
	o  JP2	     rw- JPEG-2000 JP2 File Format Syntax
	o  JPC	     rw- JPEG-2000 Code	Stream Syntax
	o  JPEG	     rw- Joint Photographic Experts Group
			 JFIF format
	o  JPG	     rw- Joint Photographic Experts Group
			 JFIF format
	o  K25	     r-- Kodak Photo RAW
	o  KDC	     r-- Kodak Photo RAW
	o  LABEL     r-- Text image format
	o  M2V	     rw+ MPEG-2	Video Stream
	o  MAP	     rw- Colormap intensities and indices
	o  MAT	     r-- MATLAB	image format
	o  MATTE     -w+ MATTE format
	o  MIFF	     rw+ Magick	Image File Format
	o  MNG	     rw+ Multiple-image	Network	Graphics
	o  MONO	     rw- Bi-level bitmap in least-significant-
			 -byte-first order
	o  MPC	     rw+ Magick	Persistent Cache image format
	o  MPEG	     rw+ MPEG-1	Video Stream
	o  MPG	     rw+ MPEG-1	Video Stream
	o  MRW	     r-- Minolta Photo Raw
	o  MSL	     r-- Magick	Scripting Language
	o  MTV	     rw+ MTV Raytracing	image format
	o  MVG	     rw- Magick	Vector Graphics
	o  NEF	     r-- Nikon Electronic Format
	o  NULL	     r-- Constant image	of uniform color
	o  OTB	     rw- On-the-air bitmap
	o  P7	     rw+ Xv thumbnail format
	o  PAL	     rw- 16bit/pixel interleaved YUV
	o  PALM	     rw- Palm Pixmap
	o  PBM	     rw+ Portable bitmap format	(black and white)
	o  PCD	     rw- Photo CD
	o  PCDS	     rw- Photo CD
	o  PCL	     -w- Page Control Language
	o  PCT	     rw- Apple Macintosh QuickDraw/PICT
	o  PCX	     rw- ZSoft IBM PC Paintbrush
	o  PDB	     rw+ Palm Database ImageViewer Format
	o  PDF	     rw+ Portable Document Format
	o  PEF	     r-- Pentax	Electronic File
	o  PFA	     r-- TrueType font
	o  PFB	     r-- TrueType font
	o  PGM	     rw+ Portable graymap format (gray scale)
	o  PGX	     r-- JPEG-2000 VM Format
	o  PICON     rw- Personal Icon
	o  PICT	     rw- Apple Macintosh QuickDraw/PICT
	o  PIX	     r-- Alias/Wavefront RLE image format
	o  PLASMA    r-- Plasma	fractal	image
	o  PNG	     rw- Portable Network Graphics
	o  PNG24     rw- Portable Network Graphics, 24 bit RGB
			 opaque	only
	o  PNG32     rw- Portable Network Graphics, 32 bit RGBA
			 semitransparency OK
	o  PNG8	     rw- Portable Network Graphics, 8-bit
			 indexed, binary transparency only
	o  PNM	     rw+ Portable anymap
	o  PPM	     rw+ Portable pixmap format	(color)
	o  PREVIEW   -w- Show a	preview	an image enhancement,
			 effect, or f/x
	o  PS	     rw+ Adobe PostScript
	o  PS2	     -w+ Adobe Level II	PostScript
	o  PS3	     -w+ Adobe Level III PostScript
	o  PSD	     rw- Adobe Photoshop bitmap
	o  PTIF	     rw- Pyramid encoded TIFF
	o  PWP	     r-- Seattle Film Works
	o  RAF	     r-- Fuji Photo RAW
	o  RAS	     rw+ SUN Rasterfile
	o  RGB	     rw+ Raw red, green, and blue samples
	o  RGBA	     rw+ Raw red, green, blue, and matte samples
	o  RLA	     r-- Alias/Wavefront image
	o  RLE	     r-- Utah Run length encoded image
	o  SCT	     r-- Scitex	HandShake
	o  SFW	     r-- Seattle Film Works
	o  SGI	     rw+ Irix RGB image
	o  SHTML     -w- Hypertext Markup Language and a
			 client-side image map
	o  STEGANO   r-- Steganographic	image
	o  SUN	     rw+ SUN Rasterfile
	o  SVG	     rw+ Scalable Vector Gaphics
	o  TEXT	     rw+ Raw text
	o  TGA	     rw+ Truevision Targa image
	o  TIFF	     rw+ Tagged	Image File Format
	o  TILE	     r-- Tile image with a texture
	o  TIM	     r-- PSX TIM
	o  TOPOL     r-- TOPOL X Image
	o  TTF	     r-- TrueType font
	o  TXT	     rw+ Raw text
	o  UIL	     -w- X-Motif UIL table
	o  UYVY	     rw- 16bit/pixel interleaved YUV
	o  VDA	     rw+ Truevision Targa image
	o  VICAR     rw- VICAR rasterfile format
	o  VID	     rw+ Visual	Image Directory
	o  VIFF	     rw+ Khoros	Visualization image
	o  VST	     rw+ Truevision Targa image
	o  WBMP	     rw- Wireless Bitmap (level	0) image
	o  WMF	     r-- Windows Metafile
	o  WPG	     r-- Word Perfect Graphics
	o  X	     rw- X Image
	o  X3F	     r-- Foveon	X3 (Sigma/Polaroid) RAW
	o  XBM	     rw- X Windows system bitmap (black
			 and white)
	o  XC	     r-- Constant image	uniform	color
	o  XCF	     r-- GIMP image
	o  XMP	     rw- Adobe XML metadata
	o  XPM	     rw- X Windows system pixmap (color)
	o  XV	     rw+ Khoros	Visualization image
	o  XWD	     rw- X Windows system window dump (color)
	o  YUV	     rw- CCIR 601 4:1:1	or 4:2:2 (8-bit	only)

	   Modes:
		     r	 Read
		     w	 Write
		     +	 Multi-image

       Support	for  some  of these formats require additional programs	or li-
       braries.	 See README in the source package for where to	find  optional
       additional software.

       Note,  a	 format	delineated with	+ means	that if	more than one image is
       specified, frames are combined into a single multi-image	file. Use +ad-
       join if you want	a single image produced	for each frame.

       Your installation might not support all of the formats in the list.  To
       get an accurate listing of the formats  supported  by  your  particular
       configuration, run "gm convert -list format".

       Raw  images  are	 expected to have one byte per pixel unless gm is com-
       piled in	16-bit quantum mode or in 32-bit quantum mode. Here,  the  raw
       data  is	 expected  to  be  stored two or four bytes per	pixel, respec-
       tively, in most-significant-byte-first order.   For  example,  you  can
       tell  if	 gm was	compiled in 16-bit mode	by typing "gm version" without
       any options, and	looking	for "Q:16" in the first	line of	output.

FILES AND FORMATS
       By default, the image format is determined by its magic	number,	 i.e.,
       the  first few bytes of the file. To specify a particular image format,
       precede the filename with an image format name and a colon  (i.e.ps:im-
       age)  or	 specify the image type	as the filename	suffix (i.e.image.ps).
       The magic number	takes precedence over the filename suffix and the pre-
       fix  takes  precedence  over  the  magic	number and the suffix in input
       files.  When a file is read, its	magic number is	 stored	 in  the  "im-
       age->magick" string.  In	output files, the prefix takes precedence over
       the filename suffix, and	the filename suffix takes precedence over  the
       "image->magick" string.

       To read the "built-in" formats (GRANITE,	H, LOGO, NETSCAPE, PLASMA, and
       ROSE) use a prefix (including the colon)	without	a filename or  suffix.
       To read the XC format, follow the colon with a color specification.  To
       read the	CAPTION	format,	follow the colon with a	text string or with  a
       filename	prefixed with the at symbol (@).

       When  you  specify X as your image type,	the filename has special mean-
       ing. It specifies an X window by	id, name, or root. If no  filename  is
       specified,  the window is selected by clicking the mouse	in the desired
       window.

       Specify input_file as - for standard input, output_file as - for	 stan-
       dard  output.   If  input_file has the extension	.Z or .gz, the file is
       uncompressed with uncompress or gunzip  respectively.   If  output_file
       has the extension .Z or .gz, the	file is	compressed using with compress
       or gzip respectively.

       Use an optional index enclosed in brackets after	an input file name  to
       specify	a  desired  subimage  of  a multi-resolution image format like
       Photo CD	(e.g. "img0001.pcd[4]")	or  a  range  for  MPEG	 images	 (e.g.
       "video.mpg[50-75]").  A	subimage  specification	 can be	disjoint (e.g.
       "image.tiff[2,7,4]"). For raw images, specify a subimage	with a	geome-
       try  (e.g. -size	640x512	"image.rgb[320x256+50+50]").  Surround the im-
       age name	with quotation marks to	prevent	your shell  from  interpreting
       the  square  brackets.  Single images are written with the filename you
       specify.	However, multi-part images (e.g., a multi-page PostScript doc-
       ument  with +adjoin specified) may be written with the scene number in-
       cluded as part of the filename. In order	to include the scene number in
       the filename, it	is necessary to	include	a printf-style %d format spec-
       ification in the	file name and use the +adjoin option. For example,

	   image%02d.miff

       writes files image00.miff, image01.miff,	etc. Only a single  specifica-
       tion  is	allowed	within an output filename. If more than	one specifica-
       tion is present,	it will	be ignored. It is best to embed	the scene num-
       ber  in	the  base part of the file name, not in	the extension, because
       the extension will not be a recognizeable image type.

       When running a commandline utility, you can prepend an at sign @	 to  a
       filename	to read	a list of image	filenames from that file. This is con-
       venient in the event you	have too many image filenames to  fit  on  the
       command line.

OPTIONS
       Options	are processed in command line order. Any option	you specify on
       the command line	remains	in effect for the set of images	that  follows,
       until  the  set is terminated by	the appearance of any option or	-noop.
       Some options only affect	the decoding of	images and others only the en-
       coding.	The latter can appear after the	final group of input images.

       This  is	a combined list	of the command-line options used by the	Graph-
       icsMagick utilities (animate,  compare,	composite,  convert,  display,
       identify, import, mogrify and montage).

       In  this	 document,  angle  brackets ("<>") enclose variables and curly
       brackets	("{}") enclose optional	parameters. For	example, "-fuzz	 <dis-
       tance>{%}" means	you can	use the	option "-fuzz 10" or "-fuzz 2%".

       -adjoin
	      join images into a single	multi-image file

	      By  default,  all	 images	of an image sequence are stored	in the
	      same file. However, some formats	(e.g.  JPEG)  do  not  support
	      storing more than	one image per file and only the	first frame in
	      an image sequence	will be	saved unless the result	 is  saved  to
	      separate	files.	Use +adjoin to force saving multiple frames to
	      multiple numbered	files. If +adjoin is  used,  then  the	output
	      filename	must  include  a printf	style formatting specification
	      for the numeric part of the filename.  For example,

		  image%02d.miff

       -affine _matrix_
	      drawing transform	matrix

	      This option provides a transform matrix {sx,rx,ry,sy,tx,ty}  for
	      use by subsequent	-draw or -transform options.

       -antialias
	      remove pixel aliasing

	      By default antialiasing algorithms are used when drawing objects
	      (e.g. lines) or rendering	vector formats	(e.g.  WMF  and	 Post-
	      script).	Use  +antialias	 to  disable use of antialiasing algo-
	      rithms. Reasons to disable  antialiasing	include	 avoiding  in-
	      creasing colors in the image, or improving rendering speed.

       -append
	      append a set of images

	      This option creates a single image where the images in the orig-
	      inal set are stacked top-to-bottom.  If they are not of the same
	      width, any narrow	images will be expanded	to fit using the back-
	      ground color.  Use +append to stack images  left-to-right.   The
	      set of images is terminated by the appearance of any option.  If
	      the -append option appears after all of the  input  images,  all
	      images are appended.

	-asc-cdl _spec_
	      apply ASC	CDL color transform

	      Applies  ("bakes in") the	ASC CDL, which is a format for the ex-
	      change of	basic primary color grading information	between	equip-
	      ment  and	 software from different manufacturers.	The format de-
	      fines the	math for three functions:  slope,  offset  and	power.
	      Each  function  uses a number for	the red, green,	and blue color
	      channels for a total of nine numbers comprising a	 single	 color
	      decision.	The tenth number (optional) is for chromiance (satura-
	      tion) as specified by ASC	CDL 1.2.

	      The argument string is comma delimited and is in	the  following
	      form (but	without	invervening spaces or line breaks)

		redslope,redoffset,redpower:
		greenslope,greenoffset,greenpower:
		blueslope,blueoffset,bluepower:
		saturation

	      with    the    unity    (no    change)	specification	being:
	      "1.0,0.0,1.0:1.0,0.0,1.0:1.0,0.0,1.0:1.0"

       -authenticate _string_
	      decrypt image with this password

	      Use this option to supply	a password for decrypting an image  or
	      an image sequence, if it is being	read from a format such	as PDF
	      that supports encryption.	 Encrypting images  being  written  is
	      not supported.

       -auto-orient
	      orient (rotate) image so it is upright

	      Adjusts the image	orienation so that it is suitable for viewing.
	      Uses the orientation tag obtained	from the image file or as sup-
	      plied by the -orient option.

       -average
	      average a	set of images

	      The set of images	is terminated by the appearance	of any option.
	      If the -average option appears after all of  the	input  images,
	      all images are averaged.

       -backdrop
	      display the image	centered on a backdrop.

	      This backdrop covers the entire workstation screen and is	useful
	      for hiding other X window	activity while viewing the image.  The
	      color  of	the backdrop is	specified as the foreground color (X11
	      default is black).  Refer	to "X Resources", below, for details.

       -background _color_
	      the background color

	      The color	is specified using  the	 format	 described  under  the
	      -fill option.

       -black-threshold	red[,green][,blue][,opacity]
	      pixels below the threshold become	black

	      Use  -black-threshold to set pixels with values below the	speci-
	      fied threshold to	minimum	value (black). If only	one  value  is
	      supplied,	or the red, green, and blue values are identical, then
	      intensity	thresholding is	used. If the  color  threshold	values
	      are  not	identical then channel-based thresholding is used, and
	      color distortion will occur. Specify a negative value (e.g.  -1)
	      if you want a channel to be ignored but you do want to threshold
	      a	channel	later in the list. If a	 percent  (%)  symbol  is  ap-
	      pended,  then  the values	are treated as a percentage of maximum
	      range.

       -blue-primary _x_,_y_
	      blue chromaticity	primary	point

       -blur _radius_{x_sigma_}
	      blur the image with a Gaussian operator

	      Blur with	the given radius and standard deviation	(sigma).

       -border _width_x_height_
	      surround the image with a	border of color

	      See -geometry for	details	about the geometry specification.

       -bordercolor _color_
	      the border color

	      The color	is specified using  the	 format	 described  under  the
	      -fill option.

       -borderwidth _geometry_
	      the border width

       -box _color_
	      set the color of the annotation bounding box

	      The  color  is  specified	 using	the format described under the
	      -fill option.

	      See -draw	for further details.

       -channel	_type_
	      the type of channel

	      Choose from: Red,	Green, Blue, Opacity,  Matte,  Cyan,  Magenta,
	      Yellow, Black, or	Gray.

	      Use  this	option to extract a particular channel from the	image.
	      Opacity, for example, is useful for extracting the opacity  val-
	      ues from an image.

       -charcoal _factor_
	      simulate a charcoal drawing

       -chop _width_x_height_{+-}_x_{+-}_y_{%}
	      remove pixels from the interior of an image

	      Width  and height	give the number	of columns and rows to remove,
	      and x and	y are offsets that give	the location of	 the  leftmost
	      column and topmost row to	remove.

	      The  x  offset normally specifies	the leftmost column to remove.
	      If the -gravity option  is  present  with	 NorthEast,  East,  or
	      SouthEast	gravity, it gives the distance leftward	from the right
	      edge of the image	to the rightmost column	to remove.  Similarly,
	      the  y  offset normally specifies	the topmost row	to remove, but
	      if the -gravity option is	 present  with	SouthWest,  South,  or
	      SouthEast	 gravity,  it  specifies  the distance upward from the
	      bottom edge of the image to the bottom row to remove.

	      The -chop	option removes entire rows and columns,	and moves  the
	      remaining	corner blocks leftward and upward to close the gaps.

       -clip  apply the	clipping path, if one is present

	      If  a clipping path is present, it will be applied to subsequent
	      operations.

	      For example, if you type the following command:

		  gm convert -clip -negate cockatoo.tif	negated.tif

	      only the pixels within the clipping path are negated.

	      The -clip	feature	requires the XML library.  If the XML  library
	      is not present, the option is ignored.

       -coalesce
	      merge a sequence of images

	      Each  image N in the sequence after Image	0 is replaced with the
	      image created by flattening images 0 through N.

	      The set of images	is terminated by the appearance	of any option.
	      If  the  -coalesce option	appears	after all of the input images,
	      all images are coalesced.

       -colorize _value_
	      colorize the image with the pen color

	      Specify the amount of colorization as a percentage. You can  ap-
	      ply  separate  colorization  values  to the red, green, and blue
	      channels of the image with a colorization	value  list  delimited
	      with slashes (e.g. 0/0/50).

	      The  -colorize  option may be used in conjunction	with -modulate
	      to produce a nice	sepia toned image like:

		  gm convert input.ppm -modulate 115,0,100 \
			    -colorize 7,21,50 output.ppm.

       -colormap _type_
	      define the colormap type

	      Choose between shared or private.

	      This option only applies when the	default	 X  server  visual  is
	      PseudoColor  or GRAYScale. Refer to -visual for more details. By
	      default, a shared	colormap is allocated. The image shares	colors
	      with  other X clients.  Some image colors	could be approximated,
	      therefore	your image may	look  very  different  than  intended.
	      Choose  Private  and the image colors appear exactly as they are
	      defined. However,	other clients may go technicolor when the  im-
	      age colormap is installed.

       -colors _value_
	      preferred	number of colors in the	image

	      The  actual  number of colors in the image may be	less than your
	      request, but never more. Note, this is a color reduction option.
	      Images  with  less unique	colors than specified with this	option
	      will have	any duplicate or unused	colors removed.	 The  ordering
	      of  an existing color palette may	be altered. When converting an
	      image from color to grayscale, convert the  image	 to  the  gray
	      colorspace  before  reducing the number of colors	since doing so
	      is most efficient. Refer to <a href="quantize.html">quantize for
	      more details.

	      Note,  options  -dither,	-colorspace, and -treedepth affect the
	      color reduction algorithm.

       -colorspace _value_
	      the type of colorspace

	      Choices  are:  CineonLog,	 CMYK,	GRAY,  HSL,  HWB,  OHTA,  RGB,
	      Rec601Luma,  Rec709Luma,	Rec601YCbCr, Rec709YCbCr, Transparent,
	      XYZ, YCbCr, YIQ, YPbPr, or YUV.

	      Color reduction, by default, takes place in the RGB color	space.
	      Empirical	 evidence suggests that	distances in color spaces such
	      as YUV or	YIQ correspond to perceptual  color  differences  more
	      closely  than do distances in RGB	space.	These color spaces may
	      give better results when color  reducing	an  image.   Refer  to
	      quantize	for more details.  Two gray colorspaces	are supported.
	      The Rec601Luma space is based on the recommendations for	legacy
	      NTSC television (ITU-R BT.601-5).	 The Rec709Luma	space is based
	      on the recommendations for HDTV (Rec.  ITU-R  BT.709-5)  and  is
	      suitable	for  use  with computer	graphics, and for contemporary
	      CRT  displays.  The  GRAY	 colorspace  currently	 selects   the
	      Rec601Luma  colorspace  by default for backwards compatibly rea-
	      sons. This default may be	re-considered in the future.

	      Two YCbCr	colorspaces are	supported. The	Rec601YCbCr  space  is
	      based  on	 the recommendations for legacy	NTSC television	(ITU-R
	      BT.601-5). The Rec709CbCr	space is based on the  recommendations
	      for HDTV (Rec.  ITU-R BT.709-5) and is suitable for suitable for
	      use with computer	graphics, and for contemporary	CRT  displays.
	      The YCbCr	colorspace specification is equivalent toRec601YCbCr.

	      The  Transparent	color  space  behaves uniquely in that it pre-
	      serves the matte channel of the image if it exists.

	      The -colors or -monochrome option, or saving to  a  file	format
	      which  requires  color reduction,	is required for	this option to
	      take effect.

       -comment	_string_
	      annotate an image	with a comment

	      Use this option to assign	a specific comment to the image,  when
	      writing  to  an image format that	supports comments. You can in-
	      clude the	image filename,	type, width, height,  or  other	 image
	      attribute	 by  embedding	special	format characters listed under
	      the -format option.  The comment is not drawn on the image,  but
	      is embedded in the image datastream via a	"Comment" tag or simi-
	      lar mechanism.  If you want the comment to be visible on the im-
	      age itself, use the -draw	option.

	      For example,

		   -comment "%m:%f %wx%h"

	      produces an image	comment	of MIFF:bird.miff 512x480 for an image
	      titled bird.miff and whose width is 512 and height is 480.

	      If the first character of	string is @, the image comment is read
	      from a file titled by the	remaining characters in	the string.

       -compose	_operator_
	      the type of image	composition

	      The  description of composition uses abstract terminology	in or-
	      der to allow the the description to be more clear, while	avoid-
	      ing  constant  values  which  are	specific to a particular build
	      configuration. Each image	pixel is represented  by  red,	green,
	      and  blue	 levels	 (which	are equal for a	gray pixel). MaxRGB is
	      the maximum integral value which	may  be	 stored	 in  the  red,
	      green,  or blue channels of the image. Each image	pixel may also
	      optionally (if the image matte channel is	enabled) have an asso-
	      ciated  level  of	 opacity (ranging from opaque to transparent),
	      which may	be used	to determine the influence of the pixel	 color
	      when  compositing	the pixel with another image pixel. If the im-
	      age matte	channel	is disabled, then all pixels in	the image  are
	      treated  as opaque.  The color of	an opaque pixel	is fully visi-
	      ble while	the color of a transparent pixel color is entirely ab-
	      sent (pixel color	is ignored).

	      By definition, raster images have	a rectangular shape. All image
	      rows are of equal	length,	and all	image columns  have  the  same
	      number  of  rows.	 By  treating  the opacity channel as a	visual
	      "mask" the rectangular image may be given	a "shape" by  treating
	      the  opacity  channel  as	 a cookie-cutter for the image.	Pixels
	      within the shape are opaque, while pixels	outside	the shape  are
	      transparent.  Pixels on the boundary of the shape	may be between
	      opaque and transparent in	order to  provide  antialiasing	 (vis-
	      ually  smooth  edges). The description of	the composition	opera-
	      tors use this concept of image "shape" in	order to make the  de-
	      scription	 of  the  operators  easier to understand. While it is
	      convenient to describe the operators in terms of	"shapes"  they
	      are  by no means limited to mask-style operations	since they are
	      based on continuous floating-point mathematics rather than  sim-
	      ple boolean operations.

	      By  default,  the	Over composite operator	is used. The following
	      composite	operators are available:

		   Over
		   In
		   Out
		   Atop
		   Xor
		   Plus
		   Minus
		   Add
		   Subtract
		   Difference
		   Divide
		   Multiply
		   Bumpmap
		   Copy
		   CopyRed
		   CopyGreen
		   CopyBlue
		   CopyOpacity
		   CopyCyan
		   CopyMagenta
		   CopyYellow
		   CopyBlack

	      The behavior of each operator is described below.

	       Over

		    The	result will be the union of the	two image shapes, with
		    opaque  areas  of change-image obscuring base-image	in the
		    region of overlap.

	       In

		    The	result is simply change-image  cut  by	the  shape  of
		    base-image.	 None  of the image data of base-image will be
		    in the result.

	       Out

		    The	resulting image	is  change-image  with	the  shape  of
		    base-image cut out.

	       Atop

		    The	 result	 is the	same shape as base-image, with change-
		    image obscuring base-image where the image shapes overlap.
		    Note this differs from over	because	the portion of change-
		    image outside base-image's shape does not  appear  in  the
		    result.

	       Xor

		    The	 result	 is  the image data from both change-image and
		    base-image that is outside the overlap region. The overlap
		    region will	be blank.

	       Plus

		    The	 result	is just	the sum	of the image data. Output val-
		    ues	are cropped to MaxRGB (no overflow). This operation is
		    independent	of the matte channels.

	       Minus

		    The	 result	 of  change-image - base-image,	with underflow
		    cropped to zero. The matte	channel	 is  ignored  (set  to
		    opaque, full coverage).

	       Add

		    The	 result	 of  change-image  + base-image, with overflow
		    wrapping around (mod MaxRGB+1).

	       Subtract

		    The	result of change-image -  base-image,  with  underflow
		    wrapping around (mod MaxRGB+1). The	add and	subtract oper-
		    ators can be used to perform reversible transformations.

	       Difference

		    The	result of abs(change-image - base-image). This is use-
		    ful	for comparing two very similar images.

	       Divide

		    The	 result	 of  change-image / base-image.	This is	useful
		    for	improving the readability of text on unevenly  illumi-
		    nated  photos (by using a gaussian blurred copy of change-
		    image as base-image).

	       Multiply

		    The	result of change-image * base-image.  This  is	useful
		    for	the creation of	drop-shadows.

	       Bumpmap

		    The	result base-image shaded by change-image.

	       Copy

		    The	resulting image	is base-image replaced with change-im-
		    age. Here the matte	information is ignored.

	       CopyRed

		    The	resulting image	is the red channel in  base-image  re-
		    placed  with  the  red  channel in change-image. The other
		    channels are copied	untouched.

	       CopyGreen

		    The	resulting image	is the green channel in	base-image re-
		    placed  with  the green channel in change-image. The other
		    channels are copied	untouched.

	       CopyBlue

		    The	resulting image	is the blue channel in base-image  re-
		    placed  with  the  blue channel in change-image. The other
		    channels are copied	untouched.

	       CopyOpacity

		    The	resulting image	is the opacity channel	in  base-image
		    replaced  with  the	 opacity  channel in change-image. The
		    other channels are copied untouched.

	       CopyCyan

		    The	resulting image	is the cyan channel in base-image  re-
		    placed  with  the  cyan channel in change-image. The other
		    channels are copied	untouched. Use of  this	 operator  re-
		    quires that	base-image be in CMYK(A) colorspace.

	       CopyMagenta

		    The	 resulting  image is the magenta channel in base-image
		    replaced with the magenta  channel	in  change-image.  The
		    other  channels are	copied untouched. Use of this operator
		    requires that base-image be	in CMYK(A) colorspace.

	       CopyYellow

		    The	resulting image	is the yellow  channel	in  base-image
		    replaced  with  the	 yellow	 channel  in change-image. The
		    other channels are copied untouched. Use of	this  operator
		    requires that base-image be	in CMYK(A) colorspace.

	       CopyBlack

		    The	resulting image	is the black channel in	base-image re-
		    placed with	the black channel in change-image.  The	 other
		    channels  are  copied  untouched. Use of this operator re-
		    quires  that  base-image  be  in  CMYK(A)  colorspace.  If
		    change-image  is  not in CMYK space, then the change-image
		    pixel intensities are used.

       -compress _type_
	      the type of image	compression

	      Choices are: None, BZip, Fax, Group4, JPEG, Lossless, LZW,  RLE,
	      Zip, or LZMA.

	      Specify  +compress  to store the binary image in an uncompressed
	      format.  The default is the compression type  of	the  specified
	      image file.

	      "Lossless"  refers  to lossless JPEG, which is only available if
	      the JPEG library has been	patched	to support it. Use of lossless
	      JPEG is generally	not recommended.

	      Use  the -quality	option to set the compression level to be used
	      by JPEG, PNG, MIFF, and MPEG encoders. Use the  -sampling-factor
	      option  to  set the sampling factor to be	used by	the DPX, JPEG,
	      MPEG, and	YUV encoders for downsampling the chroma channels.

       -contrast
	      enhance or reduce	the image contrast

	      This option  enhances  the  intensity  differences  between  the
	      lighter  and  darker elements of the image. Use -contrast	to en-
	      hance the	image or +contrast to reduce the image contrast.

	      For a more pronounced effect you can repeat the option:

		  gm convert rose: -contrast -contrast rose_c2.png

       -convolve _kernel_
	      convolve image with the specified	convolution kernel

	      The kernel is specified as a comma-separated  list  of  floating
	      point  values, ordered left-to right, starting with the top row.
	      The order	of the kernel is determined by the square root of  the
	      number of	entries.  Presently only square	kernels	are supported.

       -create-directories
	      create output directory if required

	      Use  this	 option	with -output-directory if the input paths con-
	      tain subdirectories and it is desired to create  similar	subdi-
	      rectories	in the output directory.  Without this option, mogrify
	      will fail	if the required	output directory does not exist.

       -crop _width_x_height_{+-}_x_{+-}_y_{%}
	      preferred	size and location of the cropped image

	      See -geometry for	details	about the geometry specification.

	      The width	and height give	the size of the	image that remains af-
	      ter  cropping, and x and y are offsets that give the location of
	      the top left corner of the cropped image	with  respect  to  the
	      original image.  To specify the amount to	be removed, use	-shave
	      instead.

	      If the x and y offsets are present, a single image is generated,
	      consisting  of the pixels	from the cropping region.  The offsets
	      specify the location of the upper	left corner  of	 the  cropping
	      region measured downward and rightward with respect to the upper
	      left corner of the image.	 If the	 -gravity  option  is  present
	      with  NorthEast,	East,  or SouthEast gravity, it	gives the dis-
	      tance leftward from the right edge of the	 image	to  the	 right
	      edge  of the cropping region.  Similarly,	if the -gravity	option
	      is present with SouthWest, South,	or SouthEast gravity, the dis-
	      tance is measured	upward between the bottom edges.

	      If the x and y offsets are omitted, a set	of tiles of the	speci-
	      fied geometry, covering the entire input	image,	is  generated.
	      The  rightmost  tiles  and  the  bottom tiles are	smaller	if the
	      specified	geometry extends beyond	the dimensions	of  the	 input
	      image.

       -cycle _amount_
	      displace image colormap by amount

	      Amount  defines  the number of positions each colormap entry is-
	      shifted.

       -debug _events_
	      enable debug printout

	      The events parameter specifies which events are  to  be  logged.
	      It can be	either None, All, or a comma-separated list consisting
	      of one or	more of	the following domains: Annotate, Blob,	Cache,
	      Coder,  Configure,  Deprecate,  Error,  Exception,  Locale, Ren-
	      der,Resource, TemporaryFile, Transform, Warning, X11,  or	 User.
	      For example, to log cache	and blob events, use

		  gm convert -debug "Cache,Blob" rose: rose.png

	      The  "User"  domain  is  normally	 empty,	but developers can log
	      "User" events in their private copy of GraphicsMagick.

	      Use the -log option to specify the format	for debugging output.

	      Use +debug to turn off all logging.

	      An alternative to	using -debug is	to use the MAGICK_DEBUG	 envi-
	      ronment  variable. The allowed values for	the MAGICK_DEBUG envi-
	      ronment variable are the same as for the -debug option.

       -deconstruct
	      break down an image sequence into	constituent parts

	      This option compares each	image with the next in a sequence  and
	      returns  the maximum bounding region of any pixel	differences it
	      discovers.  This method can undo a coalesced  sequence  returned
	      by  the  -coalesce  option, and is useful	for removing redundant
	      information from a GIF or	MNG animation.

	      The sequence of images is	terminated by the  appearance  of  any
	      option.  If the -deconstruct option appears after	all of the in-
	      put images, all images are deconstructed.

       -define _key_{=_value_},...
	      add coder/decoder	specific options This option  creates  one  or
	      more  definitions	 for  coders and decoders to use while reading
	      and writing image	data. Definitions may be passed	to coders  and
	      decoders	to  control options that are specific to certain image
	      formats. If value	is missing for a definition,  an  empty-valued
	      definition  of  a	 flag  will be created with that name. This is
	      used to control on/off options. Use +define <key>,... to	remove
	      definitions  previously  created.	 Use +define "*" to remove all
	      existing definitions.

