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glossary(9)		   Kernel Developer's Manual		   glossary(9)

NAME
       glossary	- a description	of common HP-UX	terms

DESCRIPTION
       HP-UX and other UNIX-like systems use a specialized vocabulary in which
       certain words and terms have very specific meanings.  This glossary  is
       intended	 as  an	aid in promoting exactness in use of these specialized
       terms whose meanings sometimes differ from those	that might be  encoun-
       tered in	other environments.

GLOSSARY ENTRIES
       A special file name that	refers to the
		      It  can be used alone or at the beginning	of a directory
		      path name.  See also The also  functions	as  a  special
		      command  in  the Bourne and Korn shells, and has special
		      meaning in text editors and formatters, in parsing regu-
		      lar expressions and in designating file names.

       A special file name that	refers to the
		      If  it  begins a refers to the parent of the current di-
		      rectory.	If it occurs in	a path	name,  refers  to  the
		      parent  directory	of the directory preceding in the path
		      name string.  As a special case, refers to  the  current
		      directory	 in any	directory that has no parent (most of-
		      ten, the See also

       The suffix customarily given to a relocatable object file.
		      The term is sometimes used to refer to a relocatable ob-
		      ject file.  The format of	such files is sometimes	called
		      See a.out(4).

       The name	customarily given to an	executable object code file on HP-UX.
		      The format is machine-dependent,	and  is	 described  in
		      a.out(4)	for  each implementation.  Object code that is
		      not yet linked has the same format, but is  referred  to
		      as a () file.  is	also the default output	file name used
		      by the linker, ld(1).

       A path name beginning with a slash
		      It indicates that	the file's location is given  relative
		      to the and that the search begins	there.

       The process of obtaining	data from or placing data in storage,
		      or  the right to use system resources.  Accessibility is
		      governed by three	process	characteristics: the effective
		      user  ID,	 the  effective	group ID, and the group	access
		      list.  The access(2) system call determines  accessibil-
		      ity  of a	file according to the bit pattern contained in
		      its amode	 parameter,  which  is	constructed  to	 read,
		      write,  execute  or  check the existence of a file.  The
		      access(2)	system call uses the instead of	 the  and  the
		      instead of the

       The group access	list is	a set of
		      used  in	determining  resource  accessibility.	Access
		      checks are performed as described	below in

       An access mode is a form	of access permitted to a file.
		      Each implementation provides separate read,  write,  and
		      execute/search access modes.

       A number	used in	information storage or retrieval to
		      specify  and  identify  memory  location.	 An is used to
		      mark, direct, indicate destination, instruct  or	other-
		      wise communicate with computer elements.

		      In  mail,	is a data structure whose format can be	recog-
		      nized by all elements involved in	transmitting  informa-
		      tion.  On	a local	system,	this might be as simple	as the
		      user's name, while in a networked	system,	specifies  the
		      location of the resource to the network software.

		      In  a  text  editor (such	as or an locates the line in a
		      file on which a given instruction	is intended.

		      For the specifies	at what	assembly-language  instruction
		      to execute a given command.

		      In  disk	utilities  such	as might refer to a raw	or the
		      number, or other file attribute.

		      In the context of	peripheral devices, refers to a	set of
		      values that specify the location of an I/O device	to the
		      computer.	 The exact details of the formation of an  ad-
		      dress  differ  between  systems.	On Series 700 systems,
		      the address consists of up to two	elements: the and the

       The range of memory locations to	which a	process	can refer.

       See

       Each implementation provides a means of
		      associating privileges with a process for	function calls
		      and  function call options requiring special privileges.
		      In the HP-UX system, refers either to  superuser	status
		      or  to a privilege associated with privilege groups (see
		      setprivgrp(1M)).

       A file comprised	of the contents	of other files,	such as	a group
		      of object	files (that is,	used by	 the  linker,  ld(1)).
		      An  archive  file	 is created and	maintained by ar(1) or
		      similar programs,	such as	tar(1) or cpio(1).  An is  of-
		      ten called a

       An acronym for American Standard	Code for Information Interchange.
		      ASCII  is	 the  traditional System V coded character set
		      and defines 128 characters, including both control char-
		      acters  and  graphic characters, each of which is	repre-
		      sented by	7-bit binary values ranging from 0 through 127
		      decimal.

       Any process group that is a member of a session which has
		      established  a  connection  with	a controlling terminal
		      that is not in the foreground process group.

       The process of making a copy of all or part of the file system
		      in order to preserve it, in case a system	 crash	occurs
		      (usually	due to a power failure,	hardware error,	etc.).
		      This is a	highly recommended practice.

       (1) The fundamental unit	of information HP-UX
		      uses for access and storage allocation on	a mass storage
		      medium.	The size of a block varies between implementa-
		      tions and	between	file systems.  In order	to  present  a
		      more  uniform  interface	to the user, most system calls
		      and utilities use	to mean	512 bytes, independent of  the
		      actual block size	of the medium.	This is	the meaning of
		      unless otherwise specified in the	manual entry.

		      (2) On media such	as 9-track tape	 that  write  variable
		      length  strings  of data,	the size of those strings.  is
		      often used to distinguish	from a block contains  several
		      records,	whereas	 the  number  of  records  denotes the
		      blocking factor.

       A special file associated with a	mass storage device (such as a
		      hard disk	or tape	cartridge drive) that  transfers  data
		      in  multiple-byte	blocks,	rather than by series of indi-
		      vidual bytes (see	can be mounted.	 A provides access  to
		      the  device where	hardware characteristics of the	device
		      are not visible.

       The process of loading, initializing, and running an operating system.

       A portion of a mass storage medium
		      on which the volume header and a	``bootstrap''  program
		      used in booting the operating system reside.  The	is re-
		      served exclusively for use by HP-UX.

       A program residing in ROM (Read-Only Memory)
		      that executes each time the computer is powered  up  and
		      is  designed to bring the	computer to a desired state by
		      means of its own action.	The first few instructions  of
		      a	 bootstrap program are sufficient to bring the remain-
		      der of the program into the computer from	an  input  de-
		      vice  and	 initiate functions necessary for computation.
		      The function of the boot ROM is to run tests on the com-
		      puter's  hardware,  find	all devices accessible through
		      the computer, and	then load either a specified operating
		      system  or the first operating system found according to
		      a	specific search	algorithm.

       A number	which makes up part of the address HP-UX uses to locate
		      a	particular device.  The	is determined by a switch set-
		      ting on a	peripheral device which	allows the computer to
		      distinguish between two devices connected	 to  the  same
		      interface.  A is sometimes called	a ``device address''.

       An element used for the organization, control, or
		      representation of	text.  Characters include and

       A set of	characters used	to communicate
		      in a native or computer language.

       A special file associated  with I/O devices that	transfer data byte-by-
		      byte.  Other byte-mode  I/O  devices  include  printers,
		      nine-track  magnetic  tape  drives, and disk drives when
		      accessed in ``raw'' mode (see A has no predefined	struc-
		      ture.

       A new process created by	a pre-existing process via the
		      fork(2)  system  call.   The  new	 process is thereafter
		      known to the pre-existing	process	as its The  pre-exist-
		      ing process is the of the	new process.  See and

       A rate used within the system for scheduling and	accounting.
		      It consists of the number	of intervals per second	as de-
		      fined by that is used to express the value in  type  was
		      previously known as the defined constant

       A set of	unambiguous rules that establishes a character set
		      and  the	one-to-one relationship	between	each character
		      of the set and its corresponding bit representation.  is
		      a

       The smallest entity used	in collation to	determine the
		      logical ordering of strings (that	is, the	To accommodate
		      native languages,	a collating element consists of	either
		      a	 single	character, or two or more characters collating
		      as a single entity.  The current value of	 the  environ-
		      ment  variable  determines  the current set of collating
		      elements.

       The logical ordering of strings in a predefined sequence
		      according	to rules  established  by  precedence.	 These
		      rules  identify a	collation sequence among the collating
		      elements and also	govern the ordering  of	 strings  con-
		      sisting  of  multiple collating elements,	to accommodate
		      native languages.

       The ordering sequence applied to
		      when they	are sorted.  To	accommodate native  languages,
		      can be thought of	as the relative	order of as set	by the
		      current value of the environment	variable.   Characters
		      can  be  omitted	from the collation sequence, or	two or
		      more collating elements can be given the	same  relative
		      order (see string(3C)).

       A directive to perform a	particular task.
		      HP-UX  commands  are  executed  through a	called a HP-UX
		      supports several shells, including the POSIX shell  (sh-
		      posix(1)),  the  C  shell	 (csh(1)),  and	the Korn shell
		      (ksh(1)).	 See sh(1) for	more  information  about  sup-
		      ported shells.  Most commands are	carried	out by an exe-
		      cutable file, called a which might take the  form	 of  a
		      stand-alone  unit	 of executable object code (a program)
		      or a file	containing a list of other programs to execute
		      in  a given order	(a shell script).  Scripts can contain
		      references to other scripts, as well as  to  object-code
		      programs.	  A  typical consists of the utility name fol-
		      lowed by arguments that are passed to the	utility.   For
		      example,	in  the	command, ``ls mydirectory'', ``ls'' is
		      the utility name	and  ``mydirectory''  is  an  argument
		      passed to	the ``ls'' utility.

       A program which reads lines of text from	standard input
		      (typed  at the keyboard or read from a file), and	inter-
		      prets them as requests to	 execute  other	 programs.   A
		      command  interpreter for HP-UX is	called a See sh(1) and
		      related manual entries.

       See

       A graphic symbol	consisting of a	combination of two or more
		      other graphic symbols in a  single  character  position,
		      such as a	diacritical mark and a basic letter.

       A character other than a	graphic	character
		      that affects the recording, processing, transmission, or
		      interpretation of	text.  In the character	set, are those
		      in  the range 0 through 31, and 127.  Control characters
		      can be generated by holding down the control key	(which
		      may  be labeled CTRL, CONTROL, or	CNTL depending on your
		      terminal), and pressing a	character key  (as  you	 would
		      use  SHIFT).   These two-key sequences are often written
		      as, for example, or where	stands for the control key.