	      The following definitions	may be created:

	       cineon:colorspace={rgb|cineonlog}

		    Use	the cineon:colorspace option  when  reading  a	Cineon
		    file  to specify the colorspace the	Cineon file uses. This
		    overrides the colorspace type implied by  the  DPX	header
		    (if	any).

	       dpx:bits-per-sample=<value>

		    If	the dpx:bits-per-sample	key is defined,	GraphicsMagick
		    will write DPX images with the specified bits per  sample,
		    overriding any existing depth value. If this option	is not
		    specified, then the	value is based on the  existing	 image
		    depth value	from the original image	file. The DPX standard
		    supports bits per sample values of 1, 8, 10, 12,  and  16.
		    Many DPX readers demand a sample size of 10	bits with type
		    A padding (see below).

	       dpx:colorspace={rgb|cineonlog}

		    Use	the dpx:colorspace option when reading a DPX  file  to
		    specify  the  colorspace the DPX file uses.	This overrides
		    the	colorspace type	implied	by the DPX header (if any).

	       dpx:packing-method={packed|a|b|lsbpad|msbpad}

		    DPX	samples	are output within 32-bit words.	 They  may  be
		    tightly  packed  end-to-end	 within	 the words ("packed"),
		    padded with	null bits to the right of the sample  ("a"  or
		    "lsbpad), or padded	with null bits to the left of the sam-
		    ple	("b" or	"msbpad"). This	option only has	an effect  for
		    sample  sizes of 10	or 12 bits. If samples are not packed,
		    the	DPX standard recommends	type A padding.	Many DPX read-
		    ers	demand a sample	size of	10 bits	with type A padding.

	       dpx:pixel-endian={lsb|msb}

		    Allows  the	user to	specify	the endian order of the	pixels
		    when reading or writing the	DPX files. Sometimes  this  is
		    useful  if the file	is (or must be)	written	incorrectly so
		    that the file header and the pixels	use different  endian-
		    ness.

	       dpx:swap-samples={true|false}

		    GraphicsMagick  strives  to	adhere to the DPX standard but
		    certain aspects of the standard can	be quite confusing. As
		    a  result,	some 10-bit DPX	files have Red and Blue	inter-
		    changed, or	Cb and Cr interchanged due to an different in-
		    terpretation   of  the  standard,  or  getting  the	 wires
		    crossed. The swap-samples  option  may  be	supplied  when
		    reading  or	 writing  in  order to read or write using the
		    necessary sample order.

	       jp2:rate=<value>

		    Specify  the  compression  factor  to  use	while  writing
		    JPEG-2000  files. The compression factor is	the reciprocal
		    of the compression ratio. The valid	range is 0.0  to  1.0,
		    with 1.0 indicating	lossless compression. If defined, this
		    value overrides the	-quality setting. The default  quality
		    setting of 75 results in a rate value of 0.06641.

	       jpeg:block-smoothing={true|false}

		    Enables  or	 disables  block smoothing when	reading	a JPEG
		    file (default enabled).

	       jpeg:dct-method=<value>

		    Selects the	IJG JPEG library DCT  implementation  to  use.
		    The	 encoding  implementations  vary in speed and encoding
		    error. The available choices for value are	islow,	ifast,
		    float,  default  and  fastest. Note	that fastest might not
		    necessarily	be fastest  on	your  CPU,  depending  on  the
		    choices  made when the JPEG	library	was built and how your
		    CPU	behaves.

	       jpeg:fancy-upsampling={true|false}

		    Enables or disables	fancy upsampling when reading  a  JPEG
		    file (default enabled).

	       jpeg:optimize-coding={true|false}

		    Selects if huffman encoding	should be used.	Huffman	encod-
		    ing	is enabled by default, but may be  disabled  for  very
		    large  images  since  it encoding requires that the	entire
		    image be buffered in  memory.  Huffman  encoding  produces
		    smaller  JPEG  files  at  the expense of added compression
		    time and memory consumption.

	       jpeg:preserve-settings

		    If the jpeg:preserve-settings flag is  defined,  the  JPEG
		    encoder  will use the same "quality" and "sampling-factor"
		    settings that were found in	the input file,	if  the	 input
		    was	 in  JPEG format. These	settings are also preserved if
		    the	input is a JPEG	file and the output is a JNG file.  If
		    the	colorspace of the output file differs from that	of the
		    input file,	the quality setting is preserved but the  sam-
		    pling-factors are not.

	       pcl:fit-to-page

		    If	the  pcl:fit-to-page flag is defined, then the printer
		    is requested to scale the  image  to  fit  the  page  size
		    (width and/or height).
	       pdf:use-cropbox={true|false}

		    If	the  pdf:use-cropbox  flag is set to true, then	Ghost-
		    script is requested	to apply the PDF crop box.

	       pdf:stop-on-error={true|false}

		    If the pdf:stop-on-error flag is set to true, then	Ghost-
		    script  is	requested  to stop processing the PDF when the
		    first error	is encountered.	 Otherwise it will attempt  to
		    process all	requested pages.

	       ps:imagemask

		    If	the  ps:imagemask  flag	 is  defined, the PS3 and EPS3
		    coders will	create Postscript files	 that  render  bilevel
		    images  with  the Postscript imagemask operator instead of
		    the	image operator.

	       tiff:alpha={unspecified|associated|unassociated}

		    Specify the	TIFF alpha channel type	when reading or	 writ-
		    ing	 TIFF  files, overriding the normal value. The default
		    alpha channel type for new files is	unspecified alpha. Ex-
		    isting  alpha  settings are	preserved when converting from
		    one	TIFF file to another. When a TIFF file uses associated
		    alpha,  the	image pixels are pre-multiplied	(i.e. altered)
		    with the alpha channel. Files with "associated" alpha  ap-
		    pear  as  if  they	were alpha composited on a black back-
		    ground when	the matte channel is disabled. If the  unasso-
		    ciated  alpha  type	is selected, then the alpha channel is
		    saved without altering the	pixels.	 Photoshop  recognizes
		    associated	alpha as transparency information, if the file
		    is saved with unassociated alpha, the alpha	information is
		    loaded  as	an  independent	 channel.   Note that for many
		    years, ImageMagick and GraphicsMagick marked TIFF files as
		    using  associated  alpha, without properly pre-multiplying
		    the	pixels.

	       tiff:fill-order={msb2lsb|lsb2msb}

		    If the tiff:fill-order key is defined, GraphicsMagick will
		    use	 it to determine the bit fill order used while writing
		    TIFF files.	The normal default is "msb2lsb", which matches
		    the	 native	 bit order of all modern CPUs. The only	excep-
		    tion to this is when Group3	or Group4 FAX  compression  is
		    requested since FAX	machines send data in bit-reversed or-
		    der	and therefore RFC 2301 recommends using	reverse	order.

	       tiff:group-three-options=<value>

		    If the tiff:group-three-options key	is defined,  Graphics-
		    Magick  will  use  it  to  set the group3 options tag when
		    writing group3-compressed TIFF.  Please see	the TIFF spec-
		    ification for the usage of this tag.  The default value is
		    4.

	       tiff:ignore-tags=<tags>

		    If the tiff:ignore-tags key	is defined, then it is used as
		    a  list  of	comma-delimited	integer	TIFF tag values	to ig-
		    nore while reading the TIFF	file.  This is useful in order
		    to	be  able  to  read files which which otherwise fail to
		    read due to	problems with TIFF tags.  Note that some  TIFF
		    tags  are  required	 in order to be	able to	read the image
		    data at all.

	       tiff:report-warnings={false|true}

		    If the tiff:report-warnings	key  is	 defined  and  set  to
		    true,  then	TIFF warnings are reported as a	warning	excep-
		    tion rather	than as	a coder	log  message.	Such  warnings
		    are	 reported  after  the  image has been read or written.
		    Most TIFF warnings are benign but sometimes	they may  help
		    deduce  problems  with  the	TIFF file, or help detect that
		    the	TIFF file requires a special application to read  suc-
		    cessfully due to the use of	proprietary or specialized ex-
		    tensions.

	       tiff:sample-format={unsigned|ieeefp}

		    If the tiff:sample-format key is  defined,	GraphicsMagick
		    will  use  it  to  determine  the sample format used while
		    writing TIFF files.	The  default  is  "unsigned".  Specify
		    "ieeefp"  in order to write	floating-point TIFF files with
		    float  (32-bit)  or	 double	 (64-bit)  values.   Use   the
		    tiff:bits-per-sample  define  to  determine	 the  type  of
		    floating-point value to use.

	       tiff:max-sample-value=<value>

		    If the tiff:max-sample-value key is	defined,  GraphicsMag-
		    ick	 will  use  the	assigned value as the maximum floating
		    point value	while reading or writing IEEE  floating	 point
		    TIFFs. Otherwise the maximum value is 1.0 or the value ob-
		    tained from	the file's SMaxSampleValue tag	(if  present).
		    The	 floating  point  data is currently not	scanned	in ad-
		    vance to determine a best maximum sample value so  if  the
		    range  is  not  1.0,  or  the  SMaxSampleValue  tag	is not
		    present, it	may be necessary to (intelligently)  use  this
		    parameter to properly read a file.

	       tiff:min-sample-value=<value>

		    If	the tiff:min-sample-value key is defined, GraphicsMag-
		    ick	will use the assigned value as	the  minimum  floating
		    point  value  while	reading	or writing IEEE	floating point
		    TIFFs. Otherwise the minimum value is 0.0 or the value ob-
		    tained from	the file's SMinSampleValue tag (if present).

	       tiff:bits-per-sample=<value>

		    If the tiff:bits-per-sample	key is defined,	GraphicsMagick
		    will write images with  the	 specified  bits  per  sample,
		    overriding	any  existing depth value. Value may be	any in
		    the	range of 1 to 32, or 64	when  the  default  'unsigned'
		    format  is	written,  or  16/32/24/64  if IEEEFP format is
		    written.  Please note that the baseline TIFF 6.0  specifi-
		    cation  only  requires readers to handle certain powers of
		    two, and the values	to be handled depend on	the nature  of
		    the	image (e.g. colormapped, grayscale, RGB, CMYK).

	       tiff:samples-per-pixel=<value>

		    If	the  tiff:samples-per-pixel key	is defined to a	value,
		    the	TIFF coder will	write TIFF  images  with  the  defined
		    samples  per pixel,	overriding any value stored in the im-
		    age. This option should not	normally be used.

	       tiff:rows-per-strip=<value>

		    Allows the user to specify the number  of  rows  per  TIFF
		    strip.   Rounded  up  to  a	multiple of 16 when using JPEG
		    compression. Ignored when using tiles.

	       tiff:strip-per-page=true

		    Requests that the image is written in a single TIFF	strip.
		    This  is  normally	the default when group3	or group4 com-
		    pression is	requested within reasonable limits. Requesting
		    a  single strip for	large images may result	in failure due
		    to resource	consumption in the writer or reader.

	       tiff:tile

		    Enable writing tiled TIFF (rather than stripped) using the
		    default  tile  size.  Tiled	TIFF organizes the image as an
		    array of smaller images (tiles) in order to	enable	random
		    access.

	       tiff:tile-geometry=<width>x<height>

		    Specify  the  tile	size  to use while writing tiled TIFF.
		    Width and height should be a multiple of 16. If the	 value
		    is not a multiple of 16, then it will be rounded down. En-
		    ables tiled	TIFF if	 it  has  not  already	been  enabled.
		    GraphicsMagick  does  not  use tiled storage internally so
		    tiles need to be converted back and	forth from the	inter-
		    nal	 scanline-oriented  storage  to	tile-oriented storage.
		    Testing with typical RGB images shows that	useful	square
		    tile  size	values	range from 128x128 to 1024x1024. Large
		    images which require using a disk-based pixel cache	 bene-
		    fit	from large tile	sizes while images which fit in	memory
		    work well with smaller tile	sizes.

	       tiff:tile-width=<width>

		    Specify the	tile width to use while	 writing  tiled	 TIFF.
		    The	 tile height is	then defaulted to an appropriate size.
		    Width should be a multiple of 16. If the value  is	not  a
		    multiple  of  16,  then  it	will be	rounded	down.  Enables
		    tiled TIFF if it has not already been enabled.

	       tiff:tile-height=<height>

		    Specify the	tile height to use while writing  tiled	 TIFF.
		    The	 tile  width is	then defaulted to an appropriate size.
		    Height should be a multiple	of 16. If the value is	not  a
		    multiple  of  16,  then  it	will be	rounded	down.  Enables
		    tiled TIFF if it has not already been enabled.

	       webp:lossless={true|false}

		    Enable lossless encoding.

	       webp:method={0-6}

		    Quality/speed trade-off.

	       webp:image-hint={default,graph,photo,picture}

		    Hint for image type.

	       webp:target-size=<integer>

		    Target size	in bytes.

	       webp:target-psnr=<float>

		    Minimal distortion to try to achieve.

	       webp:segments={1-4}

		    Maximum number of segments to use.

	       webp:sns-strength={0-100}

		    Spatial Noise Shaping.

	       webp:filter-strength={0-100}

		    Filter strength.

	       webp:filter-sharpness={0-7}

		    Filter sharpness.

	       webp:filter-type={0,1}

		    Filtering type. 0 =	simple,	1 = strong (only used if  fil-
		    ter-strength > 0 or	autofilter is enabled).

	       webp:auto-filter={true|false}

		    Auto adjust	filter's strength.

	       webp:alpha-compression=<integer>

		    Algorithm for encoding the alpha plane (0 =	none, 1	= com-
		    pressed with WebP lossless). Default is 1.

	       webp:alpha-filtering=<integer>

		    Predictive filtering method	for alpha plane. 0:  none,  1:
		    fast, 2: best. Default is 1.

	       webp:alpha-quality={0-100}

		    Between  0	(smallest size)	and 100	(lossless). Default is
		    100.

	       webp:pass=[1..10]

		    Number of entropy-analysis passes.

	       webp:show-compressed={true|false}

		    Export the compressed picture back.	 In-loop filtering  is
		    not	applied.

	       webp:preprocessing=[0,1,2]

		    0=none, 1=segment-smooth, 2=pseudo-random dithering

	       webp:partitions=[0-3]

		    log2(number	 of token partitions) in [0..3].  Default is 0
		    for	easier progressive decoding.

	       webp:partition-limit={0-100}

		    Quality degradation	allowed	to fit the 512k	limit on  pre-
		    diction modes coding (0: no	degradation, 100: maximum pos-
		    sible degradation).

	       webp:emulate-jpeg-size={true|false}

		    If true, compression parameters will be remapped to	better
		    match the expected output size from	JPEG compression. Gen-
		    erally, the	output size will be similar but	 the  degrada-
		    tion will be lower.

	       webp:thread-level=<integer>

		    If non-zero, try and use multi-threaded encoding.

	       webp:low-memory={true|false}

		    If set, reduce memory usage	(but increase CPU use)

	       For  example, to	create a postscript file that will render only
	       the black pixels	of a bilevel image, use:

		   gm convert bilevel.tif -define ps:imagemask eps3:stencil.ps

       -delay _1/100ths	of a second_
	      display the next image after pausing

	      This option is useful for	regulating the animation of image  se-
	      quences  Delay/100 seconds must expire before the	display	of the
	      next image. The default is no delay between each showing of  the
	      image sequence. The maximum delay	is 65535.

	      You  can	specify	 a delay range (e.g. -delay 10-500) which sets
	      the minimum and maximum delay.

       -density	_width_x_height_
	      horizontal and vertical resolution in pixels of the  image  This
	      option  specifies	the image resolution to	store while encoding a
	      raster image or the canvas resolution while rendering  (reading)
	      vector  formats  such  as	 Postscript,  PDF, WMF,	and SVG	into a
	      raster image. Image resolution provides the unit of  measure  to
	      apply  when  rendering  to an output device or raster image. The
	      default unit of measure is in dots per inch  (DPI).  The	-units
	      option may be used to select dots	per centimeter instead.
	       The default resolution is 72 dots per inch, which is equivalent
	      to one point per pixel (Macintosh	and Postscript standard). Com-
	      puter screens are	normally 72 or 96 dots per inch	while printers
	      typically	support	150, 300, 600, or 1200 dots per	inch.  To  de-
	      termine  the  resolution of your display,	use a ruler to measure
	      the width	of your	screen in inches, and divide by	the number  of
	      horizontal  pixels  (1024	 on  a 1024x768	display).  If the file
	      format supports it, this option may be used to update the	stored
	      image  resolution.  Note that Photoshop stores and obtains image
	      resolution from a	proprietary embedded profile. If this  profile
	      is  not stripped from the	image, then Photoshop will continue to
	      treat the	image using its	former resolution, ignoring the	 image
	      resolution  specified  in	the standard file header.  The density
	      option is	an attribute and does not alter	the underlying	raster
	      image.  It  may  be used to adjust the rendered size for desktop
	      publishing purposes by adjusting the scale applied to  the  pix-
	      els.  To	resize the image so that it is the same	size at	a dif-
	      ferent resolution, use the -resample option.

       -depth _value_
	      depth of the image

	      This is the number of bits of color to preserve  in  the	image.
	      Any value	between	1 and QuantumDepth (build option) may be spec-
	      ified, although 8	or 16 are the most common values. Use this op-
	      tion  to	specify	the depth of raw images	whose depth is unknown
	      such as GRAY, RGB, or CMYK, or to	change the depth of any	 image
	      after it has been	read.  The depth option	is applied to the pix-
	      els immediately so it may	be used	as a form of  simple  compres-
	      sion  by	discarding  the	 least	significant bits. Reducing the
	      depth in advance may speed up color quantization,	and help  cre-
	      ate  smaller  file sizes when using a compression	algorithm like
	      LZW or ZIP.

       -descend
	      obtain image by descending window	hierarchy

       -despeckle
	      reduce the speckles within an image

       -displace _horizontal scale_x_vertical scale_
	      shift image pixels as defined by a displacement map

	      With this	option,	composite image	is used	as a displacement map.
	      Black,  within  the displacement map, is a maximum positive dis-
	      placement.  White	is a maximum negative displacement and	middle
	      gray  is	neutral.   The displacement is scaled to determine the
	      pixel shift.  By default,	the displacement applies in  both  the
	      horizontal  and  vertical	 directions.   However,	if you specify
	      mask, composite image is the horizontal X	displacement and  mask
	      the vertical Y displacement.

       -display	_host:display[.screen]_
	      specifies	the X server to	contact

	      This  option  is	used  with convert for obtaining image or font
	      from this	X server.  See X(1).

       -dispose	_method_
	      GIF disposal method

	      The Disposal Method indicates the	way in which the graphic is to
	      be treated after being displayed.

	      Here are the valid methods:

		  Undefined	  No disposal specified.
		  None		  Do not dispose between frames.
		  Background	  Overwrite the	image area with
				  the background color.
		  Previous	  Overwrite the	image area with
				  what was there prior to rendering
				  the image.

       -dissolve _percent_
	      dissolve an image	into another by	the given percent

	      The  opacity  of	the composite image is multiplied by the given
	      percent, then it is composited over the main image.

       -dither
	      apply Floyd/Steinberg error diffusion to the image

	      The basic	strategy of dithering is to trade intensity resolution
	      for  spatial  resolution by averaging the	intensities of several
	      neighboring pixels.  Images which	suffer from severe  contouring
	      when reducing colors can be improved with	this option.

	      The -colors or -monochrome option	is required for	this option to
	      take effect.

	      Use +dither to turn off dithering	and to render PostScript with-
	      out text or graphic aliasing. Disabling dithering	often (but not
	      always) leads to decreased processing time.

       -draw _string_
	      annotate an image	with one or more graphic primitives

	      Use this option to annotate an image with	one  or	 more  graphic
	      primitives.   The	 primitives  include shapes, text, transforma-
	      tions, and pixel operations.  The	shape primitives are

		   point	   x,y
		   line		   x0,y0 x1,y1
		   rectangle	   x0,y0 x1,y1
		   roundRectangle  x0,y0 x1,y1 wc,hc
		   arc		   x0,y0 x1,y1 a0,a1
		   ellipse	   x0,y0 rx,ry a0,a1
		   circle	   x0,y0 x1,y1
		   polyline	   x0,y0  ...  xn,yn
		   polygon	   x0,y0  ...  xn,yn
		   Bezier	   x0,y0  ...  xn,yn
		   path		   path	specification
		   image	   operator x0,y0 w,h filename

	      The text primitive is

		   text		   x0,y0 string

	      The text gravity primitive is

		   gravity	   NorthWest, North, NorthEast,	West, Center,
				   East, SouthWest, South, or SouthEast

	      The text gravity primitive only affects the  placement  of  text
	      and  does	not interact with the other primitives.	 It is equiva-
	      lent to using the	-gravity commandline option, except that it is
	      limited in scope to the -draw option in which it appears.

	      The transformation primitives are

		   rotate	   degrees
		   translate	   dx,dy
		   scale	   sx,sy
		   skewX	   degrees
		   skewY	   degrees

	      The pixel	operation primitives are

		   color	   x0,y0 method
		   matte	   x0,y0 method

	      The  shape  primitives  are  drawn in the	color specified	in the
	      preceding	-stroke	option.	Except for the line and	 point	primi-
	      tives, they are filled with the color specified in the preceding
	      -fill option.  For unfilled shapes, use -fill none.

	      Point requires a single coordinate.

	      Line requires a start and	end coordinate.

	      Rectangle	expects	an upper left and lower	right coordinate.

	      RoundRectangle has the upper left	and  lower  right  coordinates
	      and the width and	height of the corners.

	      Circle  has  a  center coordinate	and a coordinate for the outer
	      edge.

	      Use Arc to inscribe an elliptical	arc within a rectangle.	  Arcs
	      require  a start and end point as	well as	the degree of rotation
	      (e.g. 130,30 200,100 45,90).

	      Use Ellipse to draw a partial  ellipse  centered	at  the	 given
	      point with the x-axis and	y-axis radius and start	and end	of arc
	      in degrees (e.g. 100,100 100,150 0,360).

	      Finally, polyline	and polygon require three or more  coordinates
	      to define	its boundaries.	 Coordinates are integers separated by
	      an optional comma.  For example, to define a circle centered  at
	      100,100 that extends to 150,150 use:

		   -draw 'circle 100,100 150,150'

	      Paths (See Paths)	represent an outline of	an object which	is de-
	      fined in terms of	moveto (set a new current point), lineto (draw
	      a	 straight  line), curveto (draw	a curve	using a	cubic Bezier),
	      arc (elliptical or circular arc) and closepath (close  the  cur-
	      rent  shape by drawing a line to the last	moveto)	elements. Com-
	      pound paths (i.e., a path	with subpaths, each  consisting	 of  a
	      single  moveto followed by one or	more line or curve operations)
	      are possible to allow effects such as "donut holes" in objects.

	      Use image	to composite an	image with another image.  Follow  the
	      image keyword with the composite operator, image location, image
	      size, and	filename:

		   -draw 'image	Over 100,100 225,225 image.jpg'

	      You can use 0,0 for the image size, which	means to use  the  ac-
	      tual dimensions found in the image header. Otherwise, it will be
	      scaled to	the given dimensions.  See -compose for	a  description
	      of the composite operators.

	      Use text to annotate an image with text. Follow the text coordi-
	      nates with a string. If the string has embedded spaces,  enclose
	      it  in  single  or double	quotes.	Optionally you can include the
	      image filename, type, width, height, or other image attribute by
	      embedding	special	format character. See -comment for details.

	      For example,

		   -draw 'text 100,100 "%m:%f %wx%h"'

	      annotates	the image with MIFF:bird.miff 512x480 for an image ti-
	      tled bird.miff and whose width is	512 and	height is 480.

	      If the first character of	string is @, the text is read  from  a
	      file titled by the remaining characters in the string.

	      Rotate  rotates  subsequent shape	primitives and text primitives
	      about the	origin of the main image. If the -region  option  pre-
	      cedes  the  -draw	 option, the origin for	transformations	is the
	      upper left corner	of the region.

	      Translate	translates them.

	      Scale scales them.

	      SkewX and	SkewY skew them	with respect to	the origin of the main
	      image or the region.

	      The  transformations  modify the current affine matrix, which is
	      initialized from	the  initial  affine  matrix  defined  by  the
	      -affine option.  Transformations are cumulative within the -draw
	      option.  The initial affine matrix is not	affected; that	matrix
	      is only changed by the appearance	of another -affine option.  If
	      another -draw option  appears,  the  current  affine  matrix  is
	      reinitialized from the initial affine matrix.

	      Use  color to change the color of	a pixel	to the fill color (see
	      -fill). Follow the pixel coordinate with a method:

		   point
		   replace
		   floodfill
		   filltoborder
		   reset

	      Consider the target pixel	as that	specified by your  coordinate.
	      The  point  method recolors the target pixel. The	replace	method
	      recolors any pixel that matches the color	of the	target	pixel.
	      Floodfill	 recolors any pixel that matches the color of the tar-
	      get pixel	and is a neighbor, whereas filltoborder	 recolors  any
	      neighbor	pixel that is not the border color. Finally, reset re-
	      colors all pixels.

	      Use matte	to the change the pixel	matte  value  to  transparent.
	      Follow  the pixel	coordinate with	a method (see the color	primi-
	      tive for a description of	methods). The point method changes the
	      matte  value of the target pixel.	The replace method changes the
	      matte value of any pixel that matches the	color  of  the	target
	      pixel.  Floodfill	 changes  the  matte  value  of	any pixel that
	      matches the color	of the target pixel and	is a neighbor, whereas
	      filltoborder  changes the	matte value of any neighbor pixel that
	      is not the border	color (-bordercolor).  Finally	reset  changes
	      the matte	value of all pixels.

	      You  can	set  the  primitive color, font, and font bounding box
	      color with -fill,	-font, and -box	respectively. Options are pro-
	      cessed in	command	line order so be sure to use these options be-
	      fore the -draw option.

       -edge _radius_
	      detect edges within an image

       -emboss _radius_
	      emboss an	image

       -encoding _type_
	      specify the text encoding

	      Choose from AdobeCustom, AdobeExpert, AdobeStandard, AppleRoman,
	      BIG5, GB2312, Latin 2, None, SJIScode, Symbol, Unicode, Wansung.

       -endian _type_
	      specify endianness (MSB, LSB, or Native) of image

	      MSB  indicates  big-endian  (e.g.	SPARC, Motorola	68K) while LSB
	      indicates	little-endian (e.g. Intel 'x86,	 VAX)  byte  ordering.
	      Native indicates to use the normal ordering for the current CPU.
	      This option currently only influences the	CMYK, DPX, GRAY,  RGB,
	      and TIFF,	formats.

	      Use +endian to revert to unspecified endianness.

       -enhance
	      apply a digital filter to	enhance	a noisy	image

       -equalize
	      perform histogram	equalization to	the image

       -extent _width_x_height_{+-}_x_{+-}_y_
	      composite	image on background color canvas image

	      This  option  composites	the  image  on	a new background color
	      (-background) canvas image of size <width>x<height>. The	exist-
	      ing image	content	is composited at the position specified	by ge-
	      ometry x and y offset and/or desired  gravity  (-gravity)	 using
	      the  current  image  compose  (-compose)	method.	 Image content
	      which falls outside the bounds of	the new	 image	dimensions  is
	      discarded.

	      For  example,  this command creates a thumbnail of an image, and
	      centers it on a red color	backdrop image,	offsetting the	canvas
	      ten  pixels  to the left and five	pixels up, with	respect	to the
	      thumbnail:

		  gm convert  infile.jpg  -thumbnail  120x80  -background  red
	      -gravity center \
			    -extent 140x100-10-5 outfile.jpg

	      This  command  reduces  or  expands  a  JPEG  image to fit on an
	      800x600 display:

		  gm convert -size 800x600 input.jpg \
			    -resize 800x600 -background	black \
			    -compose Copy -gravity center \
			    -extent 800x600 \
			    -quality 92	output.jpg

	      If the aspect ratio of the input image isn't exactly  4:3,  then
	      the image	is centered on an 800x600 black	canvas.

       -file _filename_
	      write annotated difference image to file

	      If  -file	 is  specified,	 then an annotated difference image is
	      generated	and written to the specified file. Pixels which	differ
	      between the reference and	compare	images are modified from those
	      in the compare image so that the changed pixels become more  ob-
	      vious.   Some images may require use of an alternative highlight
	      style (see -highlight-style) or highlight	color (see -highlight-
	      color) before the	changes	are obvious.

       -fill _color_
	      color to use when	filling	a graphic primitive

	      Colors  are  represented in GraphicsMagick in the	same form used
	      by SVG. Use "gm convert -list color" to list named colors:

		  name		     (named color)
		  #RGB		     (hex numbers, 4 bits each)
		  #RRGGBB	     (8	bits each)
		  #RRRGGGBBB	     (12 bits each)
		  #RRRRGGGGBBBB	     (16 bits each)
		  #RGBA		     (4	bits each)
		  #RRGGBBAA	     (8	bits each)
		  #RRRGGGBBBAAA	     (12 bits each)
		  #RRRRGGGGBBBBAAAA  (16 bits each)
		  rgb(r,g,b)	     (r,g,b are	decimal	numbers)
		  rgba(r,g,b,a)	     (r,g,b,a are decimal numbers)

	      Enclose the color	specification in quotation  marks  to  prevent
	      the "#" or the parentheses from being interpreted	by your	shell.

	      For example,

		  gm convert -fill blue	...
		  gm convert -fill "#ddddff" ...
		  gm convert -fill "rgb(65000,65000,65535)" ...

	      The  shorter  forms  are scaled up, if necessary by replication.
	      For example, #3af, #33aaff, and #3333aaaaffff  are  all  equiva-
	      lent.

	      See -draw	for further details.

       -filter _type_
	      use this type of filter when resizing an image

	      Use  this	 option	 to  affect the	resizing operation of an image
	      (see -geometry).	Choose from these filters (ordered by approxi-
	      mate increasing CPU time):

		   Point
		   Box
		   Triangle
		   Hermite
		   Hanning
		   Hamming
		   Blackman
		   Gaussian
		   Quadratic
		   Cubic
		   Catrom
		   Mitchell
		   Lanczos
		   Bessel
		   Sinc

	      The default filter is automatically selected to provide the best
	      quality  while  consuming	 a  reasonable	amount	of  time.  The
	      Mitchell	filter	is  used if the	image supports a palette, sup-
	      ports a matte channel, or	is being enlarged, otherwise the Lanc-
	      zos filter is used.

       -flatten
	      flatten a	sequence of images

	      In  some	file formats (e.g. Photoshop's PSD) complex images may
	      be represented by	"layers" (independent images)  which  must  be
	      composited in order to obtain the	final rendition.  The -flatten
	      option accomplishes this composition.  The sequence of images is
	      replaced	by a single image created by compositing each image in
	      turn, while respecting composition operators and	page  offsets.
	      While  -flatten is immediately useful for	eliminating layers, it
	      is also useful as	a general-purpose composition tool.

	      The sequence of images is	terminated by the  appearance  of  any
	      option.	If  the	-flatten option	appears	after all of the input
	      images, all images are flattened.	 Also  see  -mosaic  which  is
	      similar  to -flatten except that it adds a suitably-sized	canvas
	      base image.

	      For example, this	composites an image on top of a	640x400	trans-
	      parent black canvas image:

		  gm convert -size 640x300 xc:transparent \
			    -compose over -page	+0-100 \
			    frame.png -flatten output.png

	      and this flattens	a Photoshop PSD	file:

		  gm convert input.psd -flatten	output.png

       -flip  create a "mirror image"

	      reflect the scanlines in the vertical direction.

       -flop  create a "mirror image"

	      reflect the scanlines in the horizontal direction.

       -font _name_
	      use this font when annotating the	image with text

	      You  can tag a font to specify whether it	is a PostScript, True-
	      Type, or X11 font.  For example, Arial.ttf is a  TrueType	 font,
	      ps:helvetica is PostScript, and x:fixed is X11.

       -foreground _color_
	      define the foreground color

	      The  color  is  specified	 using	the format described under the
	      -fill option.

       -format _type_
	      the image	format type

	      When used	with the mogrify utility, this option will convert any
	      image  to	 the  image format you specify.	 See GraphicsMagick(1)
	      for a list of image format types supported by GraphicsMagick, or
	      see the output of	'gm -list format'.

	      By  default  the file is written to its original name.  However,
	      if the filename extension	matches	a supported format, the	exten-
	      sion is replaced with the	image format type specified with -for-
	      mat.  For	example, if you	specify	tiff as	the  format  type  and
	      the input	image filename is image.gif, the output	image filename
	      becomes image.tiff.

       -format _string_
	      output formatted image characteristics

	      When used	with the identify utility, or the convert utility with
	      output  written to the 'info:-' file specification, use this op-
	      tion to print information	about the image	in a  format  of  your
	      choosing.	  You  can  include  the  image	filename, type,	width,
	      height, Exif data, or other image	attributes by  embedding  spe-
	      cial format characters:

		   %b	file size
		   %c	comment
		   %d	directory
		   %e	filename extension
		   %f	filename
		   %g	page dimensions	and offsets
		   %h	height
		   %i	input filename
		   %k	number of unique colors
		   %l	label
		   %m	magick
		   %n	number of scenes
		   %o	output filename
		   %p	page number
		   %q	image bit depth
		   %r	image type description
		   %s	scene number
		   %t	top of filename
		   %u	unique temporary filename
		   %w	width
		   %x	horizontal resolution
		   %y	vertical resolution
		   %A	transparency supported
		   %C	compression type
		   %D	GIF disposal method
		   %G	Original width and height
		   %H	page height
		   %M	original filename specification
		   %O	page offset (x,y)
		   %P	page dimensions	(width,height)
		   %Q	compression quality
		   %T	time delay (in centi-seconds)
		   %U	resolution units
		   %W	page width
		   %X	page horizontal	offset (x)
		   %Y	page vertical offset (y)
		   %@	trim bounding box
		   %#	signature
		   \n	newline
		   \r	carriage return
		   %%	%

	      For example,

		   -format "%m:%f %wx%h"

	      displays	MIFF:bird.miff	512x480	 for an	image titled bird.miff
	      and whose	width is 512 and height	is 480.

	      If the first character of	string is @, the format	is read	from a
	      file titled by the remaining characters in the string.

	      The values of image type (%p) which may be returned include:

		   Bilevel
		   Grayscale
		   GrayscaleMatte
		   Palette
		   PaletteMatte
		   TrueColor
		   TrueColorMatte
		   ColorSeparation
		   ColorSeparationMatte
		   Optimize

	      You  can	also  use  the	following special formatting syntax to
	      print Exif information contained in the file:

		   %[EXIF:<tag>]

	      Where "<tag>" may	be one of the following:

		   *  (print all Exif tags, in keyword=data format)
		   !  (print all Exif tags, in tag_number format)
		   #hhhh (print	data for Exif tag #hhhh)
		   ImageWidth
		   ImageLength
		   BitsPerSample
		   Compression
		   PhotometricInterpretation
		   FillOrder
		   DocumentName
		   ImageDescription
		   Make
		   Model
		   StripOffsets
		   Orientation
		   SamplesPerPixel
		   RowsPerStrip
		   StripByteCounts
		   XResolution
		   YResolution
		   PlanarConfiguration
		   ResolutionUnit
		   TransferFunction
		   Software
		   DateTime
		   Artist
		   WhitePoint
		   PrimaryChromaticities
		   TransferRange
		   JPEGProc
		   JPEGInterchangeFormat
		   JPEGInterchangeFormatLength
		   YCbCrCoefficients
		   YCbCrSubSampling
		   YCbCrPositioning
		   ReferenceBlackWhite
		   CFARepeatPatternDim
		   CFAPattern
		   BatteryLevel
		   Copyright
		   ExposureTime
		   FNumber
		   IPTC/NAA
		   ExifOffset
		   InterColorProfile
		   ExposureProgram
		   SpectralSensitivity
		   GPSInfo
		   ISOSpeedRatings
		   OECF
		   ExifVersion
		   DateTimeOriginal
		   DateTimeDigitized
		   ComponentsConfiguration
		   CompressedBitsPerPixel
		   ShutterSpeedValue
		   ApertureValue
		   BrightnessValue
		   ExposureBiasValue
		   MaxApertureValue
		   SubjectDistance
		   MeteringMode
		   LightSource
		   Flash
		   FocalLength
		   MakerNote
		   UserComment
		   SubSecTime
		   SubSecTimeOriginal
		   SubSecTimeDigitized
		   FlashPixVersion
		   ColorSpace
		   ExifImageWidth
		   ExifImageLength
		   InteroperabilityOffset
		   FlashEnergy
		   SpatialFrequencyResponse
		   FocalPlaneXResolution
		   FocalPlaneYResolution
		   FocalPlaneResolutionUnit
		   SubjectLocation
		   ExposureIndex
		   SensingMethod
		   FileSource
		   SceneType

	      JPEG specific information	(from reading a	JPEG file) may be  ob-
	      tained like this:

		   %[JPEG-<tag>]

	      Where "<tag>" may	be one of the following:

		   *		     (all JPEG-related tags, in
				      keyword=data format)
		   Quality	     IJG JPEG "quality"	estimate
		   Colorspace	     JPEG colorspace numeric ID
		   Colorspace-Name   JPEG colorspace name
		   Sampling-factors  JPEG sampling factors

	      Please  note  that  JPEG has no notion of	"quality" and that the
	      quality metric used by, and estimated by the software  is	 based
	      on  the  quality	metric	established by IJG JPEG	6b.  Other en-
	      coders (e.g. that	used by	Adobe Photoshop) use different	encod-
	      ing metrics.