       The session leader that establishes the connection
		      to the Should the	terminal subsequently cease  to	 be  a
		      controlling  terminal  for  this	session,  the  session
		      leader ceases to be the controlling process.

       A terminal that is associated with a session.
		      Each session can have at most one	 controlling  terminal
		      associated with it and a controlling terminal is associ-
		      ated with	exactly	one session.  Certain input  sequences
		      from  the	 controlling terminal cause signals to be sent
		      to all processes in the foreground process group associ-
		      ated with	the controlling	terminal.

       See

       A family	of mass	storage	devices	that communicate
		      with  the	 controlling  computer by means	of a series of
		      commands and data	transfer protocol referred to  as  the
		      (Command	Set  1980)  command set.  This command set was
		      implemented in order to provide better  forward/backward
		      compatibility  between  models  and  generations of mass
		      storage devices as technological advances	develop.  Some
		      mass  storage  devices support only a subset of the full
		      command set, and are  usually  referred  to  as  (Subset
		      1980) devices.

       The unexpected shutdown of a program or system.
		      If  the  operating  system  crashes,  this is a ``system
		      crash'', and requires the	system to be re-booted.

       See

       See

       A process which runs in the background, and which is usually immune to
		      termination instructions from a terminal.	  Its  purpose
		      is  to perform various scheduling, clean-up, and mainte-
		      nance jobs.  lpsched(1M) is an example of	a It exists to
		      perform  these functions for line	printer	jobs queued by
		      lp(1).  An example of a permanent	 (that	is,  one  that
		      should never die)	is cron(1M).

       A method	for encoding information in order to protect sensitive or
		      proprietary  data.  For example, HP-UX automatically en-
		      crypts all users'	passwords.  The	encryption method used
		      by  HP-UX	converts ASCII text into a base-64 representa-
		      tion using the alphabet See passwd(4) for	the  numerical
		      equivalents associated with this alphabet.

       The sequence of directory prefixes that
		      sh(1),  time(1),	and  other  HP-UX  commands  apply  in
		      searching	for a file known  by  an  relative  path  name
		      (that is,	a path name not	beginning with a It is defined
		      by the environment variable (see environ(5)).   login(1)
		      sets equal to which means	that your working directory is
		      the first	directory searched,  followed  by  The	search
		      path  can	be redefined by	modifying the value of This is
		      usually done in and/or in	the file found in the home di-
		      rectory.

       See

       A term used in the
		      (SCCS) to	describe a unit	of one or more textual changes
		      to an Each time an SCCS file is edited, changes made  to
		      the  file	 are stored separately as a The	get(1) command
		      is then used to specify which deltas are to  be  applied
		      to  or excluded from the SCCS file, thus yielding	a par-
		      ticular version of the file.  Contrast this with the  or
		      editor, which incorporates changes into the file immedi-
		      ately, eliminating any possibility of obtaining a	previ-
		      ous  version of that file.  A similar capability is pro-
		      vided by RCS files (see rcsintro(5)).

       Improper	spelling of the	UNIX word

       A computer peripheral or	an object that appears to an
		      application as such.

       See

       See

       A file that provides the	mapping	between	the names of files
		      and their	contents, and is manipulated by	the  operating
		      system alone.  For every file name contained in a	direc-
		      tory, that directory contains a pointer  to  the	file's
		      The  pointer  is	called a A file	can have several links
		      appearing	anywhere on the	same file system.   Each  user
		      is  free	to create as many directories as needed	(using
		      mkdir(1)), provided that the of the new directory	 gives
		      the permission to	do so.	Once a directory has been cre-
		      ated, it is ready	to contain ordinary  files  and	 other
		      directories.   An	 HP-UX	directory is named and behaves
		      exactly like an ordinary file, with  one	exception:  no
		      user  (including the superuser) is allowed to write data
		      on the directory itself; this privilege is reserved  for
		      the HP-UX	operating system.

		      By  convention, a	directory contains at least two	links,
		      and referred to as and respectively.  refers to the  di-
		      rectory  itself and refers to its	A directory containing
		      only and is considered empty.

       See	      ().

       See	      ().

       See	      ().

       See	      ().

       See	      ().

       The conversion of an uppercase character
		      to its lowercase representation.

       A routine invoked at process startup time
		      that loads shared	 libraries  into  a  process'  address
		      space.  The dynamic loader also resolves symbolic	refer-
		      ences between a program and the  shared  libraries,  and
		      initializes  the	shared libraries' linkage tables.  See
		      dld.sl(5)	(PA systems) or	dld.so(5)  (IPF	 systems)  for
		      details.

       Every process has an
		      that  is	used to	determine A process's is determined by
		      the file (command) that process is executing.   If  that
		      file's  set-group-ID  bit	is set (located	in the mode of
		      the file,	see the	process's is set equal to  the	file's
		      group  ID.   This	 makes the process appear to belong to
		      the file's group,	perhaps	enabling the process to	access
		      files  that must be accessed in order for	the program to
		      execute successfully.  If	the file's set-group-ID	bit is
		      not  set,	 the process's is inherited from the process's
		      parent.  The setting of the process's lasts only as long
		      as  the  program	is  being  executed,  after  which the
		      process's	effective group	ID is set equal	 to  its  real
		      group ID.	 See and

       A process has an
		      that  is	used  to determine (and	other permissions with
		      respect to system	calls, if the effective	user ID	is  0,
		      which  means  superuser).	 A process's effective user ID
		      is determined by the file	(command) that process is exe-
		      cuting.	If that	file's set-user-ID bit is set (located
		      in the mode of the file,	see  the  process's  effective
		      user  ID is set equal to the file's user ID.  This makes
		      the process appear to be the file's owner, enabling  the
		      process  to access files which must be accessed in order
		      for the program to execute  successfully.	  (Many	 HP-UX
		      commands	which are owned	by such	as and have their set-
		      user-ID bit set so other users can  execute  these  com-
		      mands.)	If  the	file's set-user-ID bit is not set, the
		      process's	effective  user	 ID  is	 inherited  from  that
		      process's	parent.	 See and

       (1)	      The data returned	when attempting	to read	past the logi-
		      cal end of a file	via stdio(3S) routines.	 In this case,
		      end-of-file is not properly a character.

		      (2) The ASCII character

		      (3)  A  character	 defined  by  stty(1) or ioctl(2) (see
		      termio(7)) to act	as end-of-file on your terminal.  Usu-
		      ally this	is

		      (4)  The return value from read(2) that indicates	end of
		      data.

       The set of defined shell	variables (such	as
		      and others) that define the conditions under which  user
		      commands	run.  These conditions can include user	termi-
		      nal characteristics, home	directory, and default	search
		      path.   Each  shell  variable  setting  in  the  current
		      process is passed	on to all that are  created,  provided
		      that  each  shell	variable setting has been exported via
		      the command (see sh(1)).	Unexported shell variable set-
		      tings  are  meaningful  only to the current process, and
		      any child	processes created get the default settings  of
		      certain shell variables by executing or

       See

       The time	period beginning at 0 hours, 0 minutes,	0 seconds,
		      ()  on  January 1, 1970.	Increments quantify the	amount
		      of time elapsed from the Epoch to	the referenced time.

		      Leap seconds, which occur	at  irregular  intervals,  are
		      not  reflected in	the count of seconds between the Epoch
		      and the referenced time.	 (Fourteen  leap  seconds  oc-
		      curred in	the years 1970 through 1988.)

       A type of      Data written to a	is read	on a first-in-first-out	basis.
		      Other characteristics are	described in open(2), read(2),
		      write(2) and lseek(2).

       A stream	of bytes that can be written to	and/or read from.
		      A	 has  certain  attributes,  including  permissions and
		      type.  File types	include	network	special	file, and  Ev-
		      ery  file	must have a that enables the user (and many of
		      the HP-UX	commands) to refer  to	the  contents  of  the
		      file.  The system	imposes	no particular structure	on the
		      contents of a file, although some	 programs  do.	 Files
		      can  be  accessed	 serially or randomly (indexed by byte
		      offset).	The interpretation of file contents and	struc-
		      ture is up to the	programs that access the file.

       A characteristic	of an
		      that  determines	whether	the described file is open for
		      reading, writing,	or both.  (See open(2).)

       Every file in the
		      has a set	of access permissions.	These permissions  are
		      used  in determining whether a process can perform a re-
		      quested operation	on the file (such as  opening  a  file
		      for writing).  Access permissions	are established	when a
		      file is created  via  the	 open(2)  or  creat(2)	system
		      calls,  and  can	be  changed  subsequently  through the
		      chmod(2) call.  These permissions	are read by stat(2) or
		      fstat(2).

		      File  access  controls whether a file can	be read, writ-
		      ten, or executed.	 Directory files use the execute  per-
		      mission  to  control whether or not the directory	can be
		      searched.

		      are interpreted by the system as	they  apply  to	 three
		      different	 classes  of users: the	of the file, the users
		      in the file's and	anyone else (``other'').   Every  file
		      has an independent set of	access permissions for each of
		      these classes.  When an access check is made, the	system
		      decides  if permission should be granted by checking the
		      access information applicable to the caller.

		      Read, write, and execute/search permissions  on  a  file
		      are  granted to a	process	if any of the following	condi-
		      tions are	met:

			   o  The process's is superuser.

			   o  The process's matches the	user ID	of  the	 owner
			      of  the  file  and the appropriate access	bit of
			      the portion (0700) of the	file mode is set.

			   o  The process's does not match the user ID of  the
			      owner  of	 the  file,  and  either the process's
			      matches the group	ID of the file,	or  the	 group
			      ID  of the file is in the	process's group	access
			      list, and	the appropriate	access bit of the por-
			      tion (070) of the	file mode is set.

			   o  The  process's does not match the	user ID	of the
			      owner of the file, and the  process's  does  not
			      match the	group ID of the	file, and the group ID
			      of the file is not in the	process's group	access
			      list,  and  the  appropriate  access  bit	of the
			      ``other''	portion	(07) of	the file mode is set.