	      Surround	the  format specification with quotation marks to pre-
	      vent your	shell  from  misinterpreting  any  spaces  and	square
	      brackets.

       -frame _width_x_height_+_outer bevel width_+_inner bevel	width_
	      surround the image with an ornamental border

	      See -geometry for	details	about the geometry specification.  The
	      -frame option is not affected by the -gravity option.

	      The color	of the border is specified with	the  -mattecolor  com-
	      mand line	option.

       -frame include the X window frame in the	imported image

       -fuzz _distance_{%}
	      colors within this Euclidean distance are	considered equal

	      A	number of algorithms search for	a target color.	By default the
	      color must be exact. Use this option to match  colors  that  are
	      close  (in  Euclidean  distance)	to  the	target color in	RGB 3D
	      space. For example, if you want to automatically trim the	 edges
	      of  an image with	-trim but the image was	scanned	and the	target
	      background color may differ by a small amount. This  option  can
	      account for these	differences.

	      The distance can be in absolute intensity	units or, by appending
	      "%", as a	percentage of the  maximum  possible  intensity	 (255,
	      65535, or	4294967295).

       -gamma _value_
	      level of gamma correction

	      The same color image displayed on	two different workstations may
	      look different due to differences	in the	display	 monitor.  Use
	      gamma correction to adjust for this color	difference. Reasonable
	      values extend from 0.8 to	2.3. Gamma less	than 1.0  darkens  the
	      image  and gamma greater than 1.0	lightens it. Large adjustments
	      to image gamma may result	in the loss of some image  information
	      if the pixel quantum size	is only	eight bits (quantum range 0 to
	      255).

	      You can apply separate gamma values to the red, green, and  blue
	      channels	of  the	 image	with a gamma value list	delimited with
	      slashes (e.g., 1.7/2.3/1.2).

	      Use +gamma value to set the image	gamma level  without  actually
	      adjusting	 the  image pixels. This option	is useful if the image
	      is of a known gamma but not set as an image attribute (e.g.  PNG
	      images).

       -gaussian _radius_{x_sigma_}
	      blur the image with a Gaussian operator

	      Use the given radius and standard	deviation (sigma).

       -geometry _width_x_height_{+-}_x_{+-}_y_{%}{@}{!}{^}{_}{_}
	      Specify dimension, offset, and resize options.

	      The -geometry option is used for a number	of different purposes,
	      depending	on the utility it is used with.	 <pp For the X11  com-
	      mands  ('animate',  'display',  and  'import'), it specifies the
	      preferred	size and location of the Image	window.	  By  default,
	      the  window size is the image size and the location is chosen by
	      you (or your window manager) when	it is mapped.
	       For the 'import', 'convert', 'mogrify' utility commands it  may
	      be  used to specify the desired size when	resizing an image.  In
	      this case, symbols representing resize options may  be  appended
	      to  the  geometry	 string	to influence how the resize request is
	      treated.

	      See later	notes corresponding to usage by	 particular  commands.
	      The following notes apply	to when	-geometry is used to express a
	      resize request, taking into account the  current	properties  of
	      the image.

	      By  default,  the	 width and height are maximum values. That is,
	      the image	is expanded or contracted to fit the width and	height
	      value while maintaining the aspect ratio of the image.

	      Append  a	 ^  to the geometry so that the	image is resized while
	      maintaining the aspect ratio of the  image,  but	the  resulting
	      width  or	height are treated as minimum values rather than maxi-
	      mum values.

	      Append an	exclamation point to the geometry to force  the	 image
	      size  to exactly the size	you specify. For example, if you spec-
	      ify 640x480! the image width is set to 640 pixels	and height  to
	      480.

	      If  only	the width is specified,	without	the trailing 'x', then
	      height is	set to width (e.g., -geometry 100 is the same as  -ge-
	      ometry  100x100).	  If  only the width is	specified but with the
	      trailing 'x', then width assumes the value  and  the  height  is
	      chosen to	maintain the aspect ratio of the image.	 Similarly, if
	      only the height is specified prefixed by	'x'  (e.g.,  -geometry
	      x256), the width is chosen to maintain the aspect	ratio.

	      To  specify  a percentage	width or height	instead, append	%. The
	      image size is multiplied by the width and	height percentages  to
	      obtain  the  final  image	dimensions. To increase	the size of an
	      image, use a value greater than 100 (e.g.	125%). To decrease  an
	      image's size, use	a percentage less than 100.

	      Use @ to specify the maximum area	in pixels of an	image.

	      Use > to change the dimensions of	the image only if its width or
	      height exceeds the geometry specification. < resizes  the	 image
	      only if both of its dimensions are less than the geometry	speci-
	      fication.	For example, if	you specify '640x480>' and  the	 image
	      size is 256x256, the image size does not change. However,	if the
	      image is 512x512 or 1024x1024, it	is resized  to	480x480.   En-
	      close  the  geometry specification in quotation marks to prevent
	      the < or > from being interpreted	by your	shell as a file	 redi-
	      rection.

	      When  used  with animate and display, offsets are	handled	in the
	      same manner as in	X(1) and the -gravity option is	not used.   If
	      the  x  is  negative,  the  offset is measured leftward from the
	      right edge of the	screen to the right edge of  the  image	 being
	      displayed.  Similarly, negative y	is measured between the	bottom
	      edges.  The offsets are not affected by  "%";  they  are	always
	      measured in pixels.

	      When  used as a composite	option,	-geometry gives	the dimensions
	      of the image and its location with respect to the	composite  im-
	      age.  If the -gravity option is present with NorthEast, East, or
	      SouthEast	gravity, the x represents the distance from the	 right
	      edge  of	the  image  to	the right edge of the composite	image.
	      Similarly, if the	-gravity option	 is  present  with  SouthWest,
	      South,  or  SouthEast  gravity, y	is measured between the	bottom
	      edges. Accordingly, a positive offset will never	point  in  the
	      direction	outside	of the image.  The offsets are not affected by
	      "%"; they	are always measured in pixels.	To specify the	dimen-
	      sions of the composite image, use	the -resize option.

	      When  used  as a convert,	import or mogrify option, -geometry is
	      synonymous with -resize and specifies the	size of	the output im-
	      age.  The	offsets, if present, are ignored.

	      When  used  as  a	 montage option, -geometry specifies the image
	      size and border size for	each  tile;  default  is  256x256+0+0.
	      Negative	offsets	 (border  dimensions)  are  meaningless.   The
	      -gravity option affects the placement of the  image  within  the
	      tile;  the  default  gravity for this purpose is Center.	If the
	      "%" sign appears in the geometry specification, the tile size is
	      the specified percentage of the original dimensions of the first
	      tile.  To	specify	the dimensions of the montage, use the -resize
	      option.

       -gravity	_type_
	      direction	primitive  gravitates to when annotating the image.

	      Choices  are:  NorthWest,	 North,	NorthEast, West, Center, East,
	      SouthWest, South,	SouthEast.

	      The direction you	choose specifies where to  position  the  text
	      when annotating the image. For example Center gravity forces the
	      text to be centered within the  image.  By  default,  the	 image
	      gravity  is NorthWest.  See -draw	for more details about graphic
	      primitives.  Only	the text primitive is affected by the -gravity
	      option.

	      The  -gravity  option is also used in concert with the -geometry
	      option and other options that take <geometry>  as	 a  parameter,
	      such  as the -crop option.  See -geometry	for details of how the
	      -gravity option interacts	with the <x> and <y> parameters	 of  a
	      geometry specification.

	      When  used  as an	option to composite, -gravity gives the	direc-
	      tion that	the image gravitates within the	composite.

	      When used	as an option to	montage, -gravity gives	the  direction
	      that  an image gravitates	within a tile.	The default gravity is
	      Center for this purpose.

       -green-primary _x_,_y_
	      green chromaticity primary point

       -hald-clut _clut_
	      apply a Hald CLUT	to the image

	      A	Hald CLUT ("Color Look-Up Table") is a	special	 square	 color
	      image  which  contains a look-up table for red, green, and blue.
	      The size of the Hald CLUT	image is determined by its order.  The
	      width (and height) of a Hald CLUT	is the cube of the order.  For
	      example, a Hald CLUT of order 8 is 512x512 pixels	(262,144  col-
	      ors)  and	 of order 16 is	4096x4096 (16,777,216 colors).	A spe-
	      cial CLUT	is the identity	CLUT which which causes	no  change  to
	      the  input  image.   In order to use the Hald CLUT, one takes an
	      identity CLUT and	adjusts	its colors in some way.	 The  modified
	      CLUT  can	 then  be used to transform any	number of images in an
	      identical	way.

	      GraphicsMagick contains a	built-in identity CLUT	generator  via
	      the  IDENTITY  coder.   For  example  reading from the file name
	      IDENTITY:8 returns an identity CLUT of order  8.	 Typical  Hald
	      CLUT identity images have	an order of between 8 and 16.  The de-
	      fault order for the IDENTITY CLUT	generator is 8.	 Interpolation
	      is  used	so  it	is not usually necessary for CLUT images to be
	      very large.  The PNG file	format is ideal	for storing Hald  CLUT
	      images because it	compresses them	very well.

       -help  print usage instructions

       -highlight-color	_color_
	      pixel annotation color

	      Specifies	the color to use when annotating difference pixels.

       -highlight-style	_style_
	      pixel annotation style

	      Specifies	the pixel difference annotation	style used to draw at-
	      tention to changed pixels. May  be  one  of  Assign,  Threshold,
	      Tint, or XOR; where Assign replaces the pixel with the highlight
	      color (see -highlight-color), Threshold replaces the pixel  with
	      black  or	white based on the difference in intensity, Tint alpha
	      tints the	pixel with the highlight color,	and XOR	 does  an  XOR
	      between the pixel	and the	highlight color.

       -iconGeometry _geometry_
	      specify the icon geometry

	      Offsets,	if  present in the geometry specification, are handled
	      in the same manner as the	-geometry option, using	X11  style  to
	      handle negative offsets.

       -iconic
	      iconic animation

       -immutable
	      make image immutable

       -implode	_factor_
	      implode image pixels about the center

       -intent _type_
	      use this type of rendering intent	when managing the image	color

	      Use  this	option to affect the the color management operation of
	      an image (see -profile).	Choose from these  intents:  Absolute,
	      Perceptual, Relative, Saturation.

	      The default intent is undefined.

       -interlace _type_
	      the type of interlacing scheme

	      Choices  are:  None,  Line,  Plane, or Partition.	The default is
	      None.

	      This option is used to specify the type  of  interlacing	scheme
	      for raw image formats such as RGB	or YUV.	 None means do not in-
	      terlace (RGBRGBRGBRGBRGBRGB...),

	      Line	      uses	      scanline		   interlacing
	      (RRR...GGG...BBB...RRR...GGG...BBB...), and Plane	uses plane in-
	      terlacing	(RRRRRR...GGGGGG...BBBBBB...).

	      Partition	is like	plane except the different planes are saved to
	      individual files (e.g. image.R, image.G, and image.B).

	      Use Line to create an interlaced PNG or  GIF or progressive JPEG
	      image.

       -label _name_
	      assign a label to	an image

	      Use this option to assign	a specific label to  the  image,  when
	      writing  to  an image format that	supports labels, such as TIFF,
	      PNG, MIFF, or PostScript.	You can	include	the  the  image	 file-
	      name, type, width, height, or other image	attribute by embedding
	      special format character.	 A label is not	drawn  on  the	image,
	      but  is  embedded	 in  the image datastream via a	"Label"	tag or
	      similar mechanism.  If you want the label	to be visible  on  the
	      image itself, use	the -draw option.  See -comment	for details.

	      For example,

		   -label "%m:%f %wx%h"

	      produces	an  image label	of MIFF:bird.miff 512x480 for an image
	      titled bird.miff and whose width is 512 and height is 480.

	      If the first character of	string is @, the image label  is  read
	      from a file titled by the	remaining characters in	the string.

	      When  converting	to  PostScript,	 use  this option to specify a
	      header string to print above the image. Specify the  label  font
	      with -font.

	      When creating a montage, by default the label associated with an
	      image is displayed with the corresponding	tile in	 the  montage.
	      Use the +label option to suppress	this behavior.

       -lat _width_x_height_{+-}_offset_{%}
	      perform local adaptive thresholding

	      Perform  local  adaptive thresholding using the specified	width,
	      height, and offset.  The offset is a distance  in	 sample	 space
	      from the mean, as	an absolute integer ranging from 0 to the max-
	      imum sample value	or as a	percentage.  If	the percent option  is
	      supplied,	 then  the  offset  is computed	as a percentage	of the
	      quantum range.  It is strongly recommended to  use  the  percent
	      option so	that results are not sensitive to pixel	quantum	depth.

	      For example,

		   -colorspace gray -lat "10x10-5%"

	      will help	clarify	a scanned grayscale or color document, produc-
	      ing a bi-level equivalent.

       -level _black_point_{,_gamma_}{,_white_point_}{%}
	      adjust the level of image	contrast

	      Give one,	two or three  values  delimited	 with  commas:	black-
	      point,  gamma,  white-point (e.g.	10,1.0,250 or 2%,0.5,98%). The
	      black and	white points range from	0 to MaxRGB or from 0 to 100%;
	      if  the  white point is omitted it is set	to MaxRGB-black_point.
	      If a "%" sign is present anywhere	in the string, the  black  and
	      white  points  are  percentages  of MaxRGB. Gamma	is an exponent
	      that ranges from 0.1 to 10.; if it is omitted,  the  default  of
	      1.0 (no gamma correction)	is assumed. This interface works simi-
	      lar to Photoshop's "Image->Adjustments->Levels..."  "Input  Lev-
	      els" interface.

       -limit _type_ _value_
	      Disk,  File,  Map,  Memory, Pixels, Width, Height	or Threads re-
	      source limit

	      By default, resource limits are estimated	based on the available
	      resources	 of  the system. The resource limits are Disk, maximum
	      total disk space consumed; File, maximum number of file descrip-
	      tors  allowed  to	 be open at once; Map, maximum total number of
	      file bytes which may be memory  mapped;  Memory,	maximum	 total
	      number  of  bytes	of heap	memory used for	image storage; Pixels,
	      maximum absolute image size (per image);	Width,	maximum	 image
	      pixels  width; Height, maximum image pixels height; and Threads,
	      the maximum number of worker threads to use  per	OpenMP	thread
	      team.

	      These  resource limits are used to decide	if (for	a given	image)
	      the decoded image	("pixel	cache")	should be stored in heap  mem-
	      ory  (RAM),  in a	memory-mapped disk file, or in a disk file ac-
	      cessed via read/write I/O.  The number of	total  pixels  in  one
	      image,  and/or the width/height, may also	be limited in order to
	      force the	reading, or creation of	images larger than  the	 limit
	      (in pixels) to intentionally fail. The disk limit	establishes an
	      overall limit since using	the disk is the	means of last  resort.
	      When  the	 disk  limit  has  been	reached, no more images	may be
	      read.

	      The value	argument is an absolute	value, but may	have  standard
	      binary  suffix characters	applied	('K', 'M', 'G',	'T', 'P', 'E')
	      to apply a scaling to the	value (based on	a multiplier of	1024).
	      Any additional characters	are ignored. For example, '-limit Pix-
	      els 10MP'	limits the maximum image size  to  10  megapixels  and
	      '-limit  memory  32MB  -limit map	64MB' limits memory and	memory
	      mapped files to 32 megabytes and 64 megabytes respectively.

	      Resource limits may also be set using environment	variables. The
	      environment   variables  MAGICK_LIMIT_DISK,  MAGICK_LIMIT_FILES,
	      MAGICK_LIMIT_MAP,	MAGICK_LIMIT_MEMORY, MAGICK_LIMIT_PIXELS, MAG-
	      ICK_LIMIT_WIDTH,	MAGICK_LIMIT_HEIGHT,and	OMP_NUM_THREADS	may be
	      used to set the limits for disk space, open files, memory	mapped
	      size,  heap memory, per-image pixels, image width, image height,
	      and threads respectively.

	      Use the option -list resource list the current limits.

       -linewidth
	      the line width for subsequent draw operations

       -list _type_
	      the type of list

	      Choices are: Color, Delegate, Format, Magic,  Module,  Resource,
	      or  Type.	 The Module option is only available if	GraphicsMagick
	      was built	to support loadable modules.

	      This option lists	information about the GraphicsMagick  configu-
	      ration.

       -log _string_
	      Specify format for debug log

	      This  option  specifies  the format for the log printed when the
	      -debug option is active.

	      You can display the following components	by  embedding  special
	      format characters:

		   %d	domain
		   %e	event
		   %f	function
		   %l	line
		   %m	module
		   %p	process	ID
		   %r	real CPU time
		   %t	wall clock time
		   %u	user CPU time
		   %%	percent	sign
		   \n	newline
		   \r	carriage return

	      For example:

		  gm convert -debug coders -log	"%u %m:%l %e" in.gif out.png

	      The default behavior is to print all of the components.

       -loop _iterations_
	      add Netscape loop	extension to your GIF animation

	      A	value other than zero forces the animation to repeat itself up
	      to iterations times.

       -magnify
	      magnify the image

	      The image	size is	doubled	using linear interpolation.

       -magnify	_factor_
	      magnify the image

	      The displayed image is magnified by factor.

       -map _filename_
	      choose a particular set of colors	from this image

	      [convert or mogrify]

	      By default, color	reduction chooses an  optimal  set  of	colors
	      that  best  represent the	original image.	Alternatively, you can
	      choose a particular set of colors	from an	image file  with  this
	      option.

	      Use +map to reduce all images in the image sequence that follows
	      to a single optimal set of colors	that best  represent  all  the
	      images.	The sequence of	images is terminated by	the appearance
	      of any option.  If the +map option appears after all of the  in-
	      put images, all images are mapped.

       -map _type_
	      display image using this type.

	      [animate or display]

	      Choose from these	Standard Colormap types:

		   best
		   default
		   gray
		   red
		   green
		   blue

	      The X server must	support	the Standard Colormap you choose, oth-
	      erwise an	error  occurs.	Use  list  as  the  type  and  display
	      searches the list	of colormap types in top-to-bottom order until
	      one is located. See xstdcmap(1) for one way of creating Standard
	      Colormaps.

       -mask _filename_
	      Specify a	clipping mask

	      The  image  read	from  the file is used as a clipping mask.  It
	      must have	the same dimensions as the image being masked.

	      If the mask image	contains an opacity channel,  the  opacity  of
	      each pixel is used to define the mask.  Otherwise, the intensity
	      (gray level) of each pixel is used.  Unmasked (black) pixels are
	      modified	while masked pixels (not black)	are protected from al-
	      teration.

	      Use +mask	to remove the clipping mask.

	      It is not	necessary to use -clip to activate the mask; -clip  is
	      implied by -mask.

       -matte store matte channel if the image has one

	      If  the  image  does  not	have a matte channel, create an	opaque
	      one.

	      Use +matte to ignore the matte channel and to  avoid  writing  a
	      matte channel in the output file.

       -mattecolor _color_
	      specify the color	to be used with	the -frame option

	      The  color  is  specified	 using	the format described under the
	      -fill option.

       -maximum-error _limit_
	      specifies	the maximum amount of total image error

	      Specifies	the maximum amount of total image error	(based on com-
	      parison  using  a	specified metric) before an error ("image dif-
	      ference exceeds limit") is reported.  The	error is reported  via
	      a	non-zero command execution return status.

       -median _radius_
	      apply a median filter to the image

       -metric _metric_
	      comparison metric	(MAE, MSE, PAE,	PSNR, RMSE)

       -minify _factor_
	      minify the image

	      The image	size is	halved using linear interpolation.

       -mode _value_
	      mode of operation

	      The  available  montage modes are	frame to place the images in a
	      rectangular grid while adding  a	decorative  frame  with	 drop-
	      shadow,  unframe	to  place  undecorated images in a rectangular
	      grid, and	concatenate to pack the	images closely together	 with-
	      out any well-defined grid	or decoration.

       -modulate brightness[,saturation[,hue]]
	      vary the brightness, saturation, and hue of an image

	      Specify  the percent change in brightness, color saturation, and
	      hue separated by commas. Default argument	values	are  100  per-
	      cent, resulting in no change. For	example, to increase the color
	      brightness by 20%	and decrease the color saturation by  10%  and
	      leave the	hue unchanged, use: -modulate 120,90.

	      Hue  is the percentage of	absolute rotation from the current po-
	      sition. For example 50 results in	a  counter-clockwise  rotation
	      of  90  degrees,	150  results in	a clockwise rotation of	90 de-
	      grees, with 0 and	200 both resulting in a	rotation  of  180  de-
	      grees.

       -monitor
	      show progress indication

	      A	 simple	 command-line  progress	 indication is shown while the
	      command is running. The process indication shows	the  operation
	      currently	 being	performed  and the percent completed. Commands
	      using X11	may replace the	command	line progress indication  with
	      a	graphical one once an image has	been displayed.

       -monochrome
	      transform	the image to black and white

       -morph _frames_
	      morphs an	image sequence

	      Both the image pixels and	size are linearly interpolated to give
	      the appearance of	a meta-morphosis from one image	to the next.

	      The sequence of images is	terminated by the  appearance  of  any
	      option.  If the -morph option appears after all of the input im-
	      ages, all	images are morphed.

       -mosaic
	      create a mosaic from an image or an image	sequence

	      The -mosaic option provides a flexible way to composite  one  or
	      more images onto a solid-color canvas image. It works similar to
	      -flatten except that a base canvas image is  automatically  cre-
	      ated with	a suitable size	given the image	size, page dimensions,
	      and page offsets of images to be composited.  The	color  of  the
	      base  canvas  image  may be set via the -background option.  The
	      default canvas color is 'white', but  'black'  or	 'transparent'
	      may  be more suitable depending on the composition algorithm re-
	      quested.

	      The -compose option may be used to specify the composition algo-
	      rithm  to	 use when compositing the subsequent image on the base
	      canvas.

	      The -page	option can be used to establish	the dimensions of  the
	      mosaic  and  to position the subsequent image within the mosaic.
	      If the -page argument does not specify width  and	 height,  then
	      the canvas dimensions are	evaluated based	on the image sizes and
	      offsets.

	      The sequence of images is	terminated by the  appearance  of  any
	      option.	If  the	 -mosaic option	appears	after all of the input
	      images, all images are included in the mosaic.

	      The following is an example of composing an image	based on  red,
	      green,  and  blue	layers extracted from a	sequence of images and
	      pasted on	the canvas image at specified offsets:

		  gm convert -background black \
			    -compose CopyRed   -page +0-100 red.png \
			    -compose CopyGreen -page +0+40  green.png \
			    -compose CopyBlue  -page +0+180 blue.png \
			    -mosaic output.png

       -motion-blur _radius_{x_sigma_}{+angle}
	      Simulate motion blur

	      Simulate motion blur by convolving the image with	a Gaussian op-
	      erator  of  the given radius and standard	deviation (sigma). For
	      reasonable results, radius should	be larger than sigma.  If  ra-
	      dius  is	zero, then a suitable radius is	automatically selected
	      based on sigma. The angle	specifies the angle that the object is
	      coming from (side	which is blurred).

       -name  name an image

       -negate
	      replace every pixel with its complementary color

	      The  red,	 green,	 and blue intensities of an image are negated.
	      White becomes black, yellow becomes blue,	etc.  Use  +negate  to
	      only negate the grayscale	pixels of the image.

       -noise _radius|type_
	      add or reduce noise in an	image

	      The  principal  function	of noise peak elimination filter is to
	      smooth the objects within	an image without losing	edge  informa-
	      tion and without creating	undesired structures. The central idea
	      of the algorithm is to replace a pixel with its next neighbor in
	      value  within a pixel window, if this pixel has been found to be
	      noise. A pixel is	defined	as noise if and	only if	this pixel  is
	      a	maximum	or minimum within the pixel window.

	      Use radius to specify the	width of the neighborhood.

	      Use  +noise  followed  by	a noise	type to	add noise to an	image.
	      The noise	added modulates	the existing image pixels. Choose from
	      these noise types:

		   Uniform
		   Gaussian
		   Multiplicative
		   Impulse
		   Laplacian
		   Poisson
		   Random (uniform distribution)

       -noop  NOOP (no option)

	      The  -noop option	can be used to terminate a group of images and
	      reset all	options	to their default values, when no other	option
	      is desired.

       -normalize
	      transform	image to span the full range of	color values

	      This is a	contrast enhancement technique based on	the image his-
	      togram.

	      When computing the contrast enhancement  values,	the  histogram
	      edges are	truncated so that the majority of the image pixels are
	      considered in the	constrast enhancement, and outliers (e.g. ran-
	      dom  noise  or minute details) are ignored.  The default is that
	      0.1 percent of the histogram entries are ignored.	 The  percent-
	      age  of  the  histogram  to ignore may be	specified by using the
	      -set option with the histogram-threshold	parameter  similar  to
	      -set  histogram-threshold	 0.01  to specify 0.01 percent.	 Use 0
	      percent to use the entire	histogram,  with  possibly  diminished
	      contrast enhancement.

       -opaque _color_
	      change this color	to the pen color within	the image

	      The  color  is  specified	 using	the format described under the
	      -fill option.  The color is replaced if it is identical  to  the
	      target  color, or	close enough to	the target color in a 3D space
	      as defined by the	Euclidean distance specified by	-fuzz.

	      See -fill	and -fuzz for more details.

       -operator channel operator rvalue[%]
	      apply a mathematical, bitwise, or	value  operator	 to  an	 image
	      channel

	      Apply  a low-level mathematical, bitwise,	or value operator to a
	      selected image channel or	all image channels.  Operations	 which
	      result  in  negative  results  are reset to zero,	and operations
	      which overflow the available range are reset to the maximum pos-
	      sible value.

	      Select  a	 channel from: Red, Green, Blue, Opacity, Matte, Cyan,
	      Magenta, Yellow, Black, All, or  Gray.  All  only	 modifies  the
	      color  channels  and does	not modify the Opacity channel.	Except
	      for the threshold	operators, All operates	on each	channel	 inde-
	      pendently	so that	operations are on a per-channel	basis.

	      Gray treats the color channels as	a grayscale intensity and per-
	      forms the	requested operation on the equivalent pixel  intensity
	      so  the  result  is  a gray image.  Select an operator from Add,
	      And, Assign, Depth, Divide, Gamma,  Negate,  LShift,  Log,  Max,
	      Min,  Multiply,  Or, Pow RShift, Subtract, Threshold, Threshold-
	      White, Threshold-White-Negate, Threshold-Black, Threshold-Black-
	      Negate,  Xor,  Noise-Gaussian,  Noise-Impulse,  Noise-Laplacian,
	      Noise-Multiplicative, Noise-Poisson,  Noise-Random,  and	Noise-
	      Uniform.

	      Rvalue  may  be  any  floating  point or integer value. Normally
	      rvalue will be in	the range of 0 to MaxRGB, where	MaxRGB is  the
	      largest  quantum	value  supported  by  the GraphicsMagick build
	      (255, 65535, or 4294967295) but values outside  this  range  are
	      useful  for some arithmetic operations.  Arguments to logical or
	      bit-wise operations are rounded to  a  positive  integral	 value
	      prior  to	 use. If a percent (%) symbol is appended to the argu-
	      ment, then the argument has a range of 0 to 100 percent.

	      The following is a description of	the operators:

	       Add

		    Result is rvalue added to channel value.

	       And

		    Result is the logical AND of rvalue	with channel value.

	       Assign

		    Result is rvalue.

	       Depth

		    Result is channel value adjusted so	that it	 may  be  (ap-
		    proximately)  stored in the	specified number of bits with-
		    out	additional loss.

	       Divide

		    Result is channel value divided by rvalue.

	       Gamma

		    Result is channel value gamma adjusted by rvalue.

	       LShift

		    Result is channel value bitwise  left  shifted  by	rvalue
		    bits.

	       Log

		    Result is computed as log(value*rvalue+1)/log(rvalue+1).

	       Max

		    Result  is	assigned  to  rvalue if	rvalue is greater than
		    value.

	       Min

		    Result is assigned to rvalue if rvalue is less than	value.

	       Multiply

		    Result is channel value multiplied by rvalue.

	       Negate

		    Result is inverse of channel value (like a film negative).
		    An	rvalue must be supplied	but is currently not used. In-
		    verting the	image twice results in the original image.

	       Or

		    Result is the logical OR of	rvalue with channel value.

	       Pow

		    Result is computed as pow(value,rvalue). Similar to	 Gamma
		    except that	rvalue is not inverted.

	       RShift

		    Result  is	channel	 value bitwise right shifted by	rvalue
		    bits.

	       Subtract

		    Result is channel value minus rvalue.

	       Threshold

		    Result is maximum (white) if channel value is greater than
		    rvalue,  or	minimum	(black)	if it is less than or equal to
		    rvalue. If all channels are	specified,  then  thresholding
		    is done based on computed pixel intensity.

	       Threshold-white

		    Result is maximum (white) if channel value is greater than
		    rvalue and is unchanged if it is less  than	 or  equal  to
		    rvalue. This can be	used to	remove apparent	noise from the
		    bright parts of an image. If all channels  are  specified,
		    then  thresholding	is done	based on computed pixel	inten-
		    sity.

	       Threshold-White-Negate

		    Result is set to black if channel value  is	 greater  than
		    rvalue  and	 is  unchanged	if it is less than or equal to
		    rvalue. If all channels are	specified,  then  thresholding
		    is done based on computed pixel intensity.

	       Threshold-black

		    Result  is	minimum	 (black) if channel value is less than
		    than rvalue	and is unchanged if  it	 is  greater  than  or
		    equal to rvalue. This can be used to remove	apparent noise
		    from the dark parts	of an image. If	all channels are spec-
		    ified,  then  thresholding is done based on	computed pixel
		    intensity.

	       Threshold-Black-Negate

		    Result is set to white if channel value is less than  than
		    rvalue  and	is unchanged if	it is greater than or equal to
		    rvalue. If all channels are	specified,  then  thresholding
		    is done based on computed pixel intensity.

	       Xor

		    Result is the logical XOR of rvalue	with channel value. An
		    interesting	property of XOR	is that	 performing  the  same
		    operation twice results in the original value.

	       Noise-Gaussian

		    Result  is the current channel value modulated with	gauss-
		    ian	noise according	to the intensity specified by rvalue.

	       Noise-Impulse

		    Result is the current channel value	modulated with impulse
		    noise according to the intensity specified by rvalue.

	       Noise-Laplacian

		    Result  is the current channel value modulated with	lapla-
		    cian noise according to the	intensity specified by rvalue.

	       Noise-Multiplicative

		    Result is the current channel value	modulated with	multi-
		    plicative gaussian noise according to the intensity	speci-
		    fied by rvalue.

	       Noise-Poisson

		    Result is the current channel value	modulated with poisson
		    noise according to the intensity specified by rvalue.

	       Noise-Random

		    Result  is the current channel value modulated with	random
		    (uniform distribution) noise according  to	the  intensity
		    specified	by   rvalue.	The  initial  noise  intensity
		    (rvalue=1.0) is the	range of one pixel quantum span.

	       Noise-Uniform

		    Result is the channel value	with uniform noise applied ac-
		    cording to the intensity specified by rvalue.

	       As  an  example,	the Assign operator assigns a fixed value to a
	       channel.	For example, this command sets the red channel to  the
	       mid-range value:

		   gm convert in.bmp -operator red assign "50%"	out.bmp

	       The following applies 50% thresholding to the image and returns
	       a gray image:

		   gm convert in.bmp -operator gray threshold "50%" out.bmp

       -ordered-dither _channeltype_ _NxN_
	      ordered dither the image

	      The channel or channels specified	in  the	 channeltype  argument
	      are  reduced  to	binary,	 using	an  ordered dither method. The
	      choices for channeltype are All, Intensity,  Red,	 Green,	 Blue,
	      Cyan, Magenta, Yellow, Black, and	Opacity

	      When channeltype is "All", the color samples are dithered	into a
	      gray level and then that gray level is stored in the three color
	      channels.	  Separately,  the  opacity channel is dithered	into a
	      bilevel opacity value which is stored in the opacity channel.

	      When channeltype is "Intensity",	only  the  color  samples  are
	      dithered.	 When  channeltype  is	"opacity" or "matte", only the
	      opacity channel is dithered. When	a color	channel	is  specified,
	      only that	channel	is dithered.

	      The choices for N	are 2 through 7. The image is divided into NxN
	      pixel tiles.  In each tile, some or all  pixels  are  turned  to
	      white depending on their intensity.  For each N, (N**2)+1	levels
	      of gray can be represented.  For N == 2, 3, or 4,	the pixels are
	      turned to	white in an order that maximizes dispersion (i.e., re-
	      duces granularity), while	for N == 5, 6, and 7, they are	turned
	      to  white	in an order that creates a roughly circular black blob
	      in the middle of each tile.  An attractive  "half-tone"  looking
	      image  can  be  obtained by first	rotating the image 45 degrees,
	      performing a 5x5 ordered-dither operation, then rotating it back
	      to  the  original	orientation and	cropping to the	original image
	      dimensions.  If the original image is gamma-encoded, it  is  ad-
	      viseable to convert it to	linear intensity first,	e.g., with the
	      "-gamma 0.45455" option.

       -output-directory _directory_
	      output files to directory

	      Use -output-directory to specify	a  directory  under  which  to
	      write  the  output  files. Normally mogrify overwrites the input
	      files but	with this option the output files may be written to  a
	      different	 directory  so that the	input files are	preserved. The
	      algorithm	used preserves all of the input	path specification  in
	      the output path so that the user-specified input path (including
	      any directory part) is appended to the output path.  The user is
	      responsible for creating the output directory.

       -orient _orientation_
	      Set the image orientation	attribute

	      Sets the image orientation attribute.  The image orientation at-
	      tribute is compatible with the TIFF  orientation	tag  (and  the
	      EXIF  orientation	tag).  Accepted	values are undefined, TopLeft,
	      TopRight,	BottomRight, BottomLeft, LeftTop, RightTop,  RightBot-
	      tom, LeftBottom, and hyphenated versions thereof (e.g. left-bot-
	      tom).  Please note that GraphicsMagick does not include an  EXIF
	      editor so	if an EXIF profile is written to the output image, the
	      value in the EXIF	profile	might not match	the image.  It is pos-
	      sible  for  an image file	to indicate its	orientation in several
	      different	ways simultaneously.

       -page _width_x_height_{+-}_x_{+-}_y_{%}{!}{_}{_}
	      size and location	of an image canvas

	      Use this option to specify the dimensions	of the PostScript page
	      in  dots	per  inch  or a	TEXT page in pixels. The choices for a
	      PostScript page are:

		   11x17	 792  1224
		   Ledger	1224   792
		   Legal	 612  1008
		   Letter	 612   792
		   LetterSmall	 612   792
		   ArchE	2592  3456
		   ArchD	1728  2592
		   ArchC	1296  1728
		   ArchB	 864  1296
		   ArchA	 648   864
		   A0		2380  3368
		   A1		1684  2380
		   A2		1190  1684
		   A3		 842  1190
		   A4		 595   842
		   A4Small	 595   842
		   A5		 421   595
		   A6		 297   421
		   A7		 210   297
		   A8		 148   210
		   A9		 105   148
		   A10		  74   105
		   B0		2836  4008
		   B1		2004  2836
		   B2		1418  2004
		   B3		1002  1418
		   B4		 709  1002
		   B5		 501   709
		   C0		2600  3677
		   C1		1837  2600
		   C2		1298  1837
		   C3		 918  1298
		   C4		 649   918
		   C5		 459   649
		   C6		 323   459
		   Flsa		 612   936
		   Flse		 612   936
		   HalfLetter	 396   612

	      For convenience you can specify the page size by media (e.g. A4,
	      Ledger,  etc.).  Otherwise,  -page  behaves  much	like -geometry
	      (e.g.  -page letter+43+43>).

	      This option is also used to place	subimages when	writing	 to  a
	      multi-image format that supports offsets,	such as	GIF89 and MNG.
	      When used	for this purpose the offsets are always	 measured from
	      the  top	left  corner of	the canvas and are not affected	by the
	      -gravity	option.	  To  position	a  GIF	or  MNG	  image,   use
	      -page{+-}_x_{+-}_y_  (e.g.  -page	 +100+200).  When writing to a
	      MNG file,	a -page	option appearing ahead of the first  image  in
	      the sequence with	nonzero	width and height defines the width and
	      height values that are written in	the  MHDR  chunk.   Otherwise,
	      the MNG width and	height are computed from the bounding box that
	      contains all images in the sequence.  When writing a GIF89 file,
	      only  the	 bounding  box	method is used to determine its	dimen-
	      sions.

	      For a PostScript page, the image is sized	as  in	-geometry  and
	      positioned relative to the lower left hand corner	of the page by
	      {+-}<xoffset>{+-}<y offset_. Use -page 612x792>, for example, to
	      center  the image	within the page. If the	image size exceeds the
	      PostScript page, it is reduced to	fit  the  page.	  The  default
	      gravity  for the -page option is NorthWest, i.e.,	positive x and
	      y	offset are measured rightward and downward from	the  top  left
	      corner of	the page, unless the -gravity option is	present	with a
	      value other than NorthWest.

	      The default page dimensions for a	TEXT image is 612x792.

	      This option is used in concert with -density.

	      Use +page	to remove the page settings for	an image.

       -paint _radius_
	      simulate an oil painting

	      Each pixel is replaced by	the most frequent color	in a  circular
	      neighborhood whose width is specified with radius.

       -pause _seconds_
	      pause between animation loops [animate]

	      Pause  for  the specified	number of seconds before repeating the
	      animation.

       -pause _seconds_
	      pause between snapshots [import]

	      Pause for	the specified number of	seconds	before taking the next
	      snapshot.

       -pen _color_
	      (This option has been replaced by	the -fill option)

       -ping  efficiently determine image characteristics

	      Use  this	option to disable reading the image pixels so that im-
	      age characteristics such as the image dimensions may be obtained
	      very quickly. For	identify, use +ping to force reading the image
	      pixels so	that the pixel read rate may be	included in  the  dis-
	      played information.

       -pointsize _value_
	      pointsize	of the PostScript, X11,	or TrueType font

       -preview	_type_
	      image preview type

	      Use  this	 option	 to  affect  the preview operation of an image
	      (e.g.   convert  file.png	 -preview  Gamma   Preview:gamma.png).
	      Choose from these	previews:

		   Rotate
		   Shear
		   Roll
		   Hue
		   Saturation
		   Brightness
		   Gamma
		   Spiff
		   Dull
		   Grayscale
		   Quantize
		   Despeckle
		   ReduceNoise
		   AddNoise
		   Sharpen
		   Blur
		   Threshold
		   EdgeDetect
		   Spread
		   Shade
		   Raise
		   Segment
		   Solarize
		   Swirl
		   Implode
		   Wave
		   OilPaint
		   CharcoalDrawing
		   JPEG

	      The default preview is JPEG.

       -process	_command_
	      process a	sequence of images using a process module

	      The command argument has the form	module=arg1,arg2,arg3,...,argN
	      where module is the name of the module  to  invoke  (e.g.	 "ana-
	      lyze")  and  arg1,arg2,arg3,...,argN  are	an arbitrary number of
	      arguments	to pass	to the process module.	The sequence of	images
	      is terminated by the appearance of any option.

	      If  the  -process	 option	appears	after all of the input images,
	      all images are processed.

       -profile	_filename_
	      add ICM, IPTC, or	generic	profile	 to image

	      -profile filename	adds  an  ICM  (ICC  color  management),  IPTC
	      (newswire	information), or a generic (including Exif) profile to
	      the image

	      Use +profile icm,	+profile iptc, or +profile profile_name	to re-
	      move  the	 respective profile.  Multiple profiles	may be listed,
	      separated	by commas. Profiles may	be  excluded  from  subsequent
	      listed  matches  by  preceding  their  name  with	an exclamation
	      point.  For example, +profile '!icm,*' strips all	 profiles  ex-
	      cept  for	 the  ICM  profile.  Use identify -verbose to find out
	      what profiles are	in the image file.  Use	+profile "*" to	remove
	      all  profiles.  Writing the image	to a format that does not sup-
	      port profiles will of course also	cause all profiles to  be  re-
	      moved.   The  JPEG  and PNG formats will store any profiles that
	      have been	read and not removed.  In JPEG they are	stored in APP1
	      markers,	and in PNG they	are stored as hex-coded	binary in com-
	      pressed zTXt chunks, except for the iCC chunk which is stored in
	      the iCCP chunk.

	      To extract a profile, the	-profile option	is not used.  Instead,
	      simply write the file to an image	format	such  as  APP1,	 8BIM,
	      ICM, or IPTC.

	      For  example,  to	extract	the Exif data (which is	stored in JPEG
	      files in the APP1	profile), use

		  gm convert cockatoo.jpg exifdata.app1

	      Note that	GraphicsMagick does not	attempt	to update any  profile
	      to  reflect  changes made	to the image, e.g., rotation from por-
	      trait to landscape orientation, so it is possible	that the  pre-
	      served profile may contain invalid data.

       -preserve-timestamp
	      preserve the original timestamps of the file

	      Use this option to preserve the original modification and	access
	      timestamps of the	file, even if it has been modified.

       +progress
	      disable progress monitor and busy	cursor

	      By default, when an image	is displayed, a	progress  monitor  bar
	      is  shown	 in  the  top left corner of an	existing image display
	      window, and the current cursor is	 replaced  with	 an  hourglass
	      cursor.  Use  +progress to disable the progress monitor and busy
	      cursor during display operations.	 While the progress monitor is
	      disabled for all operations, the busy cursor continues to	be en-
	      abled for	non-display operations such as image processing.  This
	      option is	useful for non-interactive display operations, or when
	      a	"clean"	look is	desired.

       -quality	_value_
	      JPEG/MIFF/PNG/TIFF compression level
	       For the JPEG and	MPEG image formats, quality is 0 (lowest image
	      quality  and highest compression)	to 100 (best quality but least
	      effective	compression). The default  quality  is	75.   Use  the
	      -sampling-factor	option to specify the factors for chroma down-
	      sampling.	 To use	the same quality value as that	found  by  the
	      JPEG decoder, use	the -define jpeg:preserve-settings flag.

	      For  the	MIFF image format, and the TIFF	format while using ZIP
	      compression, quality/10 is the zlib compression level, which  is
	      0	 (worst	 but  fastest compression) to 9	(best but slowest). It
	      has no effect on the image appearance, since the compression  is
	      always lossless.

	      For  the	JPEG-2000 image	format,	quality	is mapped using	a non-
	      linear equation to the compression ratio required	by the	Jasper
	      library. This non-linear equation	is intended to loosely approx-
	      imate the	quality	provided by the	JPEG v1	 format.  The  default
	      quality  value 75	results	in a request for 16:1 compression. The
	      quality value 100	results	in a request  for  non-lossy  compres-
	      sion.

	      For  the	MNG  and PNG image formats, the	quality	value sets the
	      zlib compression level (quality /	10) and	filter-type (quality %
	      10).  Compression	 levels	 range from 0 (fastest compression) to
	      100 (best	but slowest). For compression level  0,	 the  Huffman-
	      only  strategy is	used, which is fastest but not necessarily the
	      worst compression.

	      If filter-type is	4 or less, the specified filter-type  is  used
	      for all scanlines:

		   0: none
		   1: sub
		   2: up
		   3: average
		   4: Paeth

	      If  filter-type is 5, adaptive filtering is used when quality is
	      greater than 50 and the image does not have a color map,	other-
	      wise no filtering	is used.

	      If  filter-type is 6, adaptive filtering with minimum-sum-of-ab-
	      solute-values is used.

	      Only if the output is MNG, if filter-type	is 7, the  LOCO	 color
	      transformation  and adaptive filtering with minimum-sum-of-abso-
	      lute-values are used.

	      The default is quality is	75, which means	nearly the  best  com-
	      pression	with  adaptive	filtering.  The	quality	setting	has no
	      effect on	the appearance of PNG and MNG images, since  the  com-
	      pression is always lossless.

	      For further information, see the PNG specification.

	      When  writing  a JNG image with transparency, two	quality	values
	      are required, one	for the	main image and one for	the  grayscale
	      image  that conveys the opacity channel.	These are written as a
	      single integer equal to the main image quality plus  1000	 times
	      the opacity quality.  For	example, if you	want to	use quality 75
	      for the main image and quality 90	to compress the	opacity	 data,
	      use -quality 90075.

	      For  the	PNM  family  of	 formats (PNM, PGM, and	PPM) specify a
	      quality factor of	zero in	order to obtain	the ASCII  variant  of
	      the  format. Note	that -compress none used to be used to trigger
	      ASCII output but provided	the opposite result of	what  was  ex-
	      pected as	compared with other formats.

       -raise _width_x_height_
	      lighten or darken	image edges

	      This will	create a 3-D effect. See -geometry for details details
	      about the	geometry specification.	Offsets	are not	used.

	      Use -raise to create a raised effect, otherwise use +raise.

       -random-threshold _channeltype_ _LOWxHIGH_
	      random threshold the image

	      The channel or channels specified	in the <channeltype>  argument
	      are  reduced  to	binary,	 using an random-threshold method. The
	      choices for channeltype are All, Intensity,  Red,	 Green,	 Blue,
	      Cyan, Magenta, Yellow, Black, and	Opacity

	      When  channeltype	 is  "All",  the color samples are thresholded
	      into a graylevel and then	that gray level	is stored in the three
	      color  channels.	Separately, the	opacity	channel	is thresholded
	      into a bilevel opacity value which  is  stored  in  the  opacity
	      channel.	For  each pixel, a new random number is	used to	estab-
	      lish the threshold to be used. The threshold never  exceeds  the
	      specified	 maximum  (HIGH)  and is never less than the specified
	      minimum (LOW).

	      When channeltype is "intensity",	only  the  color  samples  are
	      thresholded.  When channeltype is	"opacity" or "matte", only the
	      opacity channel is thresholded. The other	 named	channels  only
	      threshold	the associated channel.

       -recolor	_matrix_
	      apply a color translation	matrix to image	channels

	      A	 user  supplied	 color translation matrix (expressed as	a text
	      string) is used to translate/blend the image channels  based  on
	      weightings  in  a	supplied matrix	which may be of	order 3	(color
	      channels only), 4	(color channels	plus  opacity),	 or  5	(color
	      channels plus opacity and	offset).  Values in the	columns	of the
	      matrix (red, green, blue,	opacity) are used as multipliers  with
	      the  existing channel values and added together according	to the
	      rows of the matrix.  Matrix values are floating point and	may be
	      negative.	  The  offset column (column 5)	is purely additive and
	      is scaled	such that 0.0 to 1.0 represents	 the  maximum  quantum
	      range  (but  values are not limited to this range). The math for
	      the color	translation matrix is similar to that  used  by	 Adobe
	      Flash except that	the offset is scaled to	1.0 (divide Flash off-
	      set by 255 for use with GraphicsMagick) so that the results  are
	      independent of quantum depth.

	      An identity matrix exists	for each matrix	order which results in
	      no change	to the image.  The translation matrix should be	 based
	      on an alteration of the identity matrix.

	      Identity matrix of order 3

		1 0 0
		0 1 0
		0 0 1

	      which may	be formatted into a convenient matrix argument similar
	      to (comma	is treated as white space):

		-recolor "1 0 0, 0 1 0,	0 0 1"

	      Identity matrix of order 4

		1 0 0 0
		0 1 0 0
		0 0 1 0
		0 0 0 1

	      Identity matrix of order 5.  The last row	is required  to	 exist
	      for the purpose of parsing, but is otherwise not used.

		1 0 0 0	0
		0 1 0 0	0
		0 0 1 0	0
		0 0 0 1	0
		0 0 0 0	1

	      As an example, an	image wrongly in BGR channel order may be con-
	      verted to	RGB using this matrix (blue->red, red->blue):

		0 0 1
		0 1 0
		1 0 0

	      and an RGB image using standard Rec.709 primaries	 may  be  con-
	      verted to	grayscale using	this matrix of standard	weighting fac-
	      tors:

		0.2126 0.7152 0.0722
		0.2126 0.7152 0.0722
		0.2126 0.7152 0.0722

	      and contrast may be reduced by scaling down by 80% and adding  a
	      10% offset:

		0.8 0.0	0.0 0.0	0.1
		0.0 0.8	0.0 0.0	0.1
		0.0 0.0	0.8 0.0	0.1
		0.0 0.0	0.0 0.8	0.1
		0.0 0.0	0.0 0.0	1.0

       -red-primary _x_,_y_
	      red chromaticity primary point

       -region _width_x_height_{+-}_x_{+-}_y_
	      apply options to a portion of the	image

	      The x and	y offsets are treated in the same manner as in -crop.

       -remote
	      perform a	X11 remote operation

	      The -remote command sends	a command to a "gm display" or "gm an-
	      imate" which is already running. The only	command	recognized  at
	      this  time is the	name of	an image file to load. This capability
	      is very useful to	load new images	 without  needing  to  restart
	      GraphicsMagick  (e.g.  for a slide-show or to use	GraphicsMagick
	      as the display  engine  for  a  different	 GUI).	Also  see  the
	      +progress	 option	for a way to disable progress indication for a
	      clean look while loading new images.

       -render
	      render vector operations

	      Use +render to turn off rendering	 vector	 operations.  This  is
	      useful  when  saving the result to vector	formats	such as	MVG or
	      SVG.

       -repage	_width_x_height_+xoff+yoff[!]
	      Adjust image page	offsets

	      Adjust the current image page canvas and	position  based	 on  a
	      relative	page specification.  This option may be	used to	change
	      the location of a	subframe (e.g. part of an animation) prior  to
	      composition.   If	 the  geometry	specification is absolute (in-
	      cludes a '!'), then the offset adjustment	is absolute and	 there
	      is  no  adjustment  to page width	and height, otherwise the page
	      width and	height values are also adjusted	based on  the  current
	      image  dimensions.  Use +repage to set the image page offsets to
	      default.

       -resample _horizontal_x_vertical_
	      Resample image to	specified horizontal and vertical resolution

	      Resize the image so that its rendered size remains the  same  as
	      the original at the specified target resolution. Either the cur-
	      rent image resolution units or the previously  set  with	-units
	      are  used	 to  interpret the argument. For example, if a 300 DPI
	      image renders at 3 inches	by 2 inches on a 300 DPI device,  when
	      the  image  has  been  resampled	to 72 DPI, it will render at 3
	      inches by	2 inches on a 72 DPI device.  Note that	only  a	 small
	      number  of  image	formats	(e.g. JPEG, PNG, and TIFF) are capable
	      of storing the image resolution. For formats which do  not  sup-
	      port  an	image resolution, the original resolution of the image
	      must be specified	via -density on	 the  command  line  prior  to
	      specifying the resample resolution.

	      Note  that  Photoshop stores and obtains image resolution	from a
	      proprietary embedded profile. If this profile exists in the  im-
	      age,  then  Photoshop will continue to treat the image using its
	      former resolution, ignoring the image  resolution	 specified  in
	      the standard file	header.

	      Some  image  formats (e.g. PNG) require use of metric or english
	      units so even if the original image used a particular unit  sys-
	      tem,  if	it is saved to a different format prior	to resampling,
	      then it may be necessary to specify the desired resolution units
	      using  -units  since  the	 original units	may have been lost. In
	      other words, do not assume that the  resolution  units  are  re-
	      stored if	the image has been saved to a file.

       -resize _width_x_height_{%}{@}{!}{_}{_}
	      resize an	image

	      This  is an alias	for the	-geometry option and it	behaves	in the
	      same manner. If the -filter option precedes the -resize  option,
	      the specified filter is used.

	      There are	some exceptions:

	      When  used  as a composite option, -resize conveys the preferred
	      size of the output image,	while -geometry	conveys	the  size  and
	      placement	of the composite image within the main image.

	      When  used  as  a	 montage option, -resize conveys the preferred
	      size of the montage, while -geometry conveys  information	 about
	      the tiles.

       -roll {+-}_x_{+-}_y_
	      roll an image vertically or horizontally

	      See -geometry for	details	the geometry specification.  The x and
	      y	offsets	are not	affected by the	-gravity option.

	      A	negative x offset rolls	the image left-to-right. A negative  y
	      offset rolls the image top-to-bottom.

       -rotate _degrees_{_}{_}
	      rotate the image

	      Positive	angles rotate the image	in a clockwise direction while
	      negative angles rotate counter-clockwise.

	      Use > to rotate the image	only if	its width exceeds the  height.
	      <	 rotates  the image only if its	width is less than the height.
	      For example, if you specify -rotate "-90>" and the image size is
	      480x640,	the  image  is	not rotated.  However, if the image is
	      640x480, it is rotated by	-90 degrees.  If you use > or  <,  en-
	      close  it	 in quotation marks to prevent it from being misinter-
	      preted as	a file redirection.

	      Empty triangles left over	from rotating  the  image  are	filled
	      with  the	 color	defined	as background (class backgroundColor).
	      The color	is specified using  the	 format	 described  under  the
	      -fill option.

       -sample _geometry_
	      scale image using	pixel sampling

	      See  -geometry  for  details  about  the geometry	specification.
	      -sample ignores the -filter selection if the -filter  option  is
	      present.	 Offsets,  if  present in the geometry string, are ig-
	      nored, and the -gravity option has no effect.

       -sampling-factor	_horizontal_factor_x_vertical_factor_
	      chroma subsampling factors

	      This option specifies the	sampling factors to  be	 used  by  the
	      DPX,  JPEG,  MPEG,  or YUV encoders for chroma downsampling. The
	      sampling factor must be specified	while reading the raw YUV for-
	      mat  since  it  is  not preserved	in the file header.  Industry-
	      standard video subsampling notation such as "4:2:2" may also  be
	      used to specify the sampling factors. "4:2:2" is equivalent to a
	      specification of "2x1"

	      The JPEG decoder obtains	the  original  sampling	 factors  (and
	      quality settings)	when a JPEG file is read. To re-use the	origi-
	      nal sampling factors (and	quality	setting) when JPEG is  output,
	      use the -define jpeg:preserve-settings flag.

       -scale _geometry_
	      scale the	image.

	      See  -geometry  for  details  about  the geometry	specification.
	      -scale uses a simpler, faster  algorithm,	 and  it  ignores  the
	      -filter selection	if the -filter option is present.  Offsets, if
	      present in the geometry string, are ignored,  and	 the  -gravity
	      option has no effect.

       -scene _value_
	      set scene	number

	      This option sets the scene number	of an image or the first image
	      in an image sequence.

       -scenes _value-value_
	      range of image scene numbers to read

	      Each image in the	range is read with the filename	followed by  a
	      period  (.)  and	the decimal scene number.  You can change this
	      behavior by embedding a %d, %0Nd,	%o, %0No, %x, or  %0Nx	printf
	      format specification in the file name. For example,

		  gm montage -scenes 5-7 image.miff montage.miff

	      makes  a	montage	 of  files image.miff.5, image.miff.6, and im-
	      age.miff.7, and

		  gm animate -scenes 0-12 image%02d.miff

	      animates files image00.miff, image01.miff, through image12.miff.

       -screen
	      specify the screen to capture

	      This option indicates that the GetImage request used  to	obtain
	      the  image  should  be  done on the root window, rather than di-
	      rectly on	the specified window.  In this	way,  you  can	obtain
	      pieces  of  other	windows	that overlap the specified window, and
	      more importantly,	you can	capture	menus or other popups that are
	      independent windows but appear over the specified	window.

       -set _attribute_	_value_
	      set an image attribute

	      Set  a  named image attribute.  The attribute is set on the cur-
	      rent (previously specified on command line) image.

       +set _attribute_
	      unset an image attribute

	      Unset a named image attribute.  The attribute  is	 removed  from
	      the current (previously specified	on command line) image.

       -segment	_cluster threshold_x_smoothing threshold_
	      segment an image

	      Segment an image by analyzing the	histograms of the color	compo-
	      nents and	identifying units that are homogeneous with the	 fuzzy
	      c-means technique.

	      Segmentation  is	a  very	 useful	fast and and approximate color
	      quantization algorithm for scanned printed pages or scanned car-
	      toons.  It may also be used as a special effect. Specify cluster
	      threshold	as the minimum percentage of total pixels in a cluster
	      before it	is considered valid.  For huge images containing small
	      detail, this may need to be a tiny fraction of a	percent	 (e.g.
	      0.015)  so that important	detail is not lost.  Smoothing thresh-
	      old eliminates noise in the second derivative of the  histogram.
	      As  the value is increased, you can expect a smoother second de-
	      rivative.	The default is 1.5. Add	the -verbose option to	see  a
	      dump  of	cluster	statistics given the parameters	used. The sta-
	      tistics may be used as a guide to	help fine tune the options.

       -shade _azimuth_x_elevation_
	      shade the	image using a distant light source

	      Specify azimuth and elevation  as	 the  position	of  the	 light
	      source.  Use +shade to return the	shading	results	as a grayscale
	      image.

       -shadow _radius_{x_sigma_}
	      shadow the montage

       -shared-memory
	      use shared memory

	      This option specifies whether the	utility	should attempt to  use
	      shared memory for	pixmaps.  GraphicsMagick must be compiled with
	      shared memory support, and the display must support the  MIT-SHM
	      extension.   Otherwise,  this option is ignored.	The default is
	      True.

       -sharpen	_radius_{x_sigma_}
	      sharpen the image

	      Use a Gaussian operator of the given radius and standard	devia-
	      tion (sigma).

       -shave _width_x_height_{%}
	      shave pixels from	the image edges

	      Specify the width	of the region to be removed from both sides of
	      the image	and the	height of the regions to be removed  from  top
	      and bottom.

       -shear _x degrees_x_y degrees_
	      shear the	image along the	X or Y axis

	      Use the specified	positive or negative shear angle.

	      Shearing slides one edge of an image along the X or Y axis, cre-
	      ating a parallelogram. An	X direction shear slides an edge along
	      the X axis, while	a Y direction shear slides an edge along the Y
	      axis. The	amount of the shear is controlled by  a	 shear	angle.
	      For  X direction shears, x degrees is measured relative to the Y
	      axis, and	similarly, for Y direction shears y  degrees  is  mea-
	      sured relative to	the X axis.

	      Empty  triangles	left  over  from shearing the image are	filled
	      with the color defined as	 background  (class  backgroundColor).
	      The  color  is  specified	 using	the format described under the
	      -fill option.

       -silent
	      operate silently

       -size _width_x_height_{+offset}
	      width and	height of the image

	      Use this option to specify the width and height  of  raw	images
	      whose  dimensions	are unknown such as GRAY, RGB, or CMYK.	In ad-
	      dition to	width and height, use -size with an offset to skip any
	      header  information in the image or tell the number of colors in
	      a	MAP image file,	(e.g. -size 640x512+256).

	      For Photo	CD images, choose from these sizes:

		   192x128
		   384x256
		   768x512
		   1536x1024
		   3072x2048

	      Finally, use this	option to choose a particular resolution layer
	      of a JBIG	or JPEG	image (e.g. -size 1024x768).

       -snaps _value_
	      number of	screen snapshots

	      Use  this	 option	 to grab more than one image from the X	server
	      screen, to create	an animation sequence.

       -solarize _factor_
	      negate all pixels	above the threshold level

	      Specify factor as	the percent threshold of the  intensity	 (0  -
	      99.9%).

	      This  option produces a solarization effect seen when exposing a
	      photographic film	to light during	the development	process.

       -spread _amount_
	      displace image pixels by a random	amount

	      Amount defines the size of the neighborhood around each pixel to
	      choose a candidate pixel to swap.

       -stegano	_offset_
	      hide watermark within an image

	      Use  an  offset  to start	the image hiding some number of	pixels
	      from the beginning of the	image.	Note this offset and the image
	      size.   You  will	 need this information to recover the stegano-
	      graphic image (e.g. display -size	320x256+35 stegano:image.png).

       -stereo
	      composite	two images to create a stereo anaglyph

	      The left side of the stereo pair is saved	as the red channel  of
	      the output image.	 The right side	is saved as the	green channel.
	      Red-green	stereo glasses	are  required  to  properly  view  the
	      stereo image.

       -strip remove all profiles and text attributes from the image

	      All  embedded profiles and text attributes are stripped from the
	      image.  This is useful for images	used for the web, or when out-
	      put files	need to	be as small as possible

       -stroke _color_
	      color to use when	stroking a graphic primitive

	      The  color  is  specified	 using	the format described under the
	      -fill option.

	      See -draw	for further details.

       -strokewidth _value_
	      set the stroke width

	      See -draw	for further details.

       -swirl _degrees_
	      swirl image pixels about the center

	      Degrees defines the tightness of the swirl.

       -text-font _name_
	      font for writing fixed-width text

	      Specifies	the name of the	preferred font to use in fixed	(type-
	      writer style) formatted text.  The default is 14 point Courier.

	      You  can tag a font to specify whether it	is a PostScript, True-
	      Type, or X11 font.  For example, Courier.ttf is a	TrueType  font
	      and x:fixed is X11.

       -texture	_filename_
	      name of texture to tile onto the image background

       -threshold _value_{%}
	      threshold	the image

	      Modify  the  image  such that any	pixel sample with an intensity
	      value greater than the threshold is assigned the maximum	inten-
	      sity  (white),  or  otherwise  is	assigned the minimum intensity
	      (black). If a percent prefix is applied, then the	threshold is a
	      percentage of the	available range.

	      To  efficiently  create a	black and white	image from a color im-
	      age, use

		  gm convert -threshold	50% in.png out.png

	      The optimum threshold value depends on the nature	of the	image.
	      In  order	 to  threshold	individual channels, use the -operator
	      subcommand with it's Threshold, Threshold-White,	or  Threshold-
	      Black options.

       -thumbnail _width_x_height_{%}{@}{!}{_}{_}
	      resize an	image (quickly)

	      The -thumbnail command resizes the image as quickly as possible,
	      with more	concern	for speed than resulting image	quality.   Re-
	      gardless,	 resulting image quality should	be acceptable for many
	      uses.  It	is primarily intended to be used to  generate  smaller
	      versions	of  the	image, but may also be used to enlarge the im-
	      age.  The	-thumbnail geometry argument observes the same	syntax
	      and rules	as it does for -resize.

       -tile _filename_
	      tile image when filling a	graphic	primitive

       -tile _geometry_
	      layout of	images [montage]

       -title _string_
	      assign title to displayed	image [animate,	display, montage]

	      Use this option to assign	a specific title to the	image. This is
	      assigned to the image window and is typically displayed  in  the
	      window  title  bar.   Optionally you can include the image file-
	      name, type, width, height, Exif data, or other  image  attribute
	      by embedding special format characters described under the -for-
	      mat option.

	      For example,

		   -title "%m:%f %wx%h"

	      produces an image	title of MIFF:bird.miff	512x480	for  an	 image
	      titled bird.miff and whose width is 512 and height is 480.

       -transform
	      transform	the image

	      This  option  applies  the transformation	matrix from a previous
	      -affine option.

		  gm convert -affine 2,2,-2,2,0,0 -transform bird.ppm bird.jpg

       -transparent _color_
	      make this	color transparent within the image

	      The color	is specified using  the	 format	 described  under  the
	      -fill option.

       -treedepth _value_
	      tree depth for the color reduction algorithm

	      Normally,	 this integer value is zero or one. A value of zero or
	      one causes the use of an optimal tree depth for the color	reduc-
	      tion algorithm

	      An optimal depth generally allows	the best representation	of the
	      source image with	the fastest computational speed	and the	 least
	      amount  of  memory.  However, the	default	depth is inappropriate
	      for some images. To assure the best representation,  try	values
	      between  2 and 8 for this	parameter.  Refer to quantize for more
	      details.

	      The -colors or -monochrome option, or writing to an image	format
	      which  requires  color reduction,	is required for	this option to
	      take effect.

       -trim  trim an image

	      This option removes any edges that are exactly the same color as
	      the  corner  pixels.   Use -fuzz to make -trim remove edges that
	      are nearly the same color	as the corner pixels.

       -type _type_
	      the image	type

	      Choose from: Bilevel, Grayscale,	Palette,  PaletteMatte,	 True-
	      Color, TrueColorMatte, ColorSeparation, ColorSeparationMatte, or
	      Optimize.

	      Normally,	when a format supports different  subformats  such  as
	      bilevel, grayscale, palette, truecolor, and truecolor+alpha, the
	      encoder will try to choose a suitable subformat based on the na-
	      ture  of	the  image. The	-type option may be used to tailor the
	      output subformat.	By default the output subformat	 is  based  on
	      readily  available  image	 information and is usually similar to
	      the input	format.

	      Specify -type Optimize in	order to enable	inspecting all	pixels
	      (if  necessary)  in  order to find the most efficient subformat.
	      Inspecting all of	the pixels may be slow for very	large  images,
	      particularly if they are stored in a disk	cache. If an RGB image
	      contains only gray pixels, then every pixel in the image must be
	      inspected	 in  order  to	decide	that  the  image  is  actually
	      grayscale!

	      Sometimes	a specific subformat is	desired. For example, to force
	      a	 JPEG  image to	be written in TrueColor	RGB format even	though
	      only gray	pixels are present, use

		  gm convert bird.pgm -type TrueColor bird.jpg

	      Similarly, using -type TrueColorMatte will force the encoder  to
	      write  an	 alpha channel even though the image is	opaque,	if the
	      output format supports transparency.

	      Some pseudo-formats (e.g.	the XC format) will  respect  the  re-
	      quested  type  if	it occurs previously on	the command line.  For
	      example, to obtain a DirectClass solid color canvas image	rather
	      than PsuedoClass,	use

		  gm convert -size 640x480 -type TrueColor xc:red red.miff

	      Likewise,	 specify -type Bilevel,	Grayscale, TrueColor, or True-
	      ColorMatte prior to reading a Postscript (or PDF file) in	 order
	      to  influence the	type of	image that Ghostcript returns. Reading
	      performance will be dramatically improved	for black/white	 Post-
	      script  if Bilevel is specified, and will	be considerably	faster
	      if Grayscale is specified.

       -update _seconds_
	       detect when image file is modified and redisplay.

	      Suppose that while you are displaying an image the file that  is
	      currently	displayed is over-written.  display will automatically
	      detect that the input file has been changed and update the  dis-
	      played image accordingly.

       -units _type_
	      the units	of image resolution

	      Choose  from:  Undefined,	PixelsPerInch, or PixelsPerCentimeter.
	      This option is normally used in conjunction  with	 the  -density
	      option.

       -unsharp	_radius_{x_sigma_}{+_amount_}{+_threshold_}
	      sharpen the image	with an	unsharp	mask operator

	      The  -unsharp  option  sharpens an image.	The image is convolved
	      with a Gaussian operator of the given radius and standard	devia-
	      tion  (sigma).  For  reasonable results, radius should be	larger
	      than sigma. Use a	radius of 0 to have the	method select a	 suit-
	      able radius.

	      The parameters are:

	       radius

		    The	 radius	 of  the Gaussian, in pixels, not counting the
		    center pixel (default 0).

	       sigma

		    The	standard deviation of the Gaussian, in pixels (default
		    1.0).

	       amount

		    The	 percentage of the difference between the original and
		    the	blur image that	is added back into the	original  (de-
		    fault 1.0).

	       threshold

		    The	 threshold,  as	 a fraction of MaxRGB, needed to apply
		    the	difference amount (default 0.05).

       -use-pixmap
	      use the pixmap

       -verbose
	      print detailed information about the image

	      This information is printed: image scene number; image name; im-
	      age  size; the image class (DirectClass or PseudoClass); the to-
	      tal number of unique colors; and the number of seconds  to  read
	      and  transform the image.	If the image is	DirectClass, the total
	      number of	unique colors is  not  displayed  unless  -verbose  is
	      specified	 twice since it	may take quite a long time to compute,
	      particularly for deep images.  If	the image is PseudoClass  then
	      its  pixels are defined by indexes into a	colormap. If the image
	      is DirectClass then each pixel includes a	complete and  indepen-
	      dent color specification.

	      If -colors is also specified, the	total unique colors in the im-
	      age and color reduction error values are printed.	Refer to quan-
	      tize for a description of	these values.

       -version
	      print GraphicsMagick version string

       -view _string_
	      FlashPix viewing parameters

       -virtual-pixel _method_
	      specify contents of "virtual pixels"

	      This  option defines "virtual pixels" for	use in operations that
	      can access pixels	outside	the boundaries of an image.

	      Choose from these	methods:

	       Constant

		    Use	the image background color.

	       Edge

		    Extend the edge pixel toward infinity (default).

	       Mirror

		    Mirror the image.

	       Tile

		    Tile the image.

	       This option affects operations that use virtual pixels such  as
	       -blur, -sharpen,	-wave, etc.

       -visual _type_
	      animate images using this	X visual type

	      Choose from these	visual classes:

		   StaticGray
		   GrayScale
		   StaticColor
		   PseudoColor
		   TrueColor
		   DirectColor
		   default
		   visual id

	      The  X  server  must support the visual you choose, otherwise an
	      error occurs.  If	a visual is not	specified,  the	 visual	 class
	      that  can	 display  the  most simultaneous colors	on the default
	      screen is	chosen.

       -watermark _brightness_x_saturation_
	      percent brightness and saturation	of a watermark

       -wave _amplitude_x_wavelength_
	      alter an image along a sine wave

	      Specify amplitude	and wavelength of the wave.