		      Otherwise, the corresponding permissions are denied.

       A small	      unique, per-process, nonnegative integer identifier that
		      is  used	to  refer  to a	file opened for	reading	and/or
		      writing.	Each refers to exactly one

		      A	is obtained through system calls such as creat(2), fc-
		      ntl(2),  open(2),	pipe(2), or dup(2).  The is used as an
		      argument by calls	such as	read(2),  write(2),  ioctl(2),
		      and close(2).

		      The  value  of a has a range from	0 to one less than the
		      system-defined maximum.  The system-defined  maximum  is
		      the value	in

       A process is in the
		      of a file	if the process is not the and if the or	one of
		      the of the process matches the group ID associated  with
		      the file.

       The collection of one or	more
		      available	 on a system.  All in these are	organized in a
		      single hierarchical structure in which all of  the  non-
		      terminal	nodes  are  Because  multiple can refer	to the
		      same the directory is properly described as  a  directed
		      graph.

       A string	of up to 14 bytes
		      (or  255	bytes  on  file	systems	that support long file
		      names) used to refer to an ordinary file,	special	 file,
		      or directory.  The byte values NUL (null)	and slash can-
		      not be used as characters	in a file name.	 Note that  it
		      is  generally unwise to use or as	part of	file names be-
		      cause the	shell attaches special meaning to these	 char-
		      acters  (see sh(1), csh(1), or ksh(1)).  Avoid beginning
		      a	file name with or  because  to	some  programs,	 these
		      characters  signify  that	a command argument follows.  A
		      file name	is sometimes called  a	path  name  component.
		      Although	permitted, it is inadvisable to	use characters
		      that do not have a printable graphic on the hardware you
		      commonly	use, or	that are likely	to confuse your	termi-
		      nal.

       File names should be constructed	from the
		      because the use of other characters can be confusing  or
		      ambiguous	in certain contexts.

       The file	offset specifies the position in the file where
		      the next I/O operation begins.  Each associated with ei-
		      ther a regular file or special file has a	 There	is  no
		      file offset specified for	a or

       A process is in the
		      if the process is	not in the or

       A process is in the
		      if the of	the process matches the	user ID	of the file.

       See

       A data element obtained through any of the
		      fopen(3S)	 standard  I/O	library	routines that ``points
		      to'' (refers to) a file opened for reading and/or	 writ-
		      ing,  and	which keeps track of where the next I/O	opera-
		      tion will	take place in the file (in the form of a  byte
		      offset  relative	to  the	beginning of the file).	 After
		      obtaining	the file pointer, it must thereafter  be  used
		      to refer to the open file	when using any of the standard
		      I/O library routines.  (See  stdio(3S)  for  a  list  of
		      these routines.)

       A file-system-unique identifier for a given file,
		      also known as the	file's Each identifies exactly one are
		      not necessarily unique across in the

       Part of an     These flags can be used to modify	the behavior of	system
		      calls that access	the file described by the

       A collection of
		      and  supporting data structures residing on a mass stor-
		      age volume.  A file system provides a name space for re-
		      ferring to those files.  Refer to	the System Administra-
		      tor manuals supplied with	your system for	 details  con-
		      cerning file system implementation and maintenance.

       Each file has three associated time values that are
		      updated  when file data is accessed or modified, or when
		      the file status is changed.  These values	 are  returned
		      in  the  file characteristics structure, as described in
		      For each function	in HP-UX that  reads  or  writes  file
		      data  or	changes	the file status, the appropriate time-
		      related files are	noted as ``marked-for-update''.	  When
		      an update	point occurs, any marked fields	are set	to the
		      current time and the update marks	are cleared.  One such
		      update  point occurs when	the file is no longer open for
		      any process.  Updates are	not performed for files	on

       A command that reads data from the standard input, performs a
		      transformation on	the data, and writes it	to  the	 stan-
		      dard output.

       Each session that has established a connection with a
		      controlling  terminal  has  exactly one process group of
		      the session as a foreground process group	of  that  con-
		      trolling	terminal.   The	 foreground  process group has
		      certain privileges when accessing	its controlling	termi-
		      nal  that	 are denied to background process groups.  See
		      read(2) and write(2).

       The process group ID of the foreground process group.

       An HP-UX	      system call (see fork(2)), which,	when invoked by	an ex-
		      isting process, causes a new process to be created.  The
		      new process is called the	the existing process is	called
		      the The child process is created by making an exact copy
		      of the parent process.  The parent and  child  processes
		      are able to identify themselves by the value returned by
		      their corresponding call (see fork(2) for	details).

       On Series 700 systems,
		      when two or more interfaces reside on a single interface
		      card, each interface is treated as a separate and	is as-
		      signed a corresponding unique function number.

       A character other than a	control	character
		      that has	a  visual  representation  when	 hand-written,
		      printed, or displayed.

       See

       Associates zero or more users
		      who  must	 all  be  permitted  to	access the same	set of
		      files.  The members of a group are defined in the	 files
		      and (if it exists) via a numerical group ID that must be
		      between zero and inclusive.  Users with identical	 group
		      IDs  are members of the same group.  An ASCII group name
		      is associated with each group ID in the file A group  ID
		      is  also	associated with	every file in the and the mode
		      of each file contains a set of permission	bits that  ap-
		      ply  only	to this	group.	Thus, if you belong to a group
		      that is associated with a	file, and if  the  appropriate
		      permissions  are	granted	 to  your  group in the	file's
		      mode, you	can access the file.  When the identity	 of  a
		      group  is	associated with	a process, a group ID value is
		      referred to as a an a or a See also and

       A set of	      used  in	determining  resource  accessibility.	Access
		      checks are performed as described	in

       A directory (or file system)
		      structure	 in which each directory can contain other di-
		      rectories	as well	as files.

       The directory name given	by the value of	the environment	variable
		      When you first log in, login(1)  automatically  sets  to
		      your You can change its value at any time.  This is usu-
		      ally done	in the file contained in your Setting does not
		      affect  your it simply gives you a convenient way	of re-
		      ferring to what is probably your most commonly used  di-
		      rectory.

       An ASCII	string of at most 8 characters
		      (of  which only 6	are supported by all the various manu-
		      facturers' UNIX-like operating systems)  which  uniquely
		      identifies  an  HP-UX  system on a uucp(1) network.  The
		      for your system can be viewed and/or set with the	 host-
		      name(1)  command.	  Systems  without a defined host name
		      are described as ``unknown'' on the uucp(1) network.  Do
		      not  confuse  a  host name with a	which is a string that
		      uniquely identifies an HP-UX system on a Local Area Net-
		      work  (LAN).   Although  your host and node names	may be
		      identical, they are set and used	by  totally  different
		      software.	 See

       The current state of your computer (or your portion of the computer,
		      on  a  multiuser	system)	during the execution of	a com-
		      mand.  Often thought of as a ``snapshot''	of  the	 state
		      of  the  machine	at any particular moment during	execu-
		      tion.

       A	      that performs initialization, is the ancestor  of	 every
		      other  process  in the system, and is used to start pro-
		      cesses.  usually has a of	See init(1M).

       A number	that determines	the order in which sectors on a	 mass  storage
       medium
		      are accessed.  It	can be optimized to make data acquisi-
		      tion more	efficient.

       An	      is a structure that describes a file and	is  identified
		      in  the  system by a Every file or directory has associ-
		      ated with	it an Permissions that specify who can	access
		      the  file	and how	are kept in a 9-bit field that is part
		      of the The also contains the file	 size,	the  user  and
		      group  ID	of the file, the number	of links, and pointers
		      to the disk blocks where	the  file's  contents  can  be
		      found.   Each connection between an and its entry	in one
		      or more directories is called a

       See

       The ``device driver'' code contained in the HP-UX
		      kernel that is associated	with the  computer's  built-in
		      keyboard	and  display or	with a particular keyboard and
		      display connected	to the computer, depending on the  Se-
		      ries  and	Model of system	processor.  See	and the	System
		      Administrator manuals supplied with your system for  de-
		      tails.

       The concept of providing	software with the ability to support
		      the and of the user.

       The signal sent by
		      (see signal(2)).	This signal generally terminates what-
		      ever program you are running.  The key which sends  this
		      signal  can  be  redefined with ioctl(2) or stty(1) (see
		      termio(7)).  It is often the ASCII DEL (rubout)  charac-
		      ter  (the	 DEL key) or the BREAK key.  is	often used in-
		      stead.

       See

       A mechanism provided by the HP-UX
		      shell for	changing the source of data for	standard input
		      and/or  the  destination of data for standard output and
		      standard error.  See sh(1).

       See

       Job control allows users	to selectively stop (suspend)
		      execution	of processes and continue (resume) their  exe-
		      cution at	a later	time.

		      The  user	 employs this facility via the interactive in-
		      terface jointly supplied by the system  terminal	driver
		      and  certain  shells  (see  sh(1)).  The terminal	driver
		      recognizes a user-defined	``suspend  character'',	 which
		      causes  the current foreground process group to stop and
		      the user's job control shell to resume.  The job control
		      shell  provides  commands	 that continue stopped process
		      groups in	either the foreground or background.  The ter-
		      minal  driver also stops a background process group when
		      any member of the	background process group  attempts  to
		      read  from or write to the user's	terminal.  This	allows
		      the user to finish or suspend the	 without  interruption
		      and continue the stopped at a more convenient time.

		      See  stty(1), sh(1), and related shell entries for usage
		      and installation details,	and  the  shell	 entries  plus
		      signal(2)	and termio(7) for implementation details.

       The HP-UX operating system.
		      The kernel is the	executable code	responsible for	manag-
		      ing the computer's resources, such as allocating memory,
		      creating	processes,  and	scheduling programs for	execu-
		      tion.  The kernel	resides	in RAM (random access  memory)
		      whenever HP-UX is	running.