       -white-point _x_,_y_
	      chromaticity white point

       -white-threshold	red[,green][,blue][,opacity]
	      pixels above the threshold become	white

	      Use -white-threshold to set pixels with values above the	speci-
	      fied  threshold  to  maximum value (white). If only one value is
	      supplied,	or the red, green, and blue values are identical, then
	      intensity	 thresholding  is  used. If the	color threshold	values
	      are not identical	then channel-based thresholding	is  used,  and
	      color  distortion	will occur. Specify a negative value (e.g. -1)
	      if you want a channel to be ignored but you do want to threshold
	      a	 channel  later	 in  the  list.	If a percent (%) symbol	is ap-
	      pended, then the values are treated as a percentage  of  maximum
	      range.

       -window _id_
	      make image the background	of a window

	      id  can be a window id or	name.  Specify root to select X's root
	      window as	the target window.

	      By default the image is tiled onto the background	of the	target
	      window.	 If  backdrop or -geometry are specified, the image is
	      surrounded by the	background color.  Refer to  X	RESOURCES  for
	      details.

	      The  image  will not display on the root window if the image has
	      more unique colors than the target window	colormap allows.   Use
	      -colors to reduce	the number of colors.

       -window-group
	      specify the window group

       -write _filename_
	      write an intermediate image [convert, composite]

	      The  current image is written to the specified filename and then
	      processing continues using that image. The following is an exam-
	      ple  of  how  several  sizes of an image may be generated	in one
	      command (repeat as often as needed):

		  gm convert input.jpg -resize 50% -write input50.jpg \
			    -resize 25%	input25.jpg

       -write _filename_
	      write the	image to a file	[display]

	      If filename already exists, you will be prompted as  to  whether
	      it should	be overwritten.

	      By  default, the image is	written	in the format that it was read
	      in as.  To specify a particular image  format,  prefix  filename
	      with  the	image type and a colon (e.g., ps:image)	or specify the
	      image type as the	filename suffix	(e.g., image.ps). Specify file
	      as  -  for standard output. If file has the extension .Z or .gz,
	      the file size is compressed using	compress or gzip respectively.
	      Precede the image	file name with | to pipe to a system command.

	      Use -compress to specify the type	of image compression.

	      The  equivalent  X  resource  for	 this  option is writeFilename
	      (class WriteFilename).  See "X Resources", below,	for details.

ENVIRONMENT
       COLUMNS
	      Output screen width. Used	when formatting	text for  the  screen.
	      Many  Unix  systems  keep	this shell variable up to date,	but it
	      may need to be explicitly	exported in order  for	GraphicsMagick
	      to see it.

       DISPLAY
	      X11  display  ID	(host,	display	number,	and screen in the form
	      hostname:display.screen).

       HOME   Location of user's home directory. GraphicsMagick	 searches  for
	      configuration  files  in	$HOME/.magick if the directory exists.
	      See MAGICK_CODER_MODULE_PATH,  MAGICK_CONFIGURE_PATH,  and  MAG-
	      ICK_FILTER_MODULE_PATH if	more flexibility is needed.

       MAGICK_ACCESS_MONITOR
	      When  set	 to TRUE, command line monitor mode (enabled by	-moni-
	      tor) will	also show files	accessed (including  temporary	files)
	      and any external commands	which are executed. This is useful for
	      debugging, but also illustrates arguments	made available	to  an
	      access handler registered	by the MagickSetConfirmAccessHandler()
	      C	library	function.

       MAGICK_CODER_STABILITY
	      The minimum coder	stability level	before it will	be  used.  The
	      available	levels are PRIMARY, STABLE, UNSTABLE, and BROKEN.  The
	      default minimum level is UNSTABLE, which means that  all	avail-
	      able  working coders will	be used. The purpose of	this option is
	      to reduce	the security exposure (or apparent complexity) due  to
	      the  huge	 number	 of  formats  supported. Coders	at the PRIMARY
	      level are	commonly used formats with very	well maintained	imple-
	      mentations. Coders at the	STABLE level are reasonably well main-
	      tained but represent less	used formats. Coders at	 the  UNSTABLE
	      level  either  have weak implementations,	the file format	itself
	      is weak, or the probability the coder will be needed is  vanish-
	      ingly  small.  Coders at the BROKEN level	are known to often not
	      work properly or might not be useful in their current  state  at
	      all.

       MAGICK_CODER_MODULE_PATH
	      Search  path  to	use when searching for image format coder mod-
	      ules.  This path allows the user to arbitrarily extend the image
	      formats  supported  by GraphicsMagick by adding loadable modules
	      to an arbitrary location	rather	than  copying  them  into  the
	      GraphicsMagick  installation  directory.	The  formatting	of the
	      search path is similar to	operating system  search  paths	 (i.e.
	      colon delimited for Unix,	and semi-colon delimited for Microsoft
	      Windows).	This user specified search path	is used	before	trying
	      the default search path.

       MAGICK_CONFIGURE_PATH
	      Search  path  to	use  when  searching  for configuration	(.mgk)
	      files.  The formatting of	the search path	is similar to  operat-
	      ing  system  search  paths  (i.e.	 colon delimited for Unix, and
	      semi-colon delimited for Microsoft Windows). This	user specified
	      search path is used before trying	the default search path.

       MAGICK_DEBUG
	      Debug  options  (see -debug for details).	 Setting debug options
	      via an environment variable is currently necessary  to  see  the
	      complete initialization process.

       MAGICK_FILTER_MODULE_PATH
	      Search  path  to	use  when searching for	filter process modules
	      (invoked via -process). This path	allows the user	to arbitrarily
	      extend GraphicsMagick's image processing functionality by	adding
	      loadable modules to an arbitrary location	 rather	 than  copying
	      them into	the GraphicsMagick installation	directory. The format-
	      ting of the search path is similar to  operating	system	search
	      paths  (i.e.  colon delimited for	Unix, and semi-colon delimited
	      for Microsoft Windows). This user	specified search path is  used
	      before trying the	default	search path.

       MAGICK_GHOSTSCRIPT_PATH
	      For  Microsoft  Windows, specify the path	to the Ghostscript in-
	      stallation rather	than searching for it  via  the	 Windows  reg-
	      istry.   This helps in case Ghostscript is not installed via the
	      Ghostscript Windows installer or the  user  wants	 more  control
	      over the Ghostscript used.

       MAGICK_HOME
	      Path  to	top of GraphicsMagick installation directory. Only ob-
	      served by	"uninstalled" builds of	GraphicsMagick	which  do  not
	      have their location hard-coded or	set by an installer.

       MAGICK_MMAP_READ
	      If  MAGICK_MMAP_READ is set to TRUE, GraphicsMagick will attempt
	      to memory-map the	input file for reading.	This usually  substan-
	      tially  improves repeated	read performance since the file	is al-
	      ready in memory after the	first time it has been read.  However,
	      testing shows that performance may be reduced for	files accessed
	      for the first time since data is accessed	via page-faults	 (upon
	      first  access)  and many operating systems fail to do sequential
	      read-ahead of memory mapped files,  and  particularly  if	 those
	      files  are  accessed  over a network.  If	many large input files
	      are read,	then enabling this  option  may	 harm  performance  by
	      overloading the operating	system's VM system as it then needs to
	      free unmapped pages and map new ones.

       MAGICK_IO_FSYNC
	      If MAGICK_IO_FSYNC is set	to TRUE, then GraphicsMagick will  re-
	      quest  that the output file is fully flushed and synchronized to
	      disk when	it is closed. This incurs a performance	 penalty,  but
	      has  the	benefit	that if	the power fails	or the system crashes,
	      the file should be valid on disk.	If image files are  referenced
	      from  a  database,  then this option helps assure	that the files
	      referenced by the	database are valid.

       MAGICK_IOBUF_SIZE
	      The amount of I/O	buffering (in bytes) to	use when  reading  and
	      writing  encoded	files. The default is 16384, which is observed
	      to work well for many cases. The best value for a	local filesys-
	      tem  is usually the the native filesystem	block size (e.g. 4096,
	      8192, or even 131,072 for	ZFS) in	order to minimize  the	number
	      of  physical  disk I/O operations.  I/O performance to files ac-
	      cessed over a network may	benefit	significantly by  tuning  this
	      option.  Larger  values  are not necessarily better (they	may be
	      slower!),	and there is rarely  any  benefit  from	 using	values
	      larger  than  32768.  Use	 convert's -verbose option in order to
	      evaluate read and	write rates in pixels per second while keeping
	      in  mind	that  the  operating system will try to	cache files in
	      RAM.

       MAGICK_LIMIT_DISK
	      Maximum amount of	disk space allowed for use by the pixel	cache.

       MAGICK_LIMIT_FILES
	      Maximum number of	open files.

       MAGICK_LIMIT_MAP
	      Maximum size of a	 memory	 mapped	 file  allocation.   A	memory
	      mapped  file consumes memory when	the file is accessed, although
	      the system may reclaim such memory when needed.

       MAGICK_LIMIT_MEMORY
	      Maximum amount of	memory to allocate from	the heap.

       MAGICK_LIMIT_PIXELS
	      Maximum number of	total pixels (image rows times	image  colums)
	      to allow for any image which is requested	to be created or read.
	      This is useful to	place a	limit on how large an  image  may  be.
	      If  the  input  image  file has image dimensions larger than the
	      pixel limit, then	the image memory allocation is denied  and  an
	      error  is	 returned  immediately.	 This is a per-image limit and
	      does not limit the total number of pixels	due to multiple	 image
	      frames/pages (e.g. multi-page document or	an animation).

       MAGICK_LIMIT_WIDTH
	      Maximum pixel width of an	image read, or created.

       MAGICK_LIMIT_HEIGHT
	      Maximum pixel height of an image read, or	created.

       MAGICK_TMPDIR
	      Path  to	directory  where GraphicsMagick	should write temporary
	      files. The default is to use the system default, or the location
	      set by TMPDIR.

       TMPDIR For  POSIX-compatible systems (Unix-compatible), the path	to the
	      directory	where all applications should write  temporary	files.
	      Overridden by MAGICK_TMPDIR if it	is set.

       TMP or TEMP
	      For  Microsoft Windows, the path to the directory	where applica-
	      tions should write temporary files. Overridden by	 MAGICK_TMPDIR
	      if it is set.

       OMP_NUM_THREADS
	      As per the OpenMP	standard, this specifies the number of threads
	      to use in	parallel regions. Some compilers default the number of
	      threads  to use to the number of processor cores available while
	      others default to	just one thread. See the OpenMP	 specification
	      for  other  standard  adjustments	and your compiler's manual for
	      vendor-specific settings.

CONFIGURATION FILES
       GraphicsMagick uses a number of XML format configuration	files:

       colors.mgk
	      colors configuration file

		<?xml version="1.0"?>
		<colormap>
		  <color name="AliceBlue" red="240" green="248"	blue="255"
			 compliance="SVG, X11, XPM" />
		</colormap>

       delegates.mgk
	      delegates	configuration file

       log.mgk
	      logging configuration file

		<?xml version="1.0"?>
		<magicklog>
		  <log events="None" />
		  <log output="stdout" />
		  <log filename="Magick-%d.log"	/>
		  <log generations="3" />
		  <log limit="2000" />
		  <log format="%t %r %u	%p %m/%f/%l/%d:\n  %e"	/>
		</magicklog>

       modules.mgk
	      loadable modules configuration file

		<?xml version="1.0"?>
		<modulemap>
		  <module magick="8BIM"	name="META" />
		</modulemap>

       type.mgk
	      master type (fonts) configuration	file

		<?xml version="1.0"?>
		<typemap>
		  <include file="type-windows.mgk" />
		  <type
		    name="AvantGarde-Book"
		    fullname="AvantGarde Book"
		    family="AvantGarde"
		    foundry="URW"
		    weight="400"
		    style="normal"
		    stretch="normal"
		    format="type1"
		    metrics="/usr/local/share/ghostscript/fonts/a010013l.afm"
		    glyphs="/usr/local/share/ghostscript/fonts/a010013l.pfb"
		  />
		</typemap>

GM ANIMATE
       Animate displays	a sequence of images on	any workstation	 display  run-
       ning an X server. animate first determines the hardware capabilities of
       the workstation.	If the number of unique	colors in  an  image  is  less
       than  or	 equal to the number the workstation can support, the image is
       displayed in an X window. Otherwise the number of colors	in  the	 image
       is  first  reduced to match the color resolution	of the workstation be-
       fore it is displayed.

       This means that a continuous-tone 24 bits-per-pixel image  can  display
       on  a 8 bit pseudo-color	device or monochrome device. In	most instances
       the reduced color image closely resembles the original.	Alternatively,
       a  monochrome  or pseudo-color image sequence can display on a continu-
       ous-tone	24 bits-per-pixel device.

       To help prevent color flashing on X server visuals that have colormaps,
       animate	creates	a single colormap from the image sequence. This	can be
       rather time consuming. You can speed this operation up by reducing  the
       colors in the image before you "animate"	them. Use mogrify to color re-
       duce the	images to a single colormap. See mogrify(1) for	 details.  Al-
       ternatively,  you  can use a Standard Colormap; or a static, direct, or
       true color visual.  You can define a Standard Colormap  with  xstdcmap.
       See xstdcmap(1) for details. This method	is recommended for colormapped
       X server	because	it eliminates the need to compute a global colormap.

EXAMPLES
       To animate a set	of images of a cockatoo, use:

	   gm animate cockatoo.*

       To animate a cockatoo image sequence while using	the Standard  Colormap
       best, use:

	   xstdcmap -best
	   gm animate -map best	cockatoo.*

       To  animate an image of a cockatoo without a border centered on a back-
       drop, use:

	   gm animate +borderwidth -backdrop cockatoo.*

OPTIONS
       For a more detailed description of each option, see Options, above.

       -authenticate _string_
	      decrypt image with this password

       -backdrop
	      display the image	centered on a backdrop.

       -background _color_
	      the background color

       -bordercolor _color_
	      the border color

       -borderwidth _geometry_
	      the border width

       -chop _width_x_height_{+-}_x_{+-}_y_{%}
	      remove pixels from the interior of an image

       -colormap _type_
	      define the colormap type

       -colors _value_
	      preferred	number of colors in the	image

       -colorspace _value_
	      the type of colorspace

       -crop _width_x_height_{+-}_x_{+-}_y_{%}
	      preferred	size and location of the cropped image

       -debug _events_
	      enable debug printout

       -define _key_{=_value_},...
	      add coder/decoder	specific options

       -delay _1/100ths	of a second_
	      display the next image after pausing

       -density	_width_x_height_
	      horizontal and vertical resolution in pixels of the image

       -depth _value_
	      depth of the image

       -display	_host:display[.screen]_
	      specifies	the X server to	contact

       -dispose	_method_
	      GIF disposal method

       -dither
	      apply Floyd/Steinberg error diffusion to the image

       -font _name_
	      use this font when annotating the	image with text

       -foreground _color_
	      define the foreground color

       -gamma _value_
	      level of gamma correction

       -geometry _width_x_height_{+-}_x_{+-}_y_{%}{@}{!}{^}{_}{_}
	      Specify dimension, offset, and resize options.

       -help  print usage instructions

       -iconGeometry _geometry_
	      specify the icon geometry

       -iconic
	      iconic animation

       -interlace _type_
	      the type of interlacing scheme

       -limit _type_ _value_
	      Disk, File, Map, Memory, Pixels, Width, Height  or  Threads  re-
	      source limit

       -log _string_
	      Specify format for debug log

       -map _type_
	      display image using this type.

       -matte store matte channel if the image has one

       -mattecolor _color_
	      specify the color	to be used with	the -frame option

       -monitor
	      show progress indication

       -monochrome
	      transform	the image to black and white

       -name  name an image

       -noop  NOOP (no option)

       -pause _seconds_
	      pause between animation loops [animate]

       -remote
	      perform a	X11 remote operation

       -rotate _degrees_{_}{_}
	      rotate the image

       -sampling-factor	_horizontal_factor_x_vertical_factor_
	      chroma subsampling factors

       -scenes _value-value_
	      range of image scene numbers to read

       -shared-memory
	      use shared memory

       -size _width_x_height_{+offset}
	      width and	height of the image

       -text-font _name_
	      font for writing fixed-width text

       -title _string_
	      assign title to displayed	image [animate,	display, montage]

       -treedepth _value_
	      tree depth for the color reduction algorithm

       -trim  trim an image

       -type _type_
	      the image	type

       -verbose
	      print detailed information about the image

       -version
	      print GraphicsMagick version string

       -visual _type_
	      animate images using this	X visual type

       -window _id_
	      make image the background	of a window

	      For  a  more  detailed  description of each option, see Options,
	      above.

	      Any option you specify on	the command line remains in effect for
	      the  group of images following it, until the group is terminated
	      by the appearance	of any option or -noop.	 For example, to  ani-
	      mate  three images, the first with 32 colors, the	second with an
	      unlimited	number of colors, and the third	with only  16  colors,
	      use:

		  gm animate -colors 32	cockatoo.1 -noop cockatoo.2
			   -colors 16 cockatoo.3

	      Animate  options can appear on the command line or in your X re-
	      sources file. See	X(1). Options on the  command  line  supersede
	      values  specified	in your	X resources file.  Image filenames may
	      appear in	any order on the command line if the image  format  is
	      MIFF (refer to miff(5) and the scene keyword is specified	in the
	      image. Otherwise the images will display in the order  they  ap-
	      pear on the command line.

MOUSE BUTTONS
       Press  any button to map	or unmap the Command widget. See the next sec-
       tion for	more information about the Command widget.

COMMAND	WIDGET
       The Command widget lists	a number of sub-menus and commands. They are

	   Animate

	       Open
	       Play
	       Step
	       Repeat
	       Auto Reverse

	   Speed

	       Faster
	       Slower

	   Direction

	       Forward
	       Reverse

	   Image Info
	   Help
	   Quit

       Menu items with a indented triangle have	a sub-menu.  They  are	repre-
       sented above as the indented items. To access a sub-menu	item, move the
       pointer to the appropriate menu and press a button and drag.  When  you
       find  the  desired sub-menu item, release the button and	the command is
       executed.  Move the pointer away	from the sub-menu if you decide	not to
       execute a particular command.

KEYBOARD ACCELERATORS
	       Ctl+O

		    Press to load an image from	a file.
	       space

		    Press to display the next image in the sequence.
	       <

		    Press  to  speed-up	 the  display of the images.  Refer to
		    -delay for more information.
	       >

		    Press to slow the display of the images.  Refer to	-delay
		    for	more information.
	       ?

		    Press  to  display information about the image.  Press any
		    key	or button to erase the information.
		    This information is	printed: image name;  image size;  and
		    the	total number of	unique colors in the image.
	       F1

		    Press to display helpful information about animate(1).
	       Ctl-q

		    Press to discard all images	and exit program.

X RESOURCES
       Animate	options	 can  appear on	the command line or in your X resource
       file. Options on	the command line supersede values specified in your  X
       resource	file. See X(1) for more	information on X resources.

       All  animate  options have a corresponding X resource. In addition, the
       animate program uses the	following X resources:

	       background (class Background)

		    Specifies the preferred color to use for the Image	window
		    background.	The default is #ccc.
	       borderColor (class BorderColor)

		    Specifies  the preferred color to use for the Image	window
		    border. The	default	is #ccc.
	       borderWidth (class BorderWidth)

		    Specifies the width	in pixels of the Image window  border.
		    The	default	is 2.
	       font (class Font	or FontList)

		    Specifies  the name	of the preferred font to use in	normal
		    formatted text.  The default is 14 point Helvetica.
	       foreground (class Foreground)

		    Specifies the preferred color to use for text  within  the
		    Image window.  The default is black.
	       geometry	(class geometry)

		    Specifies  the  preferred  size  and position of the image
		    window. It is not necessarily obeyed by  all  window  man-
		    agers.  Offsets, if	present, are handled in	X(1) style.  A
		    negative x offset is measured from the right edge  of  the
		    screen  to	the  right  edge of the	icon, and a negative y
		    offset is measured from the	bottom edge of the  screen  to
		    the	bottom edge of the icon.
	       iconGeometry (class IconGeometry)

		    Specifies  the preferred size and position of the applica-
		    tion when iconified.  It is	not necessarily	obeyed by  all
		    window  managers.  Offsets,	if present, are	handled	in the
		    same manner	as in class Geometry.
	       iconic (class Iconic)

		    This resource indicates that you would prefer that the ap-
		    plication's	 windows  initially  not  be visible as	if the
		    windows had	be immediately iconified by you.  Window  man-
		    agers may choose not to honor the application's request.
	       matteColor (class MatteColor)

		    Specify  the  color	 of  windows. It is used for the back-
		    grounds of windows,	menus, and notices.  A	3D  effect  is
		    achieved by	using highlight	and shadow colors derived from
		    this color.	Default	value: #ddd.
	       name (class Name)

		    This resource specifies the	name under which resources for
		    the	 application  should be	found. This resource is	useful
		    in shell aliases to	distinguish between invocations	of  an
		    application,  without resorting to creating	links to alter
		    the	executable file	name. The default is  the  application
		    name.
	       sharedMemory (class SharedMemory)

		    This resource specifies whether animate should attempt use
		    shared memory for pixmaps. ImageMagick  must  be  compiled
		    with  shared  memory support, and the display must support
		    the	MIT-SHM	extension. Otherwise,  this  resource  is  ig-
		    nored. The default is True.
	       text_font (class	textFont)

		    Specifies  the  name of the	preferred font to use in fixed
		    (typewriter	style) formatted text. The default is 14 point
		    Courier.
	       title (class Title)

		    This resource specifies the	title to be used for the Image
		    window. This information is	sometimes  used	 by  a	window
		    manager  to	 provide  some	sort of	header identifying the
		    window. The	default	is the image file name.

GM BATCH
DESCRIPTION
       batch executes an arbitary number of the	utility	 commands  (e.g.  con-
       vert)  in  the form of a	simple linear batch script in order to improve
       execution efficiency, and/or to allow use as a  subordinate  co-process
       under the control of an arbitrary script	or program.

EXAMPLES
	To  drive 'gm batch' using a shell script (or a	program	written	in any
       language), have the script/program send commands	to 'gm batch' via  its
       standard	 input.	  Specify  that	standard input should be used by using
       '-' as the file name.  The following example converts all files	match-
       ing  '*.jpg'  to	TIFF format while rotating each	file by	90 degrees and
       stripping all embedded profiles.	 The shell script syntax  is  standard
       Unix shell:

	 for file in *.jpg
	 do
	   outfile=`basename $file .jpg`.tiff
	   echo	convert	-verbose "'$file'" -rotate 90 \
	   +profile "'*'" "'$outfile'"
	 done |	gm batch -echo on -feedback on -

       We  can	accomplish the same as the previous example by putting all the
       commands	in a text file and then	specifying the name of the  text  file
       as the script to	execute:

	 for file in *.jpg
	 do
	   outfile=`basename $file .jpg`.tiff
	   echo	convert	-verbose "'$file'" -rotate 90 \
	   +profile "'*'" "'$outfile'"
	 done >	script.txt
	 gm batch -echo	on -feedback on	script.txt

OPTIONS
       Options	are  processed	from  left to right and	must appear before any
       filename	argument.

       -echo on|off
	      command echo on or off

	      Specify on to enable echoing commands to standard	output as they
	      are read or off to disable.  The default is off.

       -escape unix|windows
	      Parse using unix or windows syntax

	      Commands must be parsed from the input stream and	escaping needs
	      to be used to protect spaces or quoting characters in the	input.
	      Specify  unix  to	use unix-style command line parsing or windows
	      for Microsoft Windows command shell style	parsing.  The  default
	      depends  on if the software is compiled for Microsoft Windows or
	      for a Unix-type system (including	Cygwin on Microsoft  Windows).
	      It is recommended	to use unix syntax because it is more powerful
	      and more portable.

       -fail text
	      text to print if a command fails

	      When feedback is enabled,	this specifies the text	to print  when
	      the command fails.  The default text is FAIL.

       -feedback on|off
	      enable error feedback

	      Print  text  (see	 -pass	and -fail options) feedback after each
	      command to indicate the result, the default is off.

       -help

	      Prints batch command help.

       -pass text
	      text to print if a command passes

	      When feedback is enabled,	this specifies the text	to print  when
	      the command passes.  The default text is PASS.

       -prompt text
	      Prompt text to use for command line

	      If  no  filename argument	was specified, a simple	command	prompt
	      appears where you	may enter GraphicsMagick  commands.   The  de-
	      fault  prompt  is	 GM>.  Use this	option to change the prompt to
	      something	else.

       -stop-on-error on|off
	      Specify if command processing stops on error

	      Normally command processing continues if a command encounters an
	      error.   Specify	-stop-on-error	on to cause processing to quit
	      immediately on error.

GM BENCHMARK
DESCRIPTION
       benchmark executes an arbitrary gm utility command (e.g.	 convert)  for
       one  or more loops, and/or a specified execution	time, and reports many
       execution metrics.  For builds using OpenMP, a mode is provided to exe-
       cute  the  benchmark with an increasing number of threads and provide a
       report of speedup and multi-thread execution efficiency.	 If  benchmark
       is  used	to execute a command without any additional benchmark options,
       then the	command	is run once.

EXAMPLES
       To obtain benchmark information for a single execution of a command:

	   gm benchmark	convert	input.ppm -gaussian 0x1	output.ppm

       To obtain benchmark information from 100	iterations of the command:

	   gm benchmark	-iterations 100	convert	input.ppm \
	     -gaussian 0x1 output.ppm

       To obtain benchmark information by iterating the	command	until a	speci-
       fied amount of time (in seconds)	has been consumed:

	   gm benchmark	-duration 30 convert input.ppm \
	     -gaussian 0x1 output.ppm

       To  obtain  a  full  performance	 report	 with  an increasing number of
       threads (1-32 threads, stepping the number  of  threads	by  four  each
       time):

	   gm benchmark	-duration 3 -stepthreads 4 convert \
	     input.ppm -gaussian 0x2 output.ppm

       Here is the interpretation of the output:

	   threads - number of threads used.
	   iter	- number of command iterations executed.
	   user	- total	user time consumed.
	   total - total elapsed time consumed.
	   iter/s - number of command iterations per second.
	   iter/cpu - amount of	CPU time consumed per iteration.
	   speedup - speedup compared with one thread.
	   karp-flatt -	Karp-Flatt measure of speedup efficiency.

       Please  note that the reported "speedup"	is based on the	execution time
       of just one thread.  A preliminary warm-up pass is used	before	timing
       the first loop in order to ensure that the CPU is brought out of	power-
       saving modes and	that system caches are warmed up.   Most  modern  CPUs
       provide	a "turbo" mode where the CPU clock speed is increased (e.g. by
       a factor	of two)	when only one or two cores are	active.	  If  the  CPU
       grows  excessively  hot (due to insufficient cooling), then it may dial
       back its	clock rates as a form of thermal  management.	These  factors
       result in an under-reporting of speedup compared	to if "turbo" mode was
       disabled	and the	CPU does not need to worry about  thermal  management.
       The  powertop  utility available	under Linux and	Solaris	provides a way
       to observe CPU core clock rates while a benchmark is running.

OPTIONS
	Options	are processed from left	to right and must  appear  before  any
       argument.

       -duration duration
	      duration	to  run	benchmark Specify the number of	seconds	to run
	      the benchmark. The command  is  executed	repeatedly  until  the
	      specified	amount of time has elapsed.

       -help

	      Prints benchmark command help.

       -iterations loops
	      number of	command	iterations Specify the number of iterations to
	      run the benchmark. The command is	executed repeatedly until  the
	      specified	number of iterations has been reached.

       -rawcsv
	      Print  results  in CSV format Print results in a comma-separated
	      value (CSV) format which is easy to parse	for  plotting  or  im-
	      porting into a spreadsheet or database.  The values reported are
	      threads, iterations, user_time, and elapsed_time.

       -stepthreads step
	      execute a	per-thread benchmark ramp
	       Execute a per-thread benchmark ramp, incrementing the number of
	      threads at each step by the specified value.  The	maximum	number
	      of threads is taken from the standard  OMP_NUM_THREADS  environ-
	      ment variable.

GM COMPARE
       compare	compares  two  similar	images	using  a specified statistical
       method (see -metric) and/or by writing a	difference image (-file), with
       the  altered pixels annotated using a specified method (see -highlight-
       style) and color	(see -highlight-color).	Reference-image	is the	origi-
       nal  image  and	compare-image is the (possibly)	altered	version, which
       should have the same dimensions as reference-image.

EXAMPLES
       To compare two images using Mean	Square Error (MSE) statistical	analy-
       sis use:

	   gm compare -metric mse original.miff	compare.miff

       To create an annotated difference image use:

	   gm compare -highlight-style assign -highlight-color purple \
	     -file diff.miff original.miff compare.miff

OPTIONS
       Options	are processed in command line order. Any option	you specify on
       the command line	remains	in effect only for  the	 image	that  follows.
       All options are reset to	their default values after each	image is read.

       For a more detailed description of each option, see Options, above.

       -authenticate _string_
	      decrypt image with this password

       -colorspace _value_
	      the type of colorspace

       -debug _events_
	      enable debug printout

       -define _key_{=_value_},...
	      add coder/decoder	specific options

       -density	_width_x_height_
	      horizontal and vertical resolution in pixels of the image

       -depth _value_
	      depth of the image

       -display	_host:display[.screen]_
	      specifies	the X server to	contact

       -endian _type_
	      specify endianness (MSB, LSB, or Native) of image

       -file _filename_
	      write annotated difference image to file

       -help  print usage instructions

       -highlight-color	_color_
	      pixel annotation color

       -highlight-style	_style_
	      pixel annotation style

       -interlace _type_
	      the type of interlacing scheme

       -limit _type_ _value_
	      Disk,  File,  Map,  Memory, Pixels, Width, Height	or Threads re-
	      source limit

       -log _string_
	      Specify format for debug log

       -matte store matte channel if the image has one

       -maximum-error _limit_
	      specifies	the maximum amount of total image error

       -metric _metric_
	      comparison metric	(MAE, MSE, PAE,	PSNR, RMSE)

       -monitor
	      show progress indication

       -sampling-factor	_horizontal_factor_x_vertical_factor_
	      chroma subsampling factors

       -size _width_x_height_{+offset}
	      width and	height of the image

       -type _type_
	      the image	type

       -verbose
	      print detailed information about the image

       -version
	      print GraphicsMagick version string

	      For a more detailed description of  each	option,	 see  Options,
	      above.

GM COMPOSITE
       composite  composites (combines)	images to create new images.  base-im-
       age is the base image and change-image contains the changes.  ouput-im-
       age is the result, and normally has the same dimensions as base-image.

       The  optional mask-image	can be used to provide opacity information for
       change-image when it has	none or	if you want a different	mask.  A  mask
       image  is typically grayscale and the same size as base-image. If mask-
       image is	not grayscale, it is converted to grayscale and	the  resulting
       intensities are used as opacity information.

EXAMPLES
       To composite an image of	a cockatoo with	a perch, use:

	   gm composite	cockatoo.miff perch.ras	composite.miff

       To compute the difference between images	in a series, use:

	   gm composite	-compose difference series.2 series.1
		     difference.miff

       To  composite  an image of a cockatoo with a perch starting at location
       (100,150), use:

	   gm composite	-geometry +100+150 cockatoo.miff
		     perch.ras composite.miff

       To tile a logo across your image	of a cockatoo, use

	   gm convert +shade 30x60 cockatoo.miff mask.miff
	   gm composite	-compose bumpmap -tile logo.png
		     cockatoo.miff mask.miff composite.miff

       To composite a red, green, and blue color plane into a single composite
       image, try

	   gm composite	-compose CopyGreen green.png red.png
		     red-green.png
	   gm composite	-compose CopyBlue blue.png red-green.png
		     gm	composite.png

OPTIONS
       Options	are processed in command line order. Any option	you specify on
       the command line	remains	in effect only for  the	 image	that  follows.
       All options are reset to	their default values after each	image is read.

       For a more detailed description of each option, see Options, above.

       -authenticate _string_
	      decrypt image with this password

       -background _color_
	      the background color

       -blue-primary _x_,_y_
	      blue chromaticity	primary	point

       -colors _value_
	      preferred	number of colors in the	image

       -colorspace _value_
	      the type of colorspace

       -comment	_string_
	      annotate an image	with a comment

       -compose	_operator_
	      the type of image	composition

       -compress _type_
	      the type of image	compression

       -debug _events_
	      enable debug printout

       -define _key_{=_value_},...
	      add coder/decoder	specific options

       -density	_width_x_height_
	      horizontal and vertical resolution in pixels of the image

       -depth _value_
	      depth of the image

       -displace _horizontal scale_x_vertical scale_
	      shift image pixels as defined by a displacement map

       -display	_host:display[.screen]_
	      specifies	the X server to	contact

       -dispose	_method_
	      GIF disposal method

       -dissolve _percent_
	      dissolve an image	into another by	the given percent

       -dither
	      apply Floyd/Steinberg error diffusion to the image

       -encoding _type_
	      specify the text encoding

       -endian _type_
	      specify endianness (MSB, LSB, or Native) of image

       -filter _type_
	      use this type of filter when resizing an image

       -font _name_
	      use this font when annotating the	image with text

       -geometry _width_x_height_{+-}_x_{+-}_y_{%}{@}{!}{^}{_}{_}
	      Specify dimension, offset, and resize options.

       -gravity	_type_
	      direction	primitive  gravitates to when annotating the image.

       -green-primary _x_,_y_
	      green chromaticity primary point

       -help  print usage instructions

       -interlace _type_
	      the type of interlacing scheme

       -label _name_
	      assign a label to	an image

       -limit _type_ _value_
	      Disk,  File,  Map,  Memory, Pixels, Width, Height	or Threads re-
	      source limit

       -log _string_
	      Specify format for debug log

       -matte store matte channel if the image has one

       -monitor
	      show progress indication

       -monochrome
	      transform	the image to black and white

       -negate
	      replace every pixel with its complementary color

       -page _width_x_height_{+-}_x_{+-}_y_{%}{!}{_}{_}
	      size and location	of an image canvas

       -profile	_filename_
	      add ICM, IPTC, or	generic	profile	 to image

       -quality	_value_
	      JPEG/MIFF/PNG/TIFF compression level

       -recolor	_matrix_
	      apply a color translation	matrix to image	channels

       -red-primary _x_,_y_
	      red chromaticity primary point

       -render
	      render vector operations

       -repage	_width_x_height_+xoff+yoff[!]
	      Adjust image page	offsets

       -resize _width_x_height_{%}{@}{!}{_}{_}
	      resize an	image

       -rotate _degrees_{_}{_}
	      rotate the image

       -sampling-factor	_horizontal_factor_x_vertical_factor_
	      chroma subsampling factors

       -scene _value_
	      set scene	number

       -set _attribute_	_value_
	      set an image attribute

       +set _attribute_
	      unset an image attribute

       -sharpen	_radius_{x_sigma_}
	      sharpen the image

       -size _width_x_height_{+offset}
	      width and	height of the image

       -stegano	_offset_
	      hide watermark within an image

       -stereo
	      composite	two images to create a stereo anaglyph

       -strip remove all profiles and text attributes from the image

       -thumbnail _width_x_height_{%}{@}{!}{_}{_}
	      resize an	image (quickly)

       -treedepth _value_
	      tree depth for the color reduction algorithm

       -trim  trim an image

       -type _type_
	      the image	type

       -units _type_
	      the units	of image resolution

       -unsharp	_radius_{x_sigma_}{+_amount_}{+_threshold_}
	      sharpen the image	with an	unsharp	mask operator

       -verbose
	      print detailed information about the image

       -version
	      print GraphicsMagick version string

       -watermark _brightness_x_saturation_
	      percent brightness and saturation	of a watermark

       -white-point _x_,_y_
	      chromaticity white point

       -write _filename_
	      write an intermediate image [convert, composite]

	      For a more detailed description of  each	option,	 see  Options,
	      above.