       An environment variable
		      used to inform a computer	process	of the user's require-
		      ments for	and

       A file containing a set of subroutines and variables
		      that can be accessed by user programs.  Libraries	can be
		      either  archives	or shared libraries.  For example, and
		      are libraries containings	all functions of Section 2 and
		      all functions of Section 3 that are marked (3C) and (3S)
		      in the Similarly,	and are	libraries containing all func-
		      tions  in	 Section 3 that	are marked (3M)	in the See in-
		      tro(2) and intro(3C).

       See

       A sequence of text characters consisting	of zero	or more
		      nonnewline characters plus a terminating newline charac-
		      ter.

       is a synonym for
		      It  is  an  object  that associates a file name with any
		      type of file.  The information constituting  a  includes
		      the name of the file and where the contents of that file
		      can be found on a	mass  storage  medium.	 One  physical
		      file  can	 have  several links to	it.  Several directory
		      entries can associate names with a given file.   If  the
		      links  appear  in	different directories, the file	may or
		      may not have the same name in  each.   However,  if  the
		      links  appear  in	 one  directory, each link must	have a
		      unique name in that directory.  Multiple links to	direc-
		      tories are not allowed (except as	created	by a user with
		      appropriate privileges).	See ln(1), link(2), unlink(2),
		      and

		      Also, to prepare a program for execution;	see

       The number of directory entries that refer to a particular file.

       A program that combines one or more object programs into	one program,
		      searches	libraries  to resolve user program references,
		      and builds an executable	file  in  format.   This  exe-
		      cutable file is ready to be executed through the program
		      loader, exec(2).	The linker is invoked with  the	 ld(1)
		      command.	The linker is often called a

       The conventions of a geographical area or territory
		      for such things as date, time and	currency formats.

       The process of adapting existing	software to meet the
		      local  language, customs,	and character set requirements
		      of a particular geographical area.

       A standard format for mass storage
		      implemented on many Hewlett-Packard computers to aid  in
		      media transportability.  See lif(4) for more detail.

       The process of gaining access to	HP-UX.
		      This  consists  of  successful execution of the sequence
		      defined by login(1), which varies	depending on the  sys-
		      tem  configuration.  It requests a name and possibly one
		      or more passwords.

       The directory in	which you are placed immediately after you log in.
		      This directory is	defined	for each user in the file  The
		      shell  variable is set automatically to your by login(1)
		      immediately after	you log	in.  See

       The first word of an
		      or archive file.	This  word  contains  the  system  ID,
		      which  states  what machine (hardware) the file will run
		      on, and the file type (executable, sharable  executable,
		      archive, etc.).

       A number	used exclusively to create special files that enable I/O
		      to  or  from  specific  devices.	 This number indicates
		      which device driver to use for  the  device.   Refer  to
		      mknod(2)	and  the  System Administrator manual supplied
		      with your	system for details.

       Program strings,	such as	program	messages and prompts, are stored in a
		      corresponding to a particular  geographical  area.   Re-
		      trieval  of a string from	a is based on the value	of the
		      user's environment variable (see

       A unique	positive integer created by a
		      msgget(2)	system call.  Each has a message queue	and  a
		      data  structure  associated with it.  The	data structure
		      is referred to as	and contains the following members:

		      Message queue identifiers	can be created using ftok(3C).

		      is a structure that specifies the	message	operation per-
		      mission  (see  below).  This structure includes the fol-
		      lowing members:

		      is the number of messages	currently on  the  queue.   is
		      the  maximum  number  of bytes allowed on	the queue.  is
		      the process id of	the last process that performed	a  op-
		      eration.	 is  the  process  id of the last process that
		      performed	a operation.  is the time of the  last	opera-
		      tion, is the time	of the last operation, and is the time
		      of the last msgctl(2) operation that changed a member of
		      the above	structure.

       In the	      msgop(2)	and  msgctl(2)	system	call descriptions, the
		      permission required for an operation  is	indicated  for
		      each  operation.	Whether	a particular process has these
		      permissions for an object	is determined by the  object's
		      permission mode bits as follows:

	      Read by user
	      Write by user
	      Read, Write by group
	      Read, Write by others

		      Read and Write permissions on a are granted to a process
		      if one or	more of	the following are true:

			   o  The process's effective user ID is superuser.

			   o  The process's effective user ID matches  in  the
			      data structure associated	with and the appropri-
			      ate bit of the ``user''  portion	(0600)	of  is
			      set.

			   o  The  process's  effective	user ID	does not match
			      and either  the  process's  effective  group  ID
			      matches  or one of is in the process's group ac-
			      cess  list  and  the  appropriate	 bit  of   the
			      ``group''	portion	(00060)	of is set.

			   o  The  process's  effective	user ID	does not match
			      and the process's	effective group	 ID  does  not
			      match  and  neither of is	in the process's group
			      access list  and	the  appropriate  bit  of  the
			      ``other''	portion	(06) of	is set.

		      Otherwise, the corresponding permissions are denied.