GM CONJURE
       The  Magick  scripting language (MSL) will primarily benefit those that
       want to accomplish custom image processing tasks	but  do	 not  wish  to
       program,	 or  those  that do not	have access to a Perl interpreter or a
       compiler.  The interpreter is called conjure and	 here  is  an  example
       script:

	   <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
	   <image size="400x400" >
	     <read filename="image.gif"	/>
	     <get width="base-width" height="base-height" />
	     <resize geometry="%[dimensions]" />
	     <get width="width"	height="height"	/>
	     <print output=
	       "Image sized from %[base-width]x%[base-height]
		to %[width]x%[height].\n" />
	     <write filename="image.png" />
	   </image>

       invoked with

	   gm conjure -dimensions 400x400 incantation.msl

       All operations will closely follow the key/value	pairs defined in Perl-
       Magick, unless otherwise	noted.

OPTIONS
       Options are processed in	command	line order. Any	option you specify  on
       the  command  line  remains in effect until it is explicitly changed by
       specifying the option again with	 a  different  effect,	or  if	it  is
       changed by a statement in the scripting language.

       You  can	 define	your own keyword/value pairs on	the command line.  The
       script can then use this	information when setting values	 by  including
       %[keyword]  in  the  string.  For example, if you included "-dimensions
       400x400"	on the command line, as	illustrated  above,  then  any	string
       containing   "%[dimensions]"   would  have  400x400  substituted.   The
       "%[string]" can be  used	 either	 an  entire  string,  such  as	geome-
       try="%[dimensions]"  or as a part of a string such as filename="%[base-
       name].png".

       The keyword can be any string except for	the following reserved strings
       (in any upper, lower, or	mixed case variant): debug, help, and verbose,
       whose usage is described	below.

       The value can be	any string.  If	either the keyword or the  value  con-
       tains  white  space  or	any symbols that have special meanings to your
       shell such as "#", "|", or "%", enclose the string in  quotation	 marks
       or use "\" to escape the	white space and	special	symbols.

       Keywords	 and values are	case dependent.	 "Key",	"key", and "KEY" would
       be three	different keywords.

       For a more detailed description of each option, see Options, above.

       -debug _events_
	      enable debug printout

       -define _key_{=_value_},...
	      add coder/decoder	specific options

       -help  print usage instructions

       -log _string_
	      Specify format for debug log

       -verbose
	      print detailed information about the image

       -version
	      print GraphicsMagick version string

MAGICK SCRIPTING LANGUAGE
       The Magick Scripting Language (MSL) presently defines the following el-
       ements and their	attributes:

	       <image>

		    background,	color, id, size

		    Define  a new image	object.	 </image> destroys it. Because
		    of this, if	you wish  to  reference	 multiple  "subimages"
		    (aka pages or layers), you can embed one image element in-
		    side of another. For example:

			<image>
			<read filename="input.png" />
			<get width="base-width"	height="base-height" />
			<image height="base-height" width="base-width">
			<image />
			<write filename="output.mng" />
			</image>

			<image size="400x400" />

	       <group>

		    Define a new group of image	objects.  By  default,	images
		    are	only valid for the life	of their <image>element.

			<image>	  -- creates the image
			.....	  -- do	stuff with it
			</image>  -- dispose of	the image

		    However,  in  a  group, all	images in that group will stay
		    around for the life	of the group:

			<group>				  -- start a group
			    <image>			  -- create an image
			    ....			  -- do	stuff
			    </image>			  -- NOOP
			    <image>			   --  create  another
		    image
			    ....			  -- do	more stuff
			    </image>			  -- NOOP
			    <write filename="image.mng"	/>  -- output
			</group>			   --  dispose of both
		    images

	       <read>

			filename

		    Read a new image from a disk file.

			<read filename="image.gif" />

		    To read two	images use

			<read filename="image.gif" />
			<read filename="image.png />

	       <write>

			filename
		    Write the image(s) to disk,	either as a  single  multiple-
		    image file or multiple ones	if necessary.

			 <write	filename=image.tiff" />

	       <get>

		    Get	  any  attribute  recognized  by  PerlMagick's	GetAt-
		    tribute() and stores it as an image	 attribute  for	 later
		    use. Currently only	width and height are supported.

			<get width="base-width"	height="base-height" />
			<print	output="Image  size  is	 %[base-width]x%[base-
		    height].\n"	/>

	       <set>

		    background,	bordercolor, clip-mask,	 colorspace,  density,
		    magick,  mattecolor, opacity.  Set an attribute recognized
		    by PerlMagick's GetAttribute().
	       <profile>

			[profilename]

		    Read one or	more IPTC, ICC or generic profiles  from  file
		    and	assign to image

			<profile iptc="profile.iptc" generic="generic.dat" />

		    To remove a	specified profile use "!" as the filename eg

			<profile icm="!" iptc="profile.iptc" />

	       <border>

			fill, geometry,	height,	width
	       <blur>

			radius,	sigma
	       <charcoal>

			radius,	sigma
	       <chop>

			geometry, height, width, x, y
	       <crop>

			geometry, height, width, x, y
	       <composite>

			compose, geometry, gravity, image, x, y

			<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
			<group>
			    <image id="image_01">
				<read filename="cloud3.gif"/>
				<resize	geometry="250x90"/>
			    </image>
			    <image id="image_02">
				<read filename="cloud4.gif"/>
				<resize	geometry="190x100"/>
			    </image>
			    <image>
				<read filename="background.jpg"/>
				<composite	 image="image_01"	geome-
		    try="+740+470"/>
				<composite	 image="image_02"	geome-
		    try="+390+415"/>
			    </image>
			    <write filename="result.png"/>
			</group>

	       <despeckle>

	       <emboss>

			radius,	sigma
	       <enhance>

	       <equalize>

	       <edge>

			radius
	       <flip>

	       <flop>

	       <frame>

			fill, geometry,	height,	width, x, y, inner, outer
	       <flatten>

	       <get>

			height,	width
	       <gamma>

			red, green, blue
	       <image>

			background, color, id, size
	       <implode>

			amount
	       <magnify>

	       <minify>

	       <medianfilter>

			radius
	       <normalize>

	       <oilpaint>

			radius
	       <print>

			output
	       <profile>

			[profilename]
	       <read>

	       <resize>

			blur, filter, geometry,	height,	width
	       <roll>

			geometry, x, y
	       <rotate>

			degrees
	       <reducenoise>

			radius
	       <sample>

			geometry, height, width
	       <scale>

			geometry, height, width
	       <sharpen>

			radius,	sigma
	       <shave>

			geometry, height, width
	       <shear>

			x, y
	       <solarize>

			threshold
	       <spread>

			radius
	       <stegano>

			image
	       <stereo>

			image
	       <swirl>

			degrees
	       <texture>

			image
	       <threshold>

			threshold
	       <transparent>

			color
	       <trim>

GM CONVERT
       Convert converts	an input file using one	image format to	an output file
       with a differing	image format. In addition, various types of image pro-
       cessing	can  be	performed on the converted image during	the conversion
       process.	Convert	recognizes the image formats  listed  in  GraphicsMag-
       ick(1).

EXAMPLES
       To make a thumbnail of a	JPEG image, use:

	   gm convert -size 120x120 cockatoo.jpg -resize 120x120
		   +profile "*"	thumbnail.jpg

       In  this	example, '-size	120x120' gives a hint to the JPEG decoder that
       the image is going to be	downscaled to  120x120,	 allowing  it  to  run
       faster  by  avoiding returning full-resolution images to	GraphicsMagick
       for the subsequent resizing operation.  The '-resize 120x120' specifies
       the  desired  dimensions	of the output image.  It will be scaled	so its
       largest dimension is 120	pixels.	 The '+profile "*"' removes  any  ICM,
       EXIF,  IPTC,  or	 other profiles	that might be present in the input and
       aren't needed in	the thumbnail.

       To convert a MIFF image of a cockatoo to	a SUN raster image, use:

	   gm convert cockatoo.miff sun:cockatoo.ras

       To convert a multi-page PostScript document to  individual  FAX	pages,
       use:

	   gm convert -monochrome document.ps fax:page

       To  convert  a TIFF image to a PostScript A4 page with the image	in the
       lower left-hand corner, use:

	   gm convert -page A4+0+0 image.tiff document.ps

       To convert a raw	Gray image with	 a  128	 byte  header  to  a  portable
       graymap,	use:

	   gm convert -depth 8 -size 768x512+128 gray:raw
		   image.pgm

       In  this	example, "raw" is the input file.  Its format is "gray"	and it
       has the dimensions and number of	header bytes specified	by  the	 -size
       option and the sample depth specified by	the -depth option.  The	output
       file is "image.pgm".  The suffix	".pgm" specifies its format.

       To convert a Photo CD image to a	TIFF image, use:

	   gm convert -size 1536x1024 img0009.pcd image.tiff
	   gm convert img0009.pcd[4] image.tiff

       To create a visual image	directory of all your JPEG images, use:

	   gm convert 'vid:*.jpg' directory.miff

       To annotate an image with  blue	text  using  font  12x24  at  position
       (100,100), use:

	   gm convert -font helvetica -fill blue
		   -draw "text 100,100 Cockatoo"
		   bird.jpg bird.miff

       To tile a 640x480 image with a JPEG texture with	bumps use:

	   gm convert -size 640x480 tile:bumps.jpg tiled.png

       To  surround  an	 icon with an ornamental border	to use with Mosaic(1),
       use:

	   gm convert -mattecolor "#697B8F" -frame 6x6 bird.jpg
		   icon.png

       To create a MNG animation from a	DNA molecule sequence, use:

	   gm convert -delay 20	dna.* dna.mng

OPTIONS
       Options are processed in	command	line order. Any	option you specify  on
       the  command line remains in effect for the set of images that follows,
       until the set is	terminated by the appearance of	any option  or	-noop.
       Some options only affect	the decoding of	images and others only the en-
       coding.	The latter can appear after the	final group of input images.

       For a more detailed description of each option, see Options, above.

       -adjoin
	      join images into a single	multi-image file

       -affine _matrix_
	      drawing transform	matrix

       -antialias
	      remove pixel aliasing

       -append
	      append a set of images

	-asc-cdl _spec_
	      apply ASC	CDL color transform

       -authenticate _string_
	      decrypt image with this password

       -auto-orient
	      orient (rotate) image so it is upright

       -average
	      average a	set of images

       -background _color_
	      the background color

       -black-threshold	red[,green][,blue][,opacity]
	      pixels below the threshold become	black

       -blue-primary _x_,_y_
	      blue chromaticity	primary	point

       -blur _radius_{x_sigma_}
	      blur the image with a Gaussian operator

       -border _width_x_height_
	      surround the image with a	border of color

       -bordercolor _color_
	      the border color

       -box _color_
	      set the color of the annotation bounding box

       -channel	_type_
	      the type of channel

       -charcoal _factor_
	      simulate a charcoal drawing

       -chop _width_x_height_{+-}_x_{+-}_y_{%}
	      remove pixels from the interior of an image

       -clip  apply the	clipping path, if one is present

       -coalesce
	      merge a sequence of images

       -colorize _value_
	      colorize the image with the pen color

       -colors _value_
	      preferred	number of colors in the	image

       -colorspace _value_
	      the type of colorspace

       -comment	_string_
	      annotate an image	with a comment

       -compose	_operator_
	      the type of image	composition

       -compress _type_
	      the type of image	compression

       -contrast
	      enhance or reduce	the image contrast

       -convolve _kernel_
	      convolve image with the specified	convolution kernel

       -crop _width_x_height_{+-}_x_{+-}_y_{%}
	      preferred	size and location of the cropped image

       -cycle _amount_
	      displace image colormap by amount

       -debug _events_
	      enable debug printout

       -deconstruct
	      break down an image sequence into	constituent parts

       -define _key_{=_value_},...
	      add coder/decoder	specific options

       -delay _1/100ths	of a second_
	      display the next image after pausing

       -density	_width_x_height_
	      horizontal and vertical resolution in pixels of the image

       -depth _value_
	      depth of the image

       -despeckle
	      reduce the speckles within an image

       -display	_host:display[.screen]_
	      specifies	the X server to	contact

       -dispose	_method_
	      GIF disposal method

       -dither
	      apply Floyd/Steinberg error diffusion to the image

       -draw _string_
	      annotate an image	with one or more graphic primitives

       -edge _radius_
	      detect edges within an image

       -emboss _radius_
	      emboss an	image

       -encoding _type_
	      specify the text encoding

       -endian _type_
	      specify endianness (MSB, LSB, or Native) of image

       -enhance
	      apply a digital filter to	enhance	a noisy	image

       -equalize
	      perform histogram	equalization to	the image

       -extent _width_x_height_{+-}_x_{+-}_y_
	      composite	image on background color canvas image

       -fill _color_
	      color to use when	filling	a graphic primitive

       -filter _type_
	      use this type of filter when resizing an image

       -flatten
	      flatten a	sequence of images

       -flip  create a "mirror image"

       -flop  create a "mirror image"

       -font _name_
	      use this font when annotating the	image with text

       -format _string_
	      output formatted image characteristics

       -frame _width_x_height_+_outer bevel width_+_inner bevel	width_
	      surround the image with an ornamental border

       -fuzz _distance_{%}
	      colors within this Euclidean distance are	considered equal

       -gamma _value_
	      level of gamma correction

       -gaussian _radius_{x_sigma_}
	      blur the image with a Gaussian operator

       -geometry _width_x_height_{+-}_x_{+-}_y_{%}{@}{!}{^}{_}{_}
	      Specify dimension, offset, and resize options.

       -gravity	_type_
	      direction	primitive  gravitates to when annotating the image.

       -green-primary _x_,_y_
	      green chromaticity primary point

       -hald-clut _clut_
	      apply a Hald CLUT	to the image

       -help  print usage instructions

       -implode	_factor_
	      implode image pixels about the center

       -intent _type_
	      use this type of rendering intent	when managing the image	color

       -interlace _type_
	      the type of interlacing scheme

       -label _name_
	      assign a label to	an image

       -lat _width_x_height_{+-}_offset_{%}
	      perform local adaptive thresholding

       -level _black_point_{,_gamma_}{,_white_point_}{%}
	      adjust the level of image	contrast

       -limit _type_ _value_
	      Disk, File, Map, Memory, Pixels, Width, Height  or  Threads  re-
	      source limit

       -list _type_
	      the type of list

       -log _string_
	      Specify format for debug log

       -loop _iterations_
	      add Netscape loop	extension to your GIF animation

       -magnify
	      magnify the image

       -map _filename_
	      choose a particular set of colors	from this image

       -mask _filename_
	      Specify a	clipping mask

       -matte store matte channel if the image has one

       -mattecolor _color_
	      specify the color	to be used with	the -frame option

       -median _radius_
	      apply a median filter to the image

       -minify _factor_
	      minify the image

       -modulate brightness[,saturation[,hue]]
	      vary the brightness, saturation, and hue of an image

       -monitor
	      show progress indication

       -monochrome
	      transform	the image to black and white

       -morph _frames_
	      morphs an	image sequence

       -mosaic
	      create a mosaic from an image or an image	sequence

       -motion-blur _radius_{x_sigma_}{+angle}
	      Simulate motion blur

       -negate
	      replace every pixel with its complementary color

       -noise _radius|type_
	      add or reduce noise in an	image

       -noop  NOOP (no option)

       -normalize
	      transform	image to span the full range of	color values

       -opaque _color_
	      change this color	to the pen color within	the image

       -operator channel operator rvalue[%]
	      apply  a	mathematical,  bitwise,	 or value operator to an image
	      channel

       -ordered-dither _channeltype_ _NxN_
	      ordered dither the image

       -orient _orientation_
	      Set the image orientation	attribute

       -page _width_x_height_{+-}_x_{+-}_y_{%}{!}{_}{_}
	      size and location	of an image canvas

       -paint _radius_
	      simulate an oil painting

       -pen _color_
	      (This option has been replaced by	the -fill option)

       -ping  efficiently determine image characteristics

       -pointsize _value_
	      pointsize	of the PostScript, X11,	or TrueType font

       -preview	_type_
	      image preview type

       -process	_command_
	      process a	sequence of images using a process module

       -profile	_filename_
	      add ICM, IPTC, or	generic	profile	 to image

       -quality	_value_
	      JPEG/MIFF/PNG/TIFF compression level

       -raise _width_x_height_
	      lighten or darken	image edges

       -random-threshold _channeltype_ _LOWxHIGH_
	      random threshold the image

       -recolor	_matrix_
	      apply a color translation	matrix to image	channels

       -red-primary _x_,_y_
	      red chromaticity primary point

       -region _width_x_height_{+-}_x_{+-}_y_
	      apply options to a portion of the	image

       -render
	      render vector operations

       -repage	_width_x_height_+xoff+yoff[!]
	      Adjust image page	offsets

       -resample _horizontal_x_vertical_
	      Resample image to	specified horizontal and vertical resolution

       -resize _width_x_height_{%}{@}{!}{_}{_}
	      resize an	image

       -roll {+-}_x_{+-}_y_
	      roll an image vertically or horizontally

       -rotate _degrees_{_}{_}
	      rotate the image

       -sample _geometry_
	      scale image using	pixel sampling

       -sampling-factor	_horizontal_factor_x_vertical_factor_
	      chroma subsampling factors

       -scale _geometry_
	      scale the	image.

       -scene _value_
	      set scene	number

       -set _attribute_	_value_
	      set an image attribute

       +set _attribute_
	      unset an image attribute

       -segment	_cluster threshold_x_smoothing threshold_
	      segment an image

       -shade _azimuth_x_elevation_
	      shade the	image using a distant light source

       -sharpen	_radius_{x_sigma_}
	      sharpen the image

       -shave _width_x_height_{%}
	      shave pixels from	the image edges

       -shear _x degrees_x_y degrees_
	      shear the	image along the	X or Y axis

       -size _width_x_height_{+offset}
	      width and	height of the image

       -solarize _factor_
	      negate all pixels	above the threshold level

       -spread _amount_
	      displace image pixels by a random	amount

       -strip remove all profiles and text attributes from the image

       -stroke _color_
	      color to use when	stroking a graphic primitive

       -strokewidth _value_
	      set the stroke width

       -swirl _degrees_
	      swirl image pixels about the center

       -texture	_filename_
	      name of texture to tile onto the image background

       -threshold _value_{%}
	      threshold	the image

       -thumbnail _width_x_height_{%}{@}{!}{_}{_}
	      resize an	image (quickly)

       -tile _filename_
	      tile image when filling a	graphic	primitive

       -transform
	      transform	the image

       -transparent _color_
	      make this	color transparent within the image

       -treedepth _value_
	      tree depth for the color reduction algorithm

       -trim  trim an image

       -type _type_
	      the image	type

       -units _type_
	      the units	of image resolution

       -unsharp	_radius_{x_sigma_}{+_amount_}{+_threshold_}
	      sharpen the image	with an	unsharp	mask operator

       -use-pixmap
	      use the pixmap

       -verbose
	      print detailed information about the image

       -version
	      print GraphicsMagick version string

       -view _string_
	      FlashPix viewing parameters

       -virtual-pixel _method_
	      specify contents of "virtual pixels"

       -wave _amplitude_x_wavelength_
	      alter an image along a sine wave

       -white-point _x_,_y_
	      chromaticity white point

       -white-threshold	red[,green][,blue][,opacity]
	      pixels above the threshold become	white

       -write _filename_
	      write an intermediate image [convert, composite]

	      For a more detailed description of  each	option,	 see  Options,
	      above.

GM DISPLAY
       Display is a machine architecture independent image processing and dis-
       play program. It	can display an image on	any workstation	screen running
       an  X server. Display can read and write	many of	the more popular image
       formats (e.g. JPEG, TIFF, PNM, Photo CD,	etc.).

       With display, you can perform these functions on	an image:

		o  load	an image from a	file
		o  display the next image
		o  display the former image
		o  display a sequence of images	as a slide show
		o  write the image to a	file
		o  print the image to a	PostScript printer
		o  delete the image file
		o  create a Visual Image Directory
		o  select the image to display by its  thumbnail  rather  than
	       name
		o  undo	last image transformation
		o  copy	a region of the	image
		o  paste a region to the image
		o  restore the image to	its original size
		o  refresh the image
		o  half	the image size
		o  double the image size
		o  resize the image
		o  crop	the image
		o  cut the image
		o  flop	image in the horizontal	direction
		o  flip	image in the vertical direction
		o  rotate the image 90 degrees clockwise
		o  rotate the image 90 degrees counter-clockwise
		o  rotate the image
		o  shear the image
		o  roll	the image
		o  trim	the image edges
		o  invert the colors of	the image
		o  vary	the color brightness
		o  vary	the color saturation
		o  vary	the image hue
		o  gamma correct the image
		o  sharpen the image contrast
		o  dull	the image contrast
		o  perform histogram equalization on the image
		o  perform histogram normalization on the image
		o  negate the image colors
		o  convert the image to	grayscale
		o  set the maximum number of unique colors in the image
		o  reduce the speckles within an image
		o  eliminate peak noise	from an	image
		o  detect edges	within the image
		o  emboss an image
		o  segment the image by	color
		o  simulate an oil painting
		o  simulate a charcoal drawing
		o  annotate the	image with text
		o  draw	on the image
		o  edit	an image pixel color
		o  edit	the image matte	information
		o  composite an	image with another
		o  add a border	to the image
		o  surround image with an ornamental border
		o  apply image processing techniques to	a region of interest
		o  display information about the image
		o  zoom	a portion of the image
		o  show	a histogram of the image
		o  display image to background of a window
		o  set user preferences
		o  display information about this program
		o  discard all images and exit program
		o  change the level of magnification
		o   display images specified by	a World	Wide Web (WWW) uniform
	       resource	locator	(URL)

EXAMPLES
       To scale	an image of a cockatoo to exactly 640 pixels in	width and  480
       pixels in height	and position the window	at location (200,200), use:

	   gm display -geometry	640x480+200+200! cockatoo.miff

       To  display an image of a cockatoo without a border centered on a back-
       drop, use:

	   gm display +borderwidth -backdrop cockatoo.miff

       To tile a slate texture onto the	root window, use:

	   gm display -size 1280x1024 -window root slate.png

       To display a visual image directory of all your JPEG images, use:

	   gm display 'vid:*.jpg'

       To display a MAP	image that is 640 pixels in width and  480  pixels  in
       height with 256 colors, use:

	   gm display -size 640x480+256	cockatoo.map

       To display an image of a	cockatoo specified with	a World	Wide Web (WWW)
       uniform resource	locator	(URL), use:

	   gm display ftp://wizards.dupont.com/images/cockatoo.jpg

       To display histogram of an image, use:

	   gm gm convert file.jpg HISTOGRAM:- |	gm display -

OPTIONS
       Options are processed in	command	line order. Any	option you specify  on
       the  command  line  remains in effect until it is explicitly changed by
       specifying the option again with	a different  effect.  For  example  to
       display	three images, the first	with 32	colors,	the second with	an un-
       limited number of colors, and the third with only 16 colors, use:

	   gm display -colors 32 cockatoo.miff -noop duck.miff
			-colors	16 macaw.miff

       Display options can appear on the command line or in your  X  resources
       file.  See X(1).	Options	on the command line supersede values specified
       in your X resources file.

       For a more detailed description of each option, see Options, above.

       -authenticate _string_
	      decrypt image with this password

       -backdrop
	      display the image	centered on a backdrop.

       -background _color_
	      the background color

       -border _width_x_height_
	      surround the image with a	border of color

       -bordercolor _color_
	      the border color

       -borderwidth _geometry_
	      the border width

       -colormap _type_
	      define the colormap type

       -colors _value_
	      preferred	number of colors in the	image

       -colorspace _value_
	      the type of colorspace

       -comment	_string_
	      annotate an image	with a comment

       -compress _type_
	      the type of image	compression

       -contrast
	      enhance or reduce	the image contrast

       -crop _width_x_height_{+-}_x_{+-}_y_{%}
	      preferred	size and location of the cropped image

       -debug _events_
	      enable debug printout

       -define _key_{=_value_},...
	      add coder/decoder	specific options

       -delay _1/100ths	of a second_
	      display the next image after pausing

       -density	_width_x_height_
	      horizontal and vertical resolution in pixels of the image

       -depth _value_
	      depth of the image

       -despeckle
	      reduce the speckles within an image

       -display	_host:display[.screen]_
	      specifies	the X server to	contact

       -dispose	_method_
	      GIF disposal method

       -dither
	      apply Floyd/Steinberg error diffusion to the image

       -edge _radius_
	      detect edges within an image

       -endian _type_
	      specify endianness (MSB, LSB, or Native) of image

       -enhance
	      apply a digital filter to	enhance	a noisy	image

       -filter _type_
	      use this type of filter when resizing an image

       -flip  create a "mirror image"

       -flop  create a "mirror image"

       -font _name_
	      use this font when annotating the	image with text

       -foreground _color_
	      define the foreground color

       -frame _width_x_height_+_outer bevel width_+_inner bevel	width_
	      surround the image with an ornamental border

       -gamma _value_
	      level of gamma correction

       -geometry _width_x_height_{+-}_x_{+-}_y_{%}{@}{!}{^}{_}{_}
	      Specify dimension, offset, and resize options.

       -help  print usage instructions

       -iconGeometry _geometry_
	      specify the icon geometry

       -iconic
	      iconic animation

       -immutable
	      make image immutable

       -interlace _type_
	      the type of interlacing scheme

       -label _name_
	      assign a label to	an image

       -limit _type_ _value_
	      Disk, File, Map, Memory, Pixels, Width, Height  or  Threads  re-
	      source limit

       -log _string_
	      Specify format for debug log

       -magnify	_factor_
	      magnify the image

       -map _type_
	      display image using this type.

       -matte store matte channel if the image has one

       -mattecolor _color_
	      specify the color	to be used with	the -frame option

       -monitor
	      show progress indication

       -monochrome
	      transform	the image to black and white

       -name  name an image

       -negate
	      replace every pixel with its complementary color

       -noop  NOOP (no option)

       -page _width_x_height_{+-}_x_{+-}_y_{%}{!}{_}{_}
	      size and location	of an image canvas

       +progress
	      disable progress monitor and busy	cursor

       -quality	_value_
	      JPEG/MIFF/PNG/TIFF compression level

       -raise _width_x_height_
	      lighten or darken	image edges

       -remote
	      perform a	X11 remote operation

       -roll {+-}_x_{+-}_y_
	      roll an image vertically or horizontally

       -rotate _degrees_{_}{_}
	      rotate the image

       -sample _geometry_
	      scale image using	pixel sampling

       -sampling-factor	_horizontal_factor_x_vertical_factor_
	      chroma subsampling factors

       -scenes _value-value_
	      range of image scene numbers to read

       -set _attribute_	_value_
	      set an image attribute

       +set _attribute_
	      unset an image attribute

       -segment	_cluster threshold_x_smoothing threshold_
	      segment an image

       -shared-memory
	      use shared memory

       -sharpen	_radius_{x_sigma_}
	      sharpen the image

       -size _width_x_height_{+offset}
	      width and	height of the image

       -text-font _name_
	      font for writing fixed-width text

       -texture	_filename_
	      name of texture to tile onto the image background

       -title _string_
	      assign title to displayed	image [animate,	display, montage]

       -treedepth _value_
	      tree depth for the color reduction algorithm

       -trim  trim an image

       -type _type_
	      the image	type

       -update _seconds_
	       detect when image file is modified and redisplay.

       -use-pixmap
	      use the pixmap

       -verbose
	      print detailed information about the image

       -version
	      print GraphicsMagick version string

       -visual _type_
	      animate images using this	X visual type

       -window _id_
	      make image the background	of a window

       -window-group
	      specify the window group

       -write _filename_
	      write the	image to a file	[display]

	      For  a  more  detailed  description of each option, see Options,
	      above.

MOUSE BUTTONS
       The effects of each button press	is described below. Three buttons  are
       required.  If you have a	two button mouse, button 1 and 3 are returned.
       Press ALT and button 3 to simulate button 2.

       1       Press this button to map	or unmap the Command widget . See  the
	      next section for more information	about the Command widget.

       2       Press and drag to define	a region of the	image to magnify.

       3	Press  and drag	to choose from a select	set of display(1) com-
	      mands. This button behaves differently if	the image  being  dis-
	      played  is a visual image	directory. Choose a particular tile of
	      the directory and	press this button and drag to select a command
	      from a pop-up menu.  Choose from these menu items:

		  Open
		  Next
		  Former
		  Delete
		  Update

	      If  you  choose  Open, the image represented by the tile is dis-
	      played.  To return to the	visual image  directory,  choose  Next
	      from  the	 Command  widget  (refer to Command Widget).  Next and
	      Former moves to the next or former  image	 respectively.	Choose
	      Delete to	delete a particular image tile.	Finally, choose	Update
	      to synchronize all the image tiles with their respective images.
	      See montage and miff for more details.

COMMAND	WIDGET
       The Command widget lists	a number of sub-menus and commands. They are

	   File

	   Open...
	   Next
	   Former
	   Select...
	   Save...
	   Print...
	   Delete...
	   Canvas...
	   Visual Directory...
	   Quit

	   Edit

	   Undo
	   Redo
	   Cut
	   Copy
	   Paste

	   View

	   Half	Size
	   Original Size
	   Double Size
	   Resize...
	   Apply
	   Refresh
	   Restore

	   Transform

	   Crop
	   Chop
	   Flop
	   Flip
	   Rotate Right
	   Rotate Left
	   Rotate...
	   Shear...
	   Roll...
	   Trim	Edges

	   Enhance

	   Hue...
	   Saturation...
	   Brightness...
	   Gamma...
	   Spiff...
	   Dull
	   Equalize
	   Normalize
	   Negate
	   GRAYscale
	   Quantize...

	   Effects

	   Despeckle
	   Emboss
	   Reduce Noise
	   Add Noise
	   Sharpen...
	   Blur...
	   Threshold...
	   Edge	Detect...
	   Spread...
	   Shade...
	   Raise...
	   Segment...

	   F/X

	   Solarize...
	   Swirl...
	   Implode...
	   Wave...
	   Oil Paint...
	   Charcoal Draw...

	   Image Edit

	   Annotate...
	   Draw...
	   Color...
	   Matte...
	   Composite...
	   Add Border...
	   Add Frame...
	   Comment...
	   Launch...
	   Region of Interest...

	   Miscellany

	   Image Info
	   Zoom	Image
	   Show	Preview...
	   Show	Histogram
	   Show	Matte
	   Background...
	   Slide Show
	   Preferences...

	   Help

	   Overview
	   Browse Documentation
	   About Display

       Menu  items  with  a indented triangle have a sub-menu. They are	repre-
       sented above as the indented items. To access a sub-menu	item, move the
       pointer	to  the	appropriate menu and press button 1 and	drag. When you
       find the	desired	sub-menu item, release the button and the  command  is
       executed.  Move the pointer away	from the sub-menu if you decide	not to
       execute a particular command.

KEYBOARD ACCELERATORS
       Accelerators are	one or two key presses that effect a  particular  com-
       mand.  The keyboard accelerators	that display understands is:

	   Ctl+O     Press to load an image from a file.
	   space     Press to display the next image.

       If  the	image is a multi-paged document	such as	a PostScript document,
       you can skip ahead several pages	by preceding this command with a  num-
       ber.   For  example to display the fourth page beyond the current page,
       press 4space.

	   backspace Press to display the former image.

       If the image is a multi-paged document such as a	 PostScript  document,
       you can skip behind several pages by preceding this command with	a num-
       ber.  For example to display the	 fourth	 page  preceding  the  current
       page, press 4n.

	   Ctl-S    Press to save the image to a file.
	   Ctl-P    Press to print the image to	a
		    PostScript printer.
	   Ctl-D    Press to delete an image file.
	   Ctl-N    Press to create a blank canvas.
	   Ctl-Q    Press to discard all images	and exit program.
	   Ctl+Z    Press to undo last image transformation.
	   Ctl+R    Press to redo last image transformation.
	   Ctl-X    Press to cut a region of
		    the	image.
	   Ctl-C    Press to copy a region of
		    the	image.
	   Ctl-V    Press to paste a region to
		    the	image.
	   <	    Press to halve the image size.
	   .	    Press to return to the original image size.
	   >	    Press to double the	image size.
	   %	    Press to resize the	image to a width and height
		    you	specify.
	   Cmd-A    Press to make any image transformations
		    permanent.
		    By default,	any image size transformations are
		    applied to the original image to create the
		    image displayed on the X server.  However, the
		    transformations are	not permanent (i.e. the
		    original image does	not change size	only the
		    X image does). For example,	if you press ">"
		    the	X image	will appear to double in size, but
		    the	original image will in fact remain the same
		    size.  To force the	original image to double in
		    size, press	">" followed by	"Cmd-A".
	   @	    Press to refresh the image window.
	   C	    Press to crop the image.
	   [	    Press to chop the image.
	   H	    Press to flop image	in the horizontal direction.
	   V	    Press to flip image	in the vertical	direction.
	   /	    Press to rotate the	image 90 degrees clockwise.
	   \	    Press to rotate the	image 90 degrees
		    counter-clockwise.
	   *	    Press to rotate the	image
		    the	number of degrees you specify.
	   S	    Press to shear the image the number	of degrees
		    you	specify.
	   R	    Press to roll the image.
	   T	    Press to trim the image edges.
	   Shft-H   Press to vary the color hue.
	   Shft-S   Press to vary the color saturation.
	   Shft-L   Press to vary the image brightness.
	   Shft-G   Press to gamma correct the image.
	   Shft-C   Press to spiff up the image	contrast.
	   Shft-Z   Press to dull the image contrast.
	   =	    Press to perform histogram equalization on
		    the	image.
	   Shft-N   Press to perform histogram normalization on
		    the	image.
	   Shft-~   Press to negate the	colors of the image.
	   .	    Press to convert the image colors to gray.
	   Shft-#   Press to set the maximum number of unique
		    colors in the image.
	   F2	    Press to reduce the	speckles in an image.
	   F2	    Press to emboss an image.
	   F4	    Press to eliminate peak noise from an image.
	   F5	    Press to add noise to an image.
	   F6	    Press to sharpen an	image.
	   F7	    Press to blur image	an image.
	   F8	    Press to threshold the image.
	   F9	    Press to detect edges within an image.
	   F10	    Press to displace pixels by	a random amount.
	   F11	    Press to shade the image using a distant light
		    source.
	   F12	    Press to lighten or	darken image edges to
		    create a 3-D effect.
	   F13	    Press to segment the image by color.
	   Meta-S   Press to swirl image pixels	about the center.
	   Meta-I   Press to implode image pixels about	the center.
	   Meta-W   Press to alter an image along a sine wave.
	   Meta-P   Press to simulate an oil painting.
	   Meta-C   Press to simulate a	charcoal drawing.
	   Alt-X    Press to composite the image
		    with another.
	   Alt-A    Press to annotate the image	with text.
	   Alt-D    Press to draw a line on the	image.
	   Alt-P    Press to edit an image pixel color.
	   Alt-M    Press to edit the image matte information.
	   Alt-X    Press to composite the image with another.
	   Alt-A    Press to add a border to the image.
	   Alt-F    Press to add a ornamental frame to the image.
	   Alt-Shft-!	Press to add an	image comment.
	   Ctl-A    Press to apply image processing techniques to a
		    region of interest.
	   Shft-?   Press to display information about the image.
	   Shft-+   Press to map the zoom image	window.
	   Shft-P   Press to preview an	image enhancement, effect,
		    or f/x.
	   F1	    Press to display helpful information about
		    the	"display" utility.
	   Find	    Press to browse documentation about
		    GraphicsMagick.
	   1-9	    Press to change the	level of magnification.

       Use the arrow keys to move the image one	pixel up, down,	left, or right
       within the magnify window. Be sure to first map the magnify  window  by
       pressing	button 2.

       Press ALT and one of the	arrow keys to trim off one pixel from any side
       of the image.

X RESOURCES
       Display options can appear on the command line or in  your  X  resource
       file.  Options on the command line supersede values specified in	your X
       resource	file. See X(1) for more	information on X resources.

       Most display options have a corresponding X resource. In	addition, dis-
       play uses the following X resources:

       background (class Background)
	       Specifies the preferred color to	use for	the Image window back-
	      ground. The default is #ccc.

       borderColor (class BorderColor)
	       Specifies the preferred color to	use for	the Image window  bor-
	      der. The default is #ccc.

       borderWidth (class BorderWidth)
		Specifies  the width in	pixels of the image window border. The
	      default is 2.

       browseCommand (class browseCommand)
	       Specifies the name of the  preferred  browser  when  displaying
	      GraphicsMagick documentation. The	default	is netscape %s.

       confirmExit (class ConfirmExit)
		Display	 pops  up  a dialog box	to confirm exiting the program
	      when exiting the program.	Set this resource  to  False  to  exit
	      without a	confirmation.

       displayGamma (class DisplayGamma)
		Specifies  the	gamma of the X server.	You can	apply separate
	      gamma values to the red, green, and blue channels	of  the	 image
	      with   a	 gamma	 value	list  delineated  with	slashes	 (i.e.
	      1.7/2.3/1.2).  The default is 2.2.

       displayWarnings (class DisplayWarnings)
	       Display pops up a dialog	box whenever a warning message occurs.
	      Set this resource	to False to ignore warning messages.

       font (class FontList)
		Specifies the name of the preferred font to use	in normal for-
	      matted text.  The	default	is 14 point Helvetica.

       font[1-9] (class	Font[1-9])
	       Specifies the name of the preferred font	to use when annotating
	      the  image  window with text. The	default	fonts are fixed, vari-
	      able, 5x8, 6x10, 7x13bold, 8x13bold, 9x15bold, 10x20, and	12x24.

       foreground (class Foreground)
	       Specifies the preferred color to	use for	text within the	 image
	      window.  The default is black.

       gammaCorrect (class gammaCorrect)
		This  resource,	 if  true,  will lighten or darken an image of
	      known gamma to match the gamma of	the display (see resource dis-
	      playGamma). The default is True.

       geometry	(class Geometry)
		Specifies the preferred	size and position of the image window.
	      It is not	necessarily obeyed by all window managers.

	      Offsets, if present, are handled in X(1) style.	A  negative  x
	      offset  is  measured  from  the  right edge of the screen	to the
	      right edge of the	icon, and a negative y offset is measured from
	      the bottom edge of the screen to the bottom edge of the icon.

       iconGeometry (class IconGeometry)
		Specifies  the	preferred size and position of the application
	      when iconified.  It is not necessarily obeyed by all window man-
	      agers.

	      Offsets,	if present, are	handled	in the same manner as in class
	      Geometry.

       iconic (class Iconic)
	       This resource indicates that you	would prefer that the applica-
	      tion's windows initially not be visible as if the	windows	had be
	      immediately iconified by you. Window managers may	choose not  to
	      honor the	application's request.

       magnify (class Magnify)
		specifies  an integral factor by which the image should	be en-
	      larged. The default is 3.	 This value only affects the  magnifi-
	      cation  window  which  is	invoked	with button number 3 after the
	      image is displayed.

       matteColor (class MatteColor)
	       Specify the color of windows. It	is used	for the	backgrounds of
	      windows,	menus,	and  notices. A	3D effect is achieved by using
	      highlight	and shadow colors derived  from	 this  color.  Default
	      value: #697B8F.

       name (class Name)
		This resource specifies	the name under which resources for the
	      application should be found. This	resource is  useful  in	 shell
	      aliases  to  distinguish	between	invocations of an application,
	      without resorting	to creating links to alter the executable file
	      name. The	default	is the application name.

       pen[1-9]	(class Pen[1-9])
		Specifies the color of the preferred font to use when annotat-
	      ing the image window with	text. The default  colors  are	black,
	      blue, green, cyan, gray, red, magenta, yellow, and white.

       printCommand (class PrintCommand)
	       This command is executed	whenever Print is issued.  In general,
	      it is the	command	to print PostScript to your  printer.  Default
	      value: lp	-c -s %i.

       sharedMemory (class SharedMemory)
		This  resource	specifies  whether  display should attempt use
	      shared memory for	pixmaps. GraphicsMagick	must be	compiled  with
	      shared  memory support, and the display must support the MIT-SHM
	      extension. Otherwise, this resource is ignored. The  default  is
	      True.

       textFont	(class textFont)
	       Specifies the name of the preferred font	to use in fixed	(type-
	      writer style) formatted text. The	default	is 14 point Courier.

       title (class Title)
	       This resource specifies the title to be used for	the image win-
	      dow.  This  information is sometimes used	by a window manager to
	      provide a	header identifying the window. The default is the  im-
	      age file name.

       undoCache (class	UndoCache)
	       Specifies, in mega-bytes, the amount of memory in the undo edit
	      cache.  Each time	you modify the image it	is saved in  the  undo
	      edit  cache as long as memory is available. You can subsequently
	      undo one or more of these	transformations.  The  default	is  16
	      Megabytes.

       usePixmap (class	UsePixmap)
	       Images are maintained as	a XImage by default. Set this resource
	      to True to utilize a server Pixmap instead. This option is  use-
	      ful  if  your image exceeds the dimensions of your server	screen
	      and you intend to	pan the	image. Panning	is  much  faster  with
	      Pixmaps  than  with  a XImage. Pixmaps are considered a precious
	      resource,	use them with discretion.

	      To set the geometry of the Magnify or Pan	or window, use the ge-
	      ometry resource.	For example, to	set the	Pan window geometry to
	      256x256, use:

		  gm display.pan.geometry: 256x256

IMAGE LOADING
       To select an image to display, choose Open of the  File	sub-menu  from
       the  Command widget. A file browser is displayed.  To choose a particu-
       lar image file, move the	pointer	to the filename	and press any  button.
       The  filename  is  copied to the	text window. Next, press Open or press
       the RETURN key. Alternatively, you can type the	image  file  name  di-
       rectly into the text window. To descend directories, choose a directory
       name and	press the button twice quickly.	A  scrollbar  allows  a	 large
       list  of	 filenames  to be moved	through	the viewing area if it exceeds
       the size	of the list area.

       You can trim the	list of	file names by using shell globbing characters.
       For example, type *.jpg to list only files that end with	.jpg.

       To  select  your	image from the X server	screen instead of from a file,
       Choose Grab of the Open widget.

VISUAL IMAGE DIRECTORY
       To create a Visual Image	Directory, choose Visual Directory of the File
       sub-menu	from the Command widget	. A file browser is displayed. To cre-
       ate a Visual Image Directory from all the images	in the current	direc-
       tory,  press Directory or press the RETURN key.	Alternatively, you can
       select a	set of image names by using shell globbing characters. For ex-
       ample,  type *.jpg to include only files	that end with .jpg. To descend
       directories, choose  a  directory  name	and  press  the	 button	 twice
       quickly.	 A  scrollbar  allows  a  large	 list of filenames to be moved
       through the viewing area	if it exceeds the size of the list area.

       After you select	a set of files,	they are turned	 into  thumbnails  and
       tiled  onto a single image. Now move the	pointer	to a particular	thumb-
       nail and	press button 3 and drag. Finally, select Open. The image  rep-
       resented	 by  the  thumbnail is displayed at its	full size. Choose Next
       from the	File sub-menu of the Command widget to return  to  the	Visual
       Image Directory.

IMAGE CUTTING
       Note  that  cut	information  for image window is not retained for col-
       ormapped	X server visuals (e.g.	StaticColor,  StaticColor,  GRAYScale,
       PseudoColor).   Correct cutting behavior	may require a TrueColor	or Di-
       rectColor visual	or a Standard Colormap.

       To begin, press choose Cut of the Edit sub-menu from the	 Command  wid-
       get. Alternatively, press F3 in the image window.

       A  small	window appears showing the location of the cursor in the image
       window. You are now in cut mode.	In cut mode, the  Command  widget  has
       these options:

	   Help
	   Dismiss

       To  define a cut	region,	press button 1 and drag. The cut region	is de-
       fined by	a highlighted rectangle	that expands or	contracts as  it  fol-
       lows  the  pointer. Once	you are	satisfied with the cut region, release
       the button.  You	are now	in rectify mode. In rectify mode, the  Command
       widget has these	options:

	   Cut
	   Help
	   Dismiss

       You  can	 make adjustments by moving the	pointer	to one of the cut rec-
       tangle corners, pressing	a button, and dragging.	Finally, press Cut  to
       commit  your copy region. To exit without cutting the image, press Dis-
       miss.

IMAGE COPYING
       To begin, press choose Copy of the Edit sub-menu	from the Command  wid-
       get. Alternatively, press F4 in the image window.

       A  small	window appears showing the location of the cursor in the image
       window. You are now in copy mode. In copy mode, the Command widget  has
       these options:

	   Help
	   Dismiss

       To  define  a  copy region, press button	1 and drag. The	copy region is
       defined by a highlighted	rectangle that expands or contracts as it fol-
       lows  the pointer. Once you are satisfied with the copy region, release
       the button.  You	are now	in rectify mode. In rectify mode, the  Command
       widget has these	options:

	   Copy
	   Help
	   Dismiss

       You  can	make adjustments by moving the pointer to one of the copy rec-
       tangle corners, pressing	a button, and dragging.	Finally, press Copy to
       commit  your copy region. To exit without copying the image, press Dis-
       miss.

IMAGE PASTING
       To begin, press choose Paste of the Edit	sub-menu from the Command wid-
       get. Alternatively, press F5 in the image window.

       A  small	window appears showing the location of the cursor in the image
       window. You are now in Paste mode. To exit immediately, press  Dismiss.
       In Paste	mode, the Command widget has these options:

	   Operators

	   over
	   in
	   out
	   atop
	   xor
	   plus
	   minus
	   add
	   subtract
	   difference
	   multiply
	   bumpmap
	   replace

	   Help
	   Dismiss

       Choose a	composite operation from the Operators sub-menu	of the Command
       widget. How each	operator behaves is described below. image  window  is
       the  image  currently displayed on your X server	and image is the image
       obtained	with the File Browser widget.

       over    The result is the union of the two image	shapes,	with image ob-
	      scuring image window in the region of overlap.

       in	The  result  is	simply image cut by the	shape of image window.
	      None of the image	data of	image window is	in the result.

       out     The resulting image is image with the shape of image window cut
	      out.

       atop	The  result  is	the same shape as image	window,	with image ob-
	      scuring image window where the image shapes overlap.  Note  this
	      differs  from  over  because  the	portion	of image outside image
	      window's shape does not appear in	the result.

       xor     The result is the image data from both image and	 image	window
	      that is outside the overlap region. The overlap region is	blank.

       plus    The result is just the sum of the image data. Output values are
	      cropped to the maximum value (no overflow).  This	 operation  is
	      independent of the matte channels.

       minus	The  result of image - image window, with underflow cropped to
	      zero. The	matte channel is ignored (set to opaque,  full	cover-
	      age).

       add	The  result  of	 image	+ image	window,	with overflow wrapping
	      around (mod MaxRGB+1).

       subtract
	       The result of image - image  window,  with  underflow  wrapping
	      around  (mod  MaxRGB+1).	The  add and subtract operators	can be
	      used to perform reversible transformations.

       difference
	       The result of abs(image - image window).	 This  is  useful  for
	      comparing	two very similar images.

       multiply
	       The result of image * image window. This	is useful for the cre-
	      ation of drop-shadows.

       bumpmap
	       The result of image window shaded by window.

       replace
	      The resulting image is image window replaced with	 image.	  Here
	      the matte	information is ignored.

	      The  image  compositor requires a	matte, or alpha	channel	in the
	      image for	some operations. This extra channel usually defines  a
	      mask  which  represents a	sort of	a cookie-cutter	for the	image.
	      This is the case when matte is 255 (full	coverage)  for	pixels
	      inside  the shape, zero outside, and between zero	and 255	on the
	      boundary.	If image does not have a matte channel,	it is initial-
	      ized  with  0  for any pixel matching in color to	pixel location
	      (0,0), otherwise 255. See	Matte Editing for a method of defining
	      a	matte channel.

	      Note that	matte information for image window is not retained for
	      colormapped X server  visuals  (e.g.  StaticColor,  StaticColor,
	      GrayScale,  PseudoColor).	  Correct compositing behavior may re-
	      quire a TrueColor	or DirectColor visual or a Standard Colormap.

	      Choosing a composite operator is optional. The default  operator
	      is  replace.   However,  you must	choose a location to composite
	      your image and press button 1. Press and hold the	button	before
	      releasing	 and  an  outline of the image will appear to help you
	      identify your location.

	      The actual colors	of the pasted image  is	 saved.	 However,  the
	      color  that  appears in image window may be different. For exam-
	      ple, on a	monochrome screen image	window will  appear  black  or
	      white even though	your pasted image may have many	colors.	If the
	      image is saved to	a file it is written with the correct  colors.
	      To  assure  the correct colors are saved in the final image, any
	      PseudoClass image	is promoted to DirectClass.  To	force a	 Pseu-
	      doClass image to remain PseudoClass, use -colors.

IMAGE CROPPING
       To  begin,  press choose	Crop of	the Transform submenu from the Command
       widget. Alternatively, press C in the image window.

       A small window appears showing the location of the cursor in the	 image
       window.	You are	now in crop mode. In crop mode,	the Command widget has
       these options:

	   Help
	   Dismiss

       To define a cropping region, press button 1 and drag. The cropping  re-
       gion is defined by a highlighted	rectangle that expands or contracts as
       it follows the pointer. Once you	are satisfied with  the	 cropping  re-
       gion, release the button. You are now in	rectify	mode. In rectify mode,
       the Command widget has these options:

	   Crop
	   Help
	   Dismiss

       You can make adjustments	by moving the pointer to one of	 the  cropping
       rectangle corners, pressing a button, and dragging. Finally, press Crop
       to commit your cropping region. To exit	without	 cropping  the	image,
       press Dismiss.

IMAGE CHOPPING
       An image	is chopped interactively. There	is no command line argument to
       chop an image. To begin,	choose Chop of the Transform sub-menu from the
       Command widget. Alternatively, press [ in the Image window.

       You  are	now in Chop mode. To exit immediately, press Dismiss.  In Chop
       mode, the Command widget	has these options:

	   Direction

	   horizontal
	   vertical

	   Help
	   Dismiss

       If the you choose the horizontal	direction (this	is the	default),  the
       area of the image between the two horizontal endpoints of the chop line
       is removed.  Otherwise, the area	of the image between the two  vertical
       endpoints of the	chop line is removed.

       Select a	location within	the image window to begin your chop, press and
       hold any	button.	Next, move the pointer to another location in the  im-
       age.   As  you  move  a	line will connect the initial location and the
       pointer.	When you release the button, the area within the image to chop
       is determined by	which direction	you choose from	the Command widget.

       To  cancel  the	image  chopping, move the pointer back to the starting
       point of	the line and release the button.

IMAGE ROTATION
       Press the / key to rotate the image 90 degrees or \ to rotate  -90  de-
       grees.	To  interactively  choose  the	degree of rotation, choose Ro-
       tate...	of the Transform submenu from the  Command  Widget.   Alterna-
       tively, press * in the image window.

       A  small	 horizontal  line is drawn next	to the pointer.	You are	now in
       rotate mode. To exit immediately, press Dismiss.	In  rotate  mode,  the
       Command widget has these	options:

	   Pixel Color

	   black
	   blue
	   cyan
	   green
	   gray
	   red
	   magenta
	   yellow
	   white
	   Browser...

	   Direction

	   horizontal
	   vertical

	   Help
	   Dismiss

       Choose  a  background  color  from the Pixel Color sub-menu. Additional
       background colors can be	specified with	the  color  browser.  You  can
       change the menu colors by setting the X resources pen1 through pen9.

       If  you	choose	the  color  browser and	press Grab, you	can select the
       background color	by moving the pointer to  the  desired	color  on  the
       screen and press	any button.

       Choose  a  point	 in  the  image	window and press this button and hold.
       Next, move the pointer to another location in the image.	As you move  a
       line  connects  the  initial location and the pointer. When you release
       the button, the degree of image rotation	is determined by the slope  of
       the  line  you  just  drew.  The	slope is relative to the direction you
       choose from the Direction sub-menu of the Command widget.

       To cancel the image rotation, move the pointer  back  to	 the  starting
       point of	the line and release the button.

IMAGE ANNOTATION
       An  image is annotated interactively. There is no command line argument
       to annotate an image. To	begin, choose Annotate of the Image Edit  sub-
       menu  from the Command widget. Alternatively, press a in	the image win-
       dow.

       A small window appears showing the location of the cursor in the	 image
       window.	You  are now in	annotate mode. To exit immediately, press Dis-
       miss.  In annotate mode,	the Command widget has these options:

       Font Name

       fixed

       variable

       5x8

       6x10

       7x13bold

       8x13bold

       9x15bold

       10x20

       12x24

       Browser...

       Font Color

       black

       blue

       cyan

       green

       gray

       red

       magenta

       yellow

       white

       transparent

       Browser...

       Box Color

       black

       blue

       cyan

       green

       gray

       red

       magenta

       yellow

       white

       transparent

       Browser...

       Rotate Text

       -90

       -45

       -30

       0

       30

       45

       90

       180

       Dialog...

       Help

       Dismiss

       Choose a	font name from the Font	Name sub-menu. Additional  font	 names
       can  be	specified with the font	browser. You can change	the menu names
       by setting the X	resources font1	through	font9.

       Choose a	font color from	the Font Color sub-menu. Additional font  col-
       ors  can	 be  specified with the	color browser. You can change the menu
       colors by setting the X resources pen1 through pen9.

       If you select the color browser and press Grab, you can choose the font
       color  by  moving  the  pointer	to the desired color on	the screen and
       press any button.

       If you choose to	rotate the text, choose	Rotate Text from the menu  and
       select  an  angle.  Typically  you will only want to rotate one line of
       text at a time. Depending on the	angle you choose, subsequent lines may
       end up overwriting each other.

       Choosing	 a  font  and its color	is optional. The default font is fixed
       and the default color is	black. However,	you must choose	a location  to
       begin  entering	text  and press	a button. An underscore	character will
       appear at the location of the pointer. The cursor changes to  a	pencil
       to indicate you are in text mode. To exit immediately, press Dismiss.

       In  text	 mode, any key presses will display the	character at the loca-
       tion of the underscore and advance the underscore  cursor.  Enter  your
       text and	once completed press Apply to finish your image	annotation. To
       correct errors press BACK SPACE.	To delete  an  entire  line  of	 text,
       press DELETE.  Any text that exceeds the	boundaries of the image	window
       is automatically	continued onto the next	line.

       The actual color	you request for	the font is saved in the  image.  How-
       ever, the color that appears in your Image window may be	different. For
       example,	on a monochrome	screen the text	will  appear  black  or	 white
       even  if	you choose the color red as the	font color. However, the image
       saved to	a file with -write is written with red	lettering.  To	assure
       the  correct  color  text  in the final image, any PseudoClass image is
       promoted	to DirectClass (see miff(5)). To force a PseudoClass image  to
       remain PseudoClass, use -colors.

IMAGE COMPOSITING
       An  image  composite is created interactively. There is no command line
       argument	to composite an	image. To begin, choose	Composite of the Image
       Edit  from the Command widget. Alternatively, press x in	the Image win-
       dow.

       First a popup window is displayed requesting  you  to  enter  an	 image
       name.   Press  Composite, Grab or type a	file name. Press Cancel	if you
       choose not to create a composite	image. When you	choose Grab, move  the
       pointer to the desired window and press any button.

       If the Composite	image does not have any	matte information, you are in-
       formed and the file browser is displayed	again. Enter  the  name	 of  a
       mask  image.  The image is typically grayscale and the same size	as the
       composite image.	If the image is	not  grayscale,	 it  is	 converted  to
       grayscale and the resulting intensities are used	as matte information.

       A  small	window appears showing the location of the cursor in the image
       window. You are now in composite	mode. To exit immediately, press  Dis-
       miss.  In composite mode, the Command widget has	these options:

       Operators

       over

       in

       out

       atop

       xor

       plus

       minus

       add

       subtract

       difference

       bumpmap

       replace

       Blend

       Displace

       Help

       Dismiss

       Choose a	composite operation from the Operators sub-menu	of the Command
       widget. How each	operator behaves is described below. image  window  is
       the  image  currently displayed on your X server	and image is the image
       obtained

       over    The result is the union of the two image	shapes,	with image ob-
	      scuring image window in the region of overlap.

       in	The  result  is	simply image cut by the	shape of image window.
	      None of the image	data of	image window is	in the result.

       out     The resulting image is image with the shape of image window cut
	      out.

       atop	The  result  is	the same shape as image	window,	with image ob-
	      scuring image window where the image shapes overlap.  Note  this
	      differs  from  over  because  the	portion	of image outside image
	      window's shape does not appear in	the result.

       xor     The result is the image data from both image and	 image	window
	      that is outside the overlap region. The overlap region is	blank.

       plus    The result is just the sum of the image data. Output values are
	      cropped to 255 (no overflow). This operation is  independent  of
	      the matte	channels.

       minus	The  result of image - image window, with underflow cropped to
	      zero. The	matte channel is ignored (set to 255, full coverage).

       add     The result of image +  image  window,  with  overflow  wrapping
	      around (mod 256).

       subtract
		The  result  of	 image - image window, with underflow wrapping
	      around (mod 256).	The add	and subtract operators can be used  to
	      perform reversible transformations.

       difference
		The  result  of	 abs(image - image window). This is useful for
	      comparing	two very similar images.

       bumpmap
	       The result of image window shaded by window.

       replace
	       The resulting image is image window replaced with image.	  Here
	      the matte	information is ignored.

	      The  image  compositor requires a	matte, or alpha	channel	in the
	      image for	some operations. This extra channel usually defines  a
	      mask  which  represents a	sort of	a cookie-cutter	for the	image.
	      This is the case when matte is 255 (full	coverage)  for	pixels
	      inside  the shape, zero outside, and between zero	and 255	on the
	      boundary.	If image does not have a matte channel,	it is initial-
	      ized  with  0  for any pixel matching in color to	pixel location
	      (0,0), otherwise 255. See	Matte Editing for a method of defining
	      a	matte channel.

	      If  you  choose blend, the composite operator becomes over.  The
	      image matte channel percent transparency is initialized to  fac-
	      tor.   The  image	 window	 is initialized	to (100-factor). Where
	      factor is	the value you specify in the Dialog widget.

	      Displace shifts the image	pixels as defined  by  a  displacement
	      map.   With  this	 option,  image	is used	as a displacement map.
	      Black, within the	displacement map, is a maximum	positive  dis-
	      placement.  White	 is a maximum negative displacement and	middle
	      gray is neutral. The displacement	is  scaled  to	determine  the
	      pixel  shift.  By	 default, the displacement applies in both the
	      horizontal and vertical  directions.  However,  if  you  specify
	      mask, image is the horizontal X displacement and mask the	verti-
	      cal Y displacement.

	      Note that	matte information for image window is not retained for
	      colormapped  X  server  visuals (e.g.  StaticColor, StaticColor,
	      GrayScale, PseudoColor).	Correct	compositing behavior  may  re-
	      quire a TrueColor	or DirectColor visual or a Standard Colormap.

	      Choosing	a composite operator is	optional. The default operator
	      is replace.  However, you	must choose a  location	 to  composite
	      your  image and press button 1. Press and	hold the button	before
	      releasing	and an outline of the image will appear	 to  help  you
	      identify your location.

	      The  actual colors of the	composite image	is saved. However, the
	      color that appears in image window may be	different.  For	 exam-
	      ple,  on	a  monochrome screen Image window will appear black or
	      white even though	your composited	image may have many colors. If
	      the image	is saved to a file it is written with the correct col-
	      ors. To assure the correct colors	are saved in the final	image,
	      any PseudoClass image is promoted	to DirectClass (see miff).  To
	      force a PseudoClass image	to remain PseudoClass, use -colors.

COLOR EDITING
       Changing	the the	color of a set of pixels is  performed	interactively.
       There  is  no  command  line argument to	edit a pixel. To begin,	choose
       Color from the Image Edit submenu  of  the  Command  widget.   Alterna-
       tively, press c in the image window.

       A  small	window appears showing the location of the cursor in the image
       window. You are now in color edit mode. To exit immediately, press Dis-
       miss.  In color edit mode, the Command widget has these options:

       Method

       point

       replace

       floodfill

       reset

       Pixel Color

       black

       blue

       cyan

       green

       gray

       red

       magenta

       yellow

       white

       Browser...

       Border Color

       black

       blue

       cyan

       green

       gray

       red

       magenta

       yellow

       white

       Browser...

       Fuzz

       0

       2

       4

       8

       16
	   Dialog...

       Undo

       Help

       Dismiss

       Choose  a  color	editing	method from the	Method sub-menu	of the Command
       widget. The point method	recolors any pixel selected with  the  pointer
       unless  the  button  is released. The replace method recolors any pixel
       that matches the	color of the pixel you select  with  a	button	press.
       Floodfill  recolors  any	 pixel that matches the	color of the pixel you
       select with a button press and is  a  neighbor.	 Whereas  filltoborder
       changes	the  matte  value of any neighbor pixel	that is	not the	border
       color.  Finally reset changes the entire	image to the designated	color.

       Next, choose a pixel color from the Pixel  Color	 sub-menu.  Additional
       pixel  colors  can  be specified	with the color browser.	You can	change
       the menu	colors by setting the X	resources pen1 through pen9.

       Now press button	1 to select a pixel within the Image window to	change
       its  color.  Additional	pixels	may  be	recolored as prescribed	by the
       method you choose. additional pixels by increasing the Delta value.

       If the Magnify widget is	mapped,	it can be helpful in positioning  your
       pointer within the image	(refer to button 2). Alternatively you can se-
       lect a pixel to recolor	from  within  the  Magnify  widget.  Move  the
       pointer	to  the	 Magnify widget	and position the pixel with the	cursor
       control keys. Finally, press a button to	recolor	the selected pixel (or
       pixels).

       The actual color	you request for	the pixels is saved in the image. How-
       ever, the color that appears in your Image window may be	different. For
       example,	 on  a	monochrome screen the pixel will appear	black or white
       even if you choose the color red	as the pixel color. However, the image
       saved  to  a file with -write is	written	with red pixels. To assure the
       correct color text in the final image, any PseudoClass  image  is  pro-
       moted  to  DirectClass  To  force a PseudoClass image to	remain Pseudo-
       Class, use -colors.

MATTE EDITING
       Matte information within	an image is useful for some operations such as
       image compositing. This extra channel usually defines a mask which rep-
       resents a sort of a cookie-cutter for the image.	This is	the case  when
       matte is	255 (full coverage) for	pixels inside the shape, zero outside,
       and between zero	and 255	on the boundary.

       Setting the matte information in	an image is done interactively.	 There
       is no command line argument to edit a pixel. To begin, and choose Matte
       of the Image Edit sub-menu from the Command widget.

       Alternatively, press m in the image window.

       A small window appears showing the location of the cursor in the	 image
       window. You are now in matte edit mode. To exit immediately, press Dis-
       miss.  In matte edit mode, the Command widget has these options:

       Method

       point

       replace

       floodfill

       reset

       Border Color

       black

       blue

       cyan

       green

       gray

       red

       magenta

       yellow

       white

       Browser...

       Fuzz

       0

       2

       4

       8

       16
	   Dialog...

       Matte

       Undo

       Help

       Dismiss

       Choose a	matte editing method from the Method sub-menu of  the  Command
       widget.	The  point method changes the matte value of the any pixel se-
       lected with the pointer until  the  button  is  released.  The  replace
       method  changes	the matte value	of any pixel that matches the color of
       the pixel you select with a button press. Floodfill changes  the	 matte
       value  of any pixel that	matches	the color of the pixel you select with
       a button	press and is a neighbor.  Whereas  filltoborder	 recolors  any
       neighbor	 pixel that is not the border color. Finally reset changes the
       entire image to the designated matte value.  Choose Matte Value	and  a
       dialog  appears	requesting a matte value.  Enter a value between 0 and
       255. This value is assigned as the matte	value of the selected pixel or
       pixels.	 Now, press any	button to select a pixel within	the Image win-
       dow to change its matte value. You can change the matte value of	 addi-
       tional  pixels  by increasing the Delta value. The Delta	value is first
       added then subtracted from the red,  green,  and	 blue  of  the	target
       color. Any pixels within	the range also have their matte	value updated.
       If the Magnify widget is	mapped,	it can be helpful in positioning  your
       pointer within the image	(refer to button 2). Alternatively you can se-
       lect a pixel to change the matte	value from within the Magnify  widget.
       Move  the pointer to the	Magnify	widget and position the	pixel with the
       cursor control keys. Finally, press a button to change the matte	 value
       of  the selected	pixel (or pixels).  Matte information is only valid in
       a DirectClass image. Therefore, any PseudoClass image  is  promoted  to
       DirectClass.  Note  that	 matte	information for	PseudoClass is not re-
       tained for colormapped X	server visuals (e.g. StaticColor, StaticColor,
       GrayScale,  PseudoColor)	 unless	 you  immediately save your image to a
       file (refer to Write). Correct matte editing  behavior  may  require  a
       TrueColor or DirectColor	visual or a Standard Colormap.

IMAGE DRAWING
       An image	is drawn upon interactively. There is no command line argument
       to draw on an image. To begin, choose Draw of the Image	Edit  sub-menu
       from the	Command	widget.	 Alternatively,	press d	in the image window.

       The  cursor changes to a	crosshair to indicate you are in draw mode. To
       exit immediately, press Dismiss.	In draw	mode, the Command  widget  has
       these options:

       Primitive

       point

       line

       rectangle

       fill rectangle

       circle

       fill circle

       ellipse

       fill ellipse

       polygon

       fill polygon

       Color

       black

       blue

       cyan

       green

       gray

       red

       magenta

       yellow

       white

       transparent

       Browser...

       Stipple

       Brick

       Diagonal

       Scales

       Vertical

       Wavy

       Translucent

       Opaque

       Open...

       Width

       1

       2

       4

       8

       16
	   Dialog...

       Undo

       Help

       Dismiss

       Choose a	drawing	primitive from the Primitive sub-menu.

       Next,  choose a color from the Color sub-menu. Additional colors	can be
       specified with the color	browser. You can change	 the  menu  colors  by
       setting	the  X	resources pen1 through pen9. The transparent color up-
       dates the image matte channel and is useful for image compositing.

       If you choose the color browser and press  Grab,	 you  can  select  the
       primitive  color	 by  moving  the  pointer  to the desired color	on the
       screen and press	any button. The	transparent color  updates  the	 image
       matte channel and is useful for image compositing.

       Choose a	stipple, if appropriate, from the Stipple sub-menu. Additional
       stipples	can be specified with the file browser.	Stipples obtained from
       the file	browser	must be	on disk	in the X11 bitmap format.

       Choose a	line width, if appropriate, from the Width sub-menu. To	choose
       a specific width	select the Dialog widget.

       Choose a	point in the image window and press button 1 and  hold.	 Next,
       move  the pointer to another location in	the image. As you move,	a line
       connects	the initial location and the pointer.  When  you  release  the
       button,	the  image  is	updated	 with the primitive you	just drew. For
       polygons, the image is updated when you press and  release  the	button
       without moving the pointer.

       To cancel image drawing,	move the pointer back to the starting point of
       the line	and release the	button.

REGION OF INTEREST
       To begin, press choose Region of	Interest of the	Pixel  Transform  sub-
       menu from the Command widget.  Alternatively, press R in	the image win-
       dow.

       A small window appears showing the location of the cursor in the	 image
       window.	You  are now in	region of interest mode. In region of interest
       mode, the Command widget	has these options:

       Help

       Dismiss

       To define a region of interest, press button 1 and drag.	The region  of
       interest	 is  defined  by  a highlighted	rectangle that expands or con-
       tracts as it follows the	pointer. Once you are satisfied	with  the  re-
       gion of interest, release the button. You are now in apply mode.	In ap-
       ply mode	the Command widget has these options:

       File

       Save...

       Print...

       Edit

       Undo

       Redo

       Transform

       Flip

       Flop

       Rotate Right

       Rotate Left

       Enhance

       Hue...

       Saturation...

       Brightness...

       Gamma...

       Spiff

       Dull

       Equalize

       Normalize

       Negate

       GRAYscale

       Quantize...

       Effects

       Despeckle

       Emboss

       Reduce Noise

       Add Noise

       Sharpen...

       Blur...

       Threshold...

       Edge Detect...

       Spread...

       Shade...

       Raise...

       Segment...

       F/X

       Solarize...

       Swirl...

       Implode...

       Wave...

       Oil Paint

       Charcoal	Draw...

       Miscellany

       Image Info

       Zoom Image

       Show Preview...

       Show Histogram

       Show Matte

       Help

       Dismiss

       You can make adjustments	to  the	 region	 of  interest  by  moving  the
       pointer	to  one	of the rectangle corners, pressing a button, and drag-
       ging. Finally, choose an	image processing technique  from  the  Command
       widget.	You can	choose more than one image processing technique	to ap-
       ply to an area. Alternatively, you can move the region of interest  be-
       fore  applying  another image processing	technique. To exit, press Dis-
       miss.

IMAGE PANNING
       When an image exceeds the width or height of the	X server screen,  dis-
       play  maps  a small panning icon. The rectangle within the panning icon
       shows the area that is currently	displayed in the the image window.  To
       pan  about  the image, press any	button and drag	the pointer within the
       panning icon.  The pan rectangle	moves with the pointer and  the	 image
       window  is  updated to reflect the location of the rectangle within the
       panning icon. When you have selected the	area of	the image you wish  to
       view, release the button.

       Use  the	arrow keys to pan the image one	pixel up, down,	left, or right
       within the image	window.

       The panning icon	is withdrawn if	the image becomes smaller than the di-
       mensions	of the X server	screen.

USER PREFERENCES
       Preferences  affect the default behavior	of display(1). The preferences
       are either true or false	and are	stored in your home directory as .dis-
       playrc:

		display	image centered on a backdrop"

		    This  backdrop covers the entire workstation screen	and is
		    useful for hiding other X window  activity	while  viewing
		    the	 image.	 The color of the backdrop is specified	as the
		    background color. Refer to X Resources for details.
		confirm	on program exit"

		    Ask	for a confirmation before exiting the display(1)  pro-
		    gram.
		correct	image for display gamma"

		    If	the image has a	known gamma, the gamma is corrected to
		    match that of the  X  server  (see	the  X	Resource  dis-
		    playGamma).
		display	warning	messages"

		    Display any	warning	messages.
		apply Floyd/Steinberg error diffusion to image"

		    The	basic strategy of dithering is to trade	intensity res-
		    olution for	spatial	resolution by averaging	 the  intensi-
		    ties  of  several neighboring pixels.  Images which	suffer
		    from severe	contouring when	reducing  colors  can  be  im-
		    proved with	this preference.
		use a shared colormap for colormapped X	visuals"

		    This  option only applies when the default X server	visual
		    is PseudoColor or GRAYScale. Refer to -visual for more de-
		    tails. By default, a shared	colormap is allocated. The im-
		    age	shares colors with other X clients.  Some image	colors
		    could  be approximated, therefore your image may look very
		    different than intended. Otherwise the image colors	appear
		    exactly as they are	defined. However, other	clients	may go
		    technicolor	when the image colormap	is installed.
		display	images as an X server pixmap"

		    Images are maintained as a XImage by default. Set this re-
		    source  to	True  to utilize a server Pixmap instead. This
		    option is useful if	your image exceeds the	dimensions  of
		    your  server  screen and you intend	to pan the image. Pan-
		    ning is much faster	 with  Pixmaps	than  with  a  XImage.
		    Pixmaps  are considered a precious resource, use them with
		    discretion.

       GM IDENTIFY

	      Identify describes the format and	characteristics	of one or more
	      image  files  as	internally  supported by the software. It will
	      also report if an	image is incomplete or corrupt.	 The  informa-
	      tion  displayed  includes	 the  scene number, the	file name, the
	      width and	height of the image, whether the image is  colormapped
	      or  not,	the number of colors in	the image, the number of bytes
	      in the image, the	format of the image (JPEG, PNM,	etc.), and fi-
	      nally  the  number of seconds in both user time and elapsed time
	      it took to read and process the image.  If -verbose or +ping are
	      provided as an option, the pixel read rate is also displayed. An
	      example line output from identify	follows:

		  images/aquarium.miff 640x480 PseudoClass 256c
			 308135b MIFF 0.000u 0:01

	      If -verbose is set, expect additional output including any image
	      comment:

		  Image: images/aquarium.miff
		  class: PseudoClass
		  colors: 256
		  signature: eb5dca81dd93ae7e6ffae99a527eb5dca8...
		  matte: False
		  geometry: 640x480
		     depth: 8
		  bytes: 308135
		  format: MIFF
		  comments:
		  Imported from	MTV raster image: aquarium.mtv

	      For  some	 formats, additional format-specific information about
	      the file will be written if the -debug coder or -debug  all  op-
	      tion is used.

IDENTIFY OPTIONS
       Options	are processed in command line order. Any option	you specify on
       the command line	remains	in effect for the set  of  images  immediately
       following,  until the set is terminated by the appearance of any	option
       or -noop.

       For a more detailed description of each option, see Options, above.

       -authenticate _string_
	      decrypt image with this password

       -debug _events_
	      enable debug printout

       -define _key_{=_value_},...
	      add coder/decoder	specific options

       -density	_width_x_height_
	      horizontal and vertical resolution in pixels of the image

       -depth _value_
	      depth of the image

       -format _string_
	      output formatted image characteristics

       -help  print usage instructions

       -interlace _type_
	      the type of interlacing scheme

       -limit _type_ _value_
	      Disk, File, Map, Memory, Pixels, Width, Height  or  Threads  re-
	      source limit

       -log _string_
	      Specify format for debug log

       -ping  efficiently determine image characteristics

       -sampling-factor	_horizontal_factor_x_vertical_factor_
	      chroma subsampling factors

       -size _width_x_height_{+offset}
	      width and	height of the image

       -verbose
	      print detailed information about the image

       -version
	      print GraphicsMagick version string

	      For  a  more  detailed  description of each option, see Options,
	      above.

GM IMPORT
       Import reads an image from any visible window on	an X server  and  out-
       puts  it	 as an image file. You can capture a single window, the	entire
       screen, or any rectangular portion of the screen.  Use display for  re-
       display,	 printing,  editing,  formatting, archiving, image processing,
       etc. of the captured image.

       The target window can be	specified by id, name, or may be  selected  by
       clicking	 the  mouse  in	 the desired window. If	you press a button and
       then drag, a rectangle will form	which expands  and  contracts  as  the
       mouse  moves.  To save the portion of the screen	defined	by the rectan-
       gle, just release the button. The keyboard bell is rung once at the be-
       ginning of the screen capture and twice when it completes.

EXAMPLES
       To  select an X window or an area of the	screen with the	mouse and save
       it in the MIFF image format to a	file entitled window.miff, use:

	   gm import window.miff

       To select an X window or	an area	of the screen with the mouse and  save
       it  in  the  Encapsulated PostScript format to include in another docu-
       ment, use:

	   gm import figure.eps

       To capture the entire X server screen in	the JPEG  image	 format	 in  a
       file entitled root.jpeg,	without	using the mouse, use:

	   gm import -window root root.jpeg

       To  capture  the	512x256	area at	the upper right	corner of the X	server
       screen in the PNG image format in a well-compressed file	entitled  cor-
       ner.png,	without	using the mouse,  use:

	   gm import -window root -crop	512x256-0+0 -quality 90
		  corner.png

OPTIONS
       Options	are processed in command line order. Any option	you specify on
       the command line	remains	in effect until	it is  explicitly  changed  by
       specifying the option again with	a different effect.

       Import  options	can  appear on the command line	or in your X resources
       file. See X(1). Options on the command line supersede values  specified
       in your X resources file.

       For a more detailed description of each option, see Options, above.

       -bordercolor _color_
	      the border color

       -colors _value_
	      preferred	number of colors in the	image

       -colorspace _value_
	      the type of colorspace

       -comment	_string_
	      annotate an image	with a comment

       -crop _width_x_height_{+-}_x_{+-}_y_{%}
	      preferred	size and location of the cropped image

       -debug _events_
	      enable debug printout

       -define _key_{=_value_},...
	      add coder/decoder	specific options

       -delay _1/100ths	of a second_
	      display the next image after pausing

       -density	_width_x_height_
	      horizontal and vertical resolution in pixels of the image

       -depth _value_
	      depth of the image

       -descend
	      obtain image by descending window	hierarchy

       -display	_host:display[.screen]_
	      specifies	the X server to	contact

       -dispose	_method_
	      GIF disposal method

       -dither
	      apply Floyd/Steinberg error diffusion to the image

       -encoding _type_
	      specify the text encoding

       -endian _type_
	      specify endianness (MSB, LSB, or Native) of image

       -frame include the X window frame in the	imported image

       -geometry _width_x_height_{+-}_x_{+-}_y_{%}{@}{!}{^}{_}{_}
	      Specify dimension, offset, and resize options.

       -help  print usage instructions

       -interlace _type_
	      the type of interlacing scheme

       -label _name_
	      assign a label to	an image

       -limit _type_ _value_
	      Disk,  File,  Map,  Memory, Pixels, Width, Height	or Threads re-
	      source limit

       -log _string_
	      Specify format for debug log

       -monitor
	      show progress indication

       -monochrome
	      transform	the image to black and white

       -negate
	      replace every pixel with its complementary color

       -page _width_x_height_{+-}_x_{+-}_y_{%}{!}{_}{_}
	      size and location	of an image canvas

       -pause _seconds_
	      pause between snapshots [import]

       -ping  efficiently determine image characteristics

       -pointsize _value_
	      pointsize	of the PostScript, X11,	or TrueType font

       -quality	_value_
	      JPEG/MIFF/PNG/TIFF compression level

       -resize _width_x_height_{%}{@}{!}{_}{_}
	      resize an	image

       -rotate _degrees_{_}{_}
	      rotate the image

       -sampling-factor	_horizontal_factor_x_vertical_factor_
	      chroma subsampling factors

       -scene _value_
	      set scene	number

       -screen
	      specify the screen to capture

       -set _attribute_	_value_
	      set an image attribute

       +set _attribute_
	      unset an image attribute

       -silent
	      operate silently

       -snaps _value_
	      number of	screen snapshots

       -thumbnail _width_x_height_{%}{@}{!}{_}{_}
	      resize an	image (quickly)

       -transparent _color_
	      make this	color transparent within the image

       -trim  trim an image

       -verbose
	      print detailed information about the image

       -version
	      print GraphicsMagick version string

	      For a more detailed description of  each	option,	 see  Options,
	      above.

GM MOGRIFY
       Mogrify	transforms  an image or	a sequence of images. These transforms
       include image scaling, image rotation,  color  reduction,  and  others.
       Each  transmogrified image overwrites the corresponding original	image,
       unless an option	such as	-format	causes the output filename to be  dif-
       ferent from the input filename.

       The  graphics  formats  supported by mogrify are	listed in GraphicsMag-
       ick(1).

EXAMPLES
       To convert all the TIFF files in	a particular directory to JPEG,	use:

	   gm mogrify -format jpeg *.tiff

       To convert a directory full of JPEG images to thumbnails, use:

	   gm mogrify -size 120x120 *.jpg -resize 120x120 +profile "*"

       In this example,	'-size 120x120'	gives a	hint to	the JPEG decoder  that
       the  images  are	 going to be downscaled	to 120x120, allowing it	to run
       faster by avoiding returning full-resolution images  to	GraphicsMagick
       for the subsequent resizing operation.  The '-resize 120x120' specifies
       the desired dimensions of the output images.  It	will be	scaled so  its
       largest	dimension  is 120 pixels.  The '+profile "*"' removes any ICM,
       EXIF, IPTC, or other profiles that might	be present in  the  input  and
       aren't needed in	the thumbnails.

       To  scale an image of a cockatoo	to exactly 640 pixels in width and 480
       pixels in height, use:

	   gm mogrify -resize 640x480! cockatoo.miff

OPTIONS
       Options are processed in	command	line order. Any	option you specify  on
       the  command line remains in effect for the set of images that follows,
       until the set is	terminated by the appearance of	any option or -noop.

       For a more detailed description of each option, see Options, above.

       -affine _matrix_
	      drawing transform	matrix

       -antialias
	      remove pixel aliasing

	-asc-cdl _spec_
	      apply ASC	CDL color transform

       -authenticate _string_
	      decrypt image with this password

       -auto-orient
	      orient (rotate) image so it is upright

       -background _color_
	      the background color

       -black-threshold	red[,green][,blue][,opacity]
	      pixels below the threshold become	black

       -blue-primary _x_,_y_
	      blue chromaticity	primary	point

       -blur _radius_{x_sigma_}
	      blur the image with a Gaussian operator

       -border _width_x_height_
	      surround the image with a	border of color

       -bordercolor _color_
	      the border color

       -channel	_type_
	      the type of channel

       -charcoal _factor_
	      simulate a charcoal drawing

       -colorize _value_
	      colorize the image with the pen color

       -colors _value_
	      preferred	number of colors in the	image

       -colorspace _value_
	      the type of colorspace

       -comment	_string_
	      annotate an image	with a comment

       -compose	_operator_
	      the type of image	composition

       -compress _type_
	      the type of image	compression

       -contrast
	      enhance or reduce	the image contrast

       -convolve _kernel_
	      convolve image with the specified	convolution kernel

       -create-directories
	      create output directory if required

       -crop _width_x_height_{+-}_x_{+-}_y_{%}
	      preferred	size and location of the cropped image

       -cycle _amount_
	      displace image colormap by amount

       -debug _events_
	      enable debug printout

       -define _key_{=_value_},...
	      add coder/decoder	specific options

       -delay _1/100ths	of a second_
	      display the next image after pausing

       -density	_width_x_height_
	      horizontal and vertical resolution in pixels of the image

       -depth _value_
	      depth of the image

       -despeckle
	      reduce the speckles within an image

       -display	_host:display[.screen]_
	      specifies	the X server to	contact

       -dispose	_method_
	      GIF disposal method

       -dither
	      apply Floyd/Steinberg error diffusion to the image

       -draw _string_
	      annotate an image	with one or more graphic primitives

       -edge _radius_
	      detect edges within an image

       -emboss _radius_
	      emboss an	image

       -encoding _type_
	      specify the text encoding

       -endian _type_
	      specify endianness (MSB, LSB, or Native) of image

       -enhance
	      apply a digital filter to	enhance	a noisy	image

       -equalize
	      perform histogram	equalization to	the image

       -extent _width_x_height_{+-}_x_{+-}_y_
	      composite	image on background color canvas image

       -fill _color_
	      color to use when	filling	a graphic primitive

       -filter _type_
	      use this type of filter when resizing an image

       -flip  create a "mirror image"

       -flop  create a "mirror image"

       -font _name_
	      use this font when annotating the	image with text

       -format _type_
	      the image	format type

       -frame _width_x_height_+_outer bevel width_+_inner bevel	width_
	      surround the image with an ornamental border

       -fuzz _distance_{%}
	      colors within this Euclidean distance are	considered equal

       -gamma _value_
	      level of gamma correction

       -gaussian _radius_{x_sigma_}
	      blur the image with a Gaussian operator

       -geometry _width_x_height_{+-}_x_{+-}_y_{%}{@}{!}{^}{_}{_}
	      Specify dimension, offset, and resize options.

       -gravity	_type_
	      direction	primitive  gravitates to when annotating the image.

       -green-primary _x_,_y_
	      green chromaticity primary point

       -hald-clut _clut_
	      apply a Hald CLUT	to the image

       -help  print usage instructions

       -implode	_factor_
	      implode image pixels about the center

       -interlace _type_
	      the type of interlacing scheme

       -label _name_
	      assign a label to	an image

       -lat _width_x_height_{+-}_offset_{%}
	      perform local adaptive thresholding

       -level _black_point_{,_gamma_}{,_white_point_}{%}
	      adjust the level of image	contrast

       -limit _type_ _value_
	      Disk, File, Map, Memory, Pixels, Width, Height  or  Threads  re-
	      source limit

       -linewidth
	      the line width for subsequent draw operations

       -list _type_
	      the type of list

       -log _string_
	      Specify format for debug log

       -loop _iterations_
	      add Netscape loop	extension to your GIF animation

       -magnify
	      magnify the image

       -map _filename_
	      choose a particular set of colors	from this image

       -mask _filename_
	      Specify a	clipping mask

       -matte store matte channel if the image has one

       -mattecolor _color_
	      specify the color	to be used with	the -frame option

       -median _radius_
	      apply a median filter to the image

       -minify _factor_
	      minify the image

       -modulate brightness[,saturation[,hue]]
	      vary the brightness, saturation, and hue of an image

       -monitor
	      show progress indication

       -monochrome
	      transform	the image to black and white

       -motion-blur _radius_{x_sigma_}{+angle}
	      Simulate motion blur

       -negate
	      replace every pixel with its complementary color

       -noise _radius|type_
	      add or reduce noise in an	image

       -noop  NOOP (no option)

       -normalize
	      transform	image to span the full range of	color values

       -opaque _color_
	      change this color	to the pen color within	the image

       -operator channel operator rvalue[%]
	      apply  a	mathematical,  bitwise,	 or value operator to an image
	      channel

       -ordered-dither _channeltype_ _NxN_
	      ordered dither the image

       -output-directory _directory_
	      output files to directory

       -orient _orientation_
	      Set the image orientation	attribute

       -page _width_x_height_{+-}_x_{+-}_y_{%}{!}{_}{_}
	      size and location	of an image canvas

       -paint _radius_
	      simulate an oil painting

       -pen _color_
	      (This option has been replaced by	the -fill option)

       -pointsize _value_
	      pointsize	of the PostScript, X11,	or TrueType font

       -profile	_filename_
	      add ICM, IPTC, or	generic	profile	 to image

       -preserve-timestamp
	      preserve the original timestamps of the file

       -quality	_value_
	      JPEG/MIFF/PNG/TIFF compression level

       -raise _width_x_height_
	      lighten or darken	image edges

       -random-threshold _channeltype_ _LOWxHIGH_
	      random threshold the image

       -recolor	_matrix_
	      apply a color translation	matrix to image	channels

       -red-primary _x_,_y_
	      red chromaticity primary point

       -region _width_x_height_{+-}_x_{+-}_y_
	      apply options to a portion of the	image

       -render
	      render vector operations

       -repage	_width_x_height_+xoff+yoff[!]
	      Adjust image page	offsets

       -resample _horizontal_x_vertical_
	      Resample image to	specified horizontal and vertical resolution

       -resize _width_x_height_{%}{@}{!}{_}{_}
	      resize an	image

       -roll {+-}_x_{+-}_y_
	      roll an image vertically or horizontally

       -rotate _degrees_{_}{_}
	      rotate the image

       -sample _geometry_
	      scale image using	pixel sampling

       -sampling-factor	_horizontal_factor_x_vertical_factor_
	      chroma subsampling factors

       -scale _geometry_
	      scale the	image.

       -scene _value_
	      set scene	number

       -set _attribute_	_value_
	      set an image attribute

       +set _attribute_
	      unset an image attribute

       -segment	_cluster threshold_x_smoothing threshold_
	      segment an image

       -shade _azimuth_x_elevation_
	      shade the	image using a distant light source

       -sharpen	_radius_{x_sigma_}
	      sharpen the image

       -shave _width_x_height_{%}
	      shave pixels from	the image edges

       -shear _x degrees_x_y degrees_
	      shear the	image along the	X or Y axis

       -size _width_x_height_{+offset}
	      width and	height of the image

       -solarize _factor_
	      negate all pixels	above the threshold level

       -spread _amount_
	      displace image pixels by a random	amount

       -strip remove all profiles and text attributes from the image

       -stroke _color_
	      color to use when	stroking a graphic primitive

       -strokewidth _value_
	      set the stroke width

       -swirl _degrees_
	      swirl image pixels about the center

       -texture	_filename_
	      name of texture to tile onto the image background

       -threshold _value_{%}
	      threshold	the image

       -thumbnail _width_x_height_{%}{@}{!}{_}{_}
	      resize an	image (quickly)

       -tile _filename_
	      tile image when filling a	graphic	primitive

       -transform
	      transform	the image

       -transparent _color_
	      make this	color transparent within the image

       -treedepth _value_
	      tree depth for the color reduction algorithm

       -trim  trim an image

       -type _type_
	      the image	type

       -units _type_
	      the units	of image resolution

       -unsharp	_radius_{x_sigma_}{+_amount_}{+_threshold_}
	      sharpen the image	with an	unsharp	mask operator

       -verbose
	      print detailed information about the image

       -version
	      print GraphicsMagick version string

       -view _string_
	      FlashPix viewing parameters

       -virtual-pixel _method_
	      specify contents of "virtual pixels"

       -wave _amplitude_x_wavelength_
	      alter an image along a sine wave

       -white-point _x_,_y_
	      chromaticity white point

       -white-threshold	red[,green][,blue][,opacity]
	      pixels above the threshold become	white

	      For a more detailed description of  each	option,	 see  Options,
	      above.

GM MONTAGE
       montage creates a composite image by combining several separate images.
       The images are tiled on the composite image with	the name of the	 image
       optionally appearing just below the individual tile.

       The composite image is constructed in the following manner. First, each
       image specified on the command line, except for the last, is scaled  to
       fit the maximum tile size. The maximum tile size	by default is 120x120.
       It can be modified with the -geometry command line argument  or	X  re-
       source. See Options for more information	on command line	arguments. See
       X(1) for	more information on X resources.  Note that the	 maximum  tile
       size need not be	a square.

       Next the	composite image	is initialized with the	color specified	by the
       -background command line	argument or X resource.	The width  and	height
       of  the composite image is determined by	the title specified, the maxi-
       mum tile	size, the number of tiles per row, the tile border  width  and
       height,	the  image  border  width, and the label height. The number of
       tiles per row specifies how many	images are to appear in	 each  row  of
       the  composite  image. The default is to	have 5 tiles in	each row and 4
       tiles in	each column of the composite.  A specific value	 is  specified
       with  -tile.  The  tile	border	width and height, and the image	border
       width defaults to the value of the X resource -borderwidth. It  can  be
       changed	with  the -borderwidth or -geometry command line argument or X
       resource. The label height is determined	by the font you	 specify  with
       the  -font command line argument	or X resource. If you do not specify a
       font, a font is chosen that allows the name of the  image  to  fit  the
       maximum	width  of a tiled area.	 The label colors is determined	by the
       -background and -fill command line argument or X	resource.  Note,  that
       if the background and pen colors	are the	same, labels will not appear.

       Initially,  the	composite  image  title	is placed at the top if	one is
       specified (refer	to -fill). Next, each image is set onto	the  composite
       image,  surrounded by its border	color, with its	name centered just be-
       low it. The individual images are left-justified	within	the  width  of
       the  tiled area.	 The order of the images is the	same as	they appear on
       the command line	unless the images have a scene	keyword.  If  a	 scene
       number  is  specified in	each image, then the images are	tiled onto the
       composite in the	order of their scene number. Finally, the  last	 argu-
       ment  on	 the command line is the name assigned to the composite	image.
       By default, the image is	written	in the MIFF format and can  be	viewed
       or printed with display(1).

       Note,  that  if the number of tiles exceeds the default number of 20 (5
       per row,	4 per column), more than one composite image  is  created.  To
       ensure  a single	image is produced, use -tile to	increase the number of
       tiles to	meet or	exceed the number of input images.

       Finally,	to create one or more empty spaces in the sequence  of	tiles,
       use the "NULL:" image format.

       Note,  a	composite MIFF image displayed to an X server with display be-
       haves differently than other images. You	can think of the composite  as
       a visual	image directory. Choose	a particular tile of the composite and
       press a button to display it. See display(1) and	miff(5)

EXAMPLES
       To create a montage of a	cockatoo, a  parrot,  and  a  hummingbird  and
       write it	to a file called birds,	use:

	   gm montage cockatoo.miff parrot.miff	hummingbird.miff
		   birds.miff

       To  tile	 several  bird	images	so that	they are at most 256 pixels in
       width and 192 pixels in height, surrounded by a red border,  and	 sepa-
       rated by	10 pixels of background	color, use:

	   gm montage -geometry	256x192+10+10 -bordercolor red
		   birds.* montage.miff

       To  create an unlabeled parrot image, 640 by 480	pixels,	and surrounded
       by a border of black, use:

	   gm montage -geometry	640x480	-bordercolor black
		   -label "" parrot.miff bird.miff

       To create an image of an	eagle with a textured background, use:

	   gm montage -texture bumps.jpg eagle.jpg eagle.png

       To join several GIF images together  without  any  extraneous  graphics
       (e.g.  no label,	no shadowing, no surrounding tile frame), use:

	   gm montage +frame +shadow +label -tile 5x1
		   -geometry 50x50+0+0 *.png joined.png

OPTIONS
       Any  option  you	 specify on the	command	line remains in	effect for the
       group of	images following it, until the group is	terminated by the  ap-
       pearance	 of  any  option  or -noop.  For example, to make a montage of
       three images, the first with 32 colors, the second  with	 an  unlimited
       number of colors, and the third with only 16 colors, use:

	   gm montage -colors 32 cockatoo.1 -noop cockatoo.2
		    -colors 16 cockatoo.3 cockatoos.miff

       For a more detailed description of each option, see Options, above.

       -adjoin
	      join images into a single	multi-image file

       -affine _matrix_
	      drawing transform	matrix

       -authenticate _string_
	      decrypt image with this password

       -background _color_
	      the background color

       -blue-primary _x_,_y_
	      blue chromaticity	primary	point

       -blur _radius_{x_sigma_}
	      blur the image with a Gaussian operator

       -bordercolor _color_
	      the border color

       -borderwidth _geometry_
	      the border width

       -chop _width_x_height_{+-}_x_{+-}_y_{%}
	      remove pixels from the interior of an image

       -colors _value_
	      preferred	number of colors in the	image

       -colorspace _value_
	      the type of colorspace

       -comment	_string_
	      annotate an image	with a comment

       -compose	_operator_
	      the type of image	composition

       -compress _type_
	      the type of image	compression

       -crop _width_x_height_{+-}_x_{+-}_y_{%}
	      preferred	size and location of the cropped image

       -debug _events_
	      enable debug printout

       -define _key_{=_value_},...
	      add coder/decoder	specific options

       -density	_width_x_height_
	      horizontal and vertical resolution in pixels of the image

       -depth _value_
	      depth of the image

       -display	_host:display[.screen]_
	      specifies	the X server to	contact

       -dispose	_method_
	      GIF disposal method

       -dither
	      apply Floyd/Steinberg error diffusion to the image

       -draw _string_
	      annotate an image	with one or more graphic primitives

       -encoding _type_
	      specify the text encoding

       -endian _type_
	      specify endianness (MSB, LSB, or Native) of image

       -fill _color_
	      color to use when	filling	a graphic primitive

       -filter _type_
	      use this type of filter when resizing an image

       -font _name_
	      use this font when annotating the	image with text

       -frame _width_x_height_+_outer bevel width_+_inner bevel	width_
	      surround the image with an ornamental border

       -gamma _value_
	      level of gamma correction

       -geometry _width_x_height_{+-}_x_{+-}_y_{%}{@}{!}{^}{_}{_}
	      Specify dimension, offset, and resize options.

       -gravity	_type_
	      direction	primitive  gravitates to when annotating the image.

       -green-primary _x_,_y_
	      green chromaticity primary point

       -help  print usage instructions

       -interlace _type_
	      the type of interlacing scheme

       -label _name_
	      assign a label to	an image

       -limit _type_ _value_
	      Disk,  File,  Map,  Memory, Pixels, Width, Height	or Threads re-
	      source limit

       -log _string_
	      Specify format for debug log

       -matte store matte channel if the image has one

       -mattecolor _color_
	      specify the color	to be used with	the -frame option

       -mode _value_
	      mode of operation

       -monitor
	      show progress indication

       -monochrome
	      transform	the image to black and white

       -noop  NOOP (no option)

       -page _width_x_height_{+-}_x_{+-}_y_{%}{!}{_}{_}
	      size and location	of an image canvas

       -pen _color_
	      (This option has been replaced by	the -fill option)

       -pointsize _value_
	      pointsize	of the PostScript, X11,	or TrueType font

       -quality	_value_
	      JPEG/MIFF/PNG/TIFF compression level

       -red-primary _x_,_y_
	      red chromaticity primary point

       -render
	      render vector operations

       -repage	_width_x_height_+xoff+yoff[!]
	      Adjust image page	offsets

       -resize _width_x_height_{%}{@}{!}{_}{_}
	      resize an	image

       -rotate _degrees_{_}{_}
	      rotate the image

       -sampling-factor	_horizontal_factor_x_vertical_factor_
	      chroma subsampling factors

       -scenes _value-value_
	      range of image scene numbers to read

       -shadow _radius_{x_sigma_}
	      shadow the montage

       -sharpen	_radius_{x_sigma_}
	      sharpen the image

       -size _width_x_height_{+offset}
	      width and	height of the image

       -strip remove all profiles and text attributes from the image

       -stroke _color_
	      color to use when	stroking a graphic primitive

       -strokewidth _value_
	      set the stroke width

       -texture	_filename_
	      name of texture to tile onto the image background

       -thumbnail _width_x_height_{%}{@}{!}{_}{_}
	      resize an	image (quickly)

       -tile _geometry_
	      layout of	images [montage]

       -title _string_
	      assign title to displayed	image [animate,	display, montage]

       -transform
	      transform	the image

       -transparent _color_
	      make this	color transparent within the image

       -treedepth _value_
	      tree depth for the color reduction algorithm

       -trim  trim an image

       -type _type_
	      the image	type

       -verbose
	      print detailed information about the image

       -version
	      print GraphicsMagick version string

       -white-point _x_,_y_
	      chromaticity white point

	      For a more detailed description of  each	option,	 see  Options,
	      above.

X RESOURCES
       Montage	options	 can  appear on	the command line or in your X resource
       file. Options on	the command line supersede values specified in your  X
       resource	file. See X(1) for more	information on X resources.

       All  montage options have a corresponding X resource. In	addition, mon-
       tage uses the following X resources:

       background (class Background)
	      background color

	      Specifies	the preferred color to use  for	 the  composite	 image
	      background.  The default is #ccc.

       borderColor (class BorderColor)
	      border color

	      Specifies	 the  preferred	 color	to use for the composite image
	      border. The default is #ccc.

       borderWidth (class BorderWidth)
	      border width

	      Specifies	the width in pixels of the composite image border. The
	      default is 2.

       font (class Font)
	      font to use

	      Specifies	 the name of the preferred font	to use when displaying
	      text within the composite	image. The default is 9x15, fixed,  or
	      5x8 determined by	the composite image size.

       matteColor (class MatteColor)
	      color of the frame

	      Specify  the color of an image frame. A 3D effect	is achieved by
	      using highlight and shadow colors	derived	from this  color.  The
	      default value is #697B8F.

       pen (class Pen)
	      text color

	      Specifies	the preferred color to use for text within the compos-
	      ite image.  The default is black.

       title (class Title)
	      composite	image title

	      This resource specifies the title	to be placed at	the top	of the
	      composite	 image.	The default is not to place a title at the top
	      of the composite image.

GM TIME
DESCRIPTION
       time executes an	arbitrary gm utility command (e.g.  convert)  and  re-
       ports  the user and elapsed time.  This provides	way to measure command
       execution times similar to the Unix 'time' command but  in  a  portable
       and consistent way.

EXAMPLES
       To obtain time information for the execution of a command:

       %  gm time convert input.ppm -gaussian 0x2 output.ppm convert input.ppm
       -gaussian 0x2 output.ppm	   22.60s user 0.00s system  2354%  cpu	 0.960
       total

       Here is the interpretation of the above output:

	   user	- the total user time consumed.
	   system - the	total system time consumed.
	   total - the total elapsed time consumed.

OPTIONS
       The  time  command reqires no options other than	the gm command to exe-
       cute.

GM VERSION
DESCRIPTION
       version displays	the software release  version,	build  quantum	(pixel
       sample)	depth,	web  site URL, copyright notice, enabled features sup-
       port, configuration parameters, and final build options used  to	 build
       the  software.	The  available information depends on how the software
       was configured and the host system.

EXAMPLES
       To display the version information:

	 % gm -version
	 GraphicsMagick	1.3.19 2013-12-31 Q16 http://www.GraphicsMagick.org/
	 Copyright (C) 2002-2013 GraphicsMagick	Group.
	 Additional copyrights and licenses apply to this software.
	 See http://www.GraphicsMagick.org/www/Copyright.html for details.
	 Feature Support:
	   Thread Safe		    yes
	   Large Files (> 32 bit)   yes
	   Large Memory	(> 32 bit)  no
	   BZIP			    yes
	   DPS			    no
	   FlashPix		    no
	   FreeType		    yes
	   Ghostscript (Library)    no
	   JBIG			    no
	   JPEG-2000		    yes
	   JPEG			    yes
	   Little CMS		    yes
	   Loadable Modules	    no
	   OpenMP		    yes	(201107)
	   PNG			    yes
	   TIFF			    yes
	   TRIO			    no
	   UMEM			    yes
	   WMF			    no
	   X11			    yes
	   XML			    yes
	   ZLIB			    yes
	 Host type: i386-pc-solaris2.11
	 Configured using the command:
	   ./configure	...
	 Final Build Parameters:
	   CC	    = ...
	   CFLAGS   = ...
	   CPPFLAGS = ...
	   CXX	    = ...
	   CXXFLAGS = ...
	   LDFLAGS  = ...
	   LIBS	    = ...

OPTIONS
       The version command does	not currently support any options.

GraphicsMagick			  2016/05/29				 gm(1)

SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | FILES AND FORMATS | OPTIONS | ENVIRONMENT | CONFIGURATION FILES | GM ANIMATE | EXAMPLES | OPTIONS | MOUSE BUTTONS | COMMAND WIDGET | KEYBOARD ACCELERATORS | X RESOURCES | GM BATCH | DESCRIPTION | EXAMPLES | OPTIONS | GM BENCHMARK | DESCRIPTION | EXAMPLES | OPTIONS | GM COMPARE | EXAMPLES | OPTIONS | GM COMPOSITE | EXAMPLES | OPTIONS | GM CONJURE | OPTIONS | MAGICK SCRIPTING LANGUAGE | GM CONVERT | EXAMPLES | OPTIONS | GM DISPLAY | EXAMPLES | OPTIONS | MOUSE BUTTONS | COMMAND WIDGET | KEYBOARD ACCELERATORS | X RESOURCES | IMAGE LOADING | VISUAL IMAGE DIRECTORY | IMAGE CUTTING | IMAGE COPYING | IMAGE PASTING | IMAGE CROPPING | IMAGE CHOPPING | IMAGE ROTATION | IMAGE ANNOTATION | IMAGE COMPOSITING | COLOR EDITING | MATTE EDITING | IMAGE DRAWING | REGION OF INTEREST | IMAGE PANNING | USER PREFERENCES | IDENTIFY OPTIONS | GM IMPORT | EXAMPLES | OPTIONS | GM MOGRIFY | EXAMPLES | OPTIONS | GM MONTAGE | EXAMPLES | OPTIONS | X RESOURCES | GM TIME | DESCRIPTION | EXAMPLES | OPTIONS | GM VERSION | DESCRIPTION | EXAMPLES | OPTIONS

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