       A character that	has special meaning to the HP-UX shell,
		      as  well as to commands such as and (see ed(1), find(1),
		      and grep(1)).  The set of	metacharacters includes: , and
		      Refer  to	sh(1) and the related shell manual entries for
		      the meaning associated with each.	 See also

       A number	that is	an attribute of	special	files,
		      specified	during their creation and used	whenever  they
		      are accessed, to enable I/O to or	from specific devices.
		      This number is passed to the device driver and  is  used
		      to  select  which	device in a family of devices is to be
		      used, and	possibly some operational  modes.   The	 exact
		      format  and meaning of the is both system	and driver de-
		      pendent.	Refer to the System Administrator manuals sup-
		      plied with your system for details.

		      On  Series  700 systems, a indicates the device address,
		      function number, and driver-dependent bits.   On	Series
		      800 systems, a is	an index into a	table in the

       A 16-bit	word associated	with every file	in the file system,
		      stored  in  the The least-significant 12 bits of the de-
		      termine the read,	write, and execute permissions for the
		      file  owner, file	group, and all others, and contain the
		      set-user-ID, set-group-ID, and ``sticky''	(save text im-
		      age  after  execution)  bits.   The least-significant 12
		      bits can be set by the chmod(1) command if you  are  the
		      file's owner or the superuser.  The sticky bit on	a reg-
		      ular file	can only be set	by the	superuser.   These  12
		      bits are sometimes referred to as	The most-significant 4
		      bits specify the file type for the associated  file  and
		      are  set	as  the	 result	 of open(2) or mknod(2)	system
		      calls.

       A removable blocked file	system contained on some mass storage medium
		      with its own root	directory and an independent hierarchy
		      of directories and files.	 See and mount(1M).

       See

       The condition of	the HP-UX operating system in which terminals
		      (in  addition to the system console) allow communication
		      between the system and its users.	 By convention,	multi-
		      user  run	 level is set at state 2, which	is usually de-
		      fined to contain all the terminal	processes  and	needed
		      in  a  multiuser	environment.   Run  levels  are	 table
		      driven, and are specified	by init(1M),  which  sets  the
		      run  level  by  looking  at  the file Do not confuse the
		      multiuser	system with the	multiuser state.  A  multiuser
		      system is	a system which can have	more than one user ac-
		      tively communicating with	the system when	it is  in  the
		      multiuser	 state.	  The multiuser	state removes the sin-
		      gle-user restriction imposed by  the  single-user	 state
		      (see inittab(4)).

       A computer user's spoken	or written language, such as
		      Chinese, Dutch, English, French, German, Greek, Italian,
		      Katakana,	Korean,	Spanish, Swedish, Turkish, etc.

       A feature of HP-UX that provides	the user with
		      internationalized	software and the application  program-
		      mer with tools to	develop	this software.

       The character with an ASCII value of 10 (line feed)
		      used to separate lines of	characters.  It	is represented
		      by in the	C language and in various utilities.  The ter-
		      minal driver normally interprets a carriage-return/line-
		      feed sequence sent by a terminal	as  a  single  newline
		      character	(but see tty(7)	for full details)

       See

       An environment variable used to indicate	the search path	for
		      message catalogs (see

       A string	of up to 31 characters,	not including control characters or
		      spaces,  that uniquely identifies	a node on a Local Area
		      Network (LAN).  The for each system is set by  the  com-
		      mand,  which  is	one  of	the commands supplied with op-
		      tional LAN/9000 products.	 Do not	confuse	 a  node  name
		      with a which is a	string that uniquely identifies	an HP-
		      UX system	on a UUCP network.  Your node and  host	 names
		      can  be  identical, but they are used and	set by totally
		      different	software.  See and

       Characters, such	as a diacritical mark or accents,
		      that are used in combination with	 other	characters  to
		      form  composite  graphic	symbols	commonly found in non-
		      English languages.

       A file that is currently	associated with	a file descriptor.

       A record	of how a process or a group of processes is accessing a	file.
		      Each refers to exactly one but an	can be referred	to  by
		      more  than  one file descriptor.	The and	are attributes
		      of an

       A type of HP-UX file containing
		      ASCII text (e.g.,	program	source),  binary  data	(e.g.,
		      executable code),	etc.  Ordinary files can be created by
		      the user through I/O redirection,	editors, or HP-UX com-
		      mands.

       A	      that  is	left  behind when a terminates for any reason.
		      The process (see init(1M)) inherits  (that  is,  becomes
		      the effective parent of) all orphan processes.

       A process group in which	the parent of every member is either
		      itself  a	 member	of the group or	is not a member	of the
		      group's session.

       The owner of a file is usually the creator of that file.
		      However, the ownership of	a file can be changed  by  the
		      superuser	or the current owner with the chown(1) command
		      or the chown(2) system call.  The	file owner is able  to
		      do  whatever  he	wants with his files, including	remove
		      them, copy them, move them, change their contents,  etc.
		      The owner	can also change	the files' modes.

       The directory one level above a directory in
		      the  All	directories except the have one	(and only one)
		      parent directory.	 The has no parent.  See also and

       Whenever	a new process is created by a currently-existing process
		      (via fork(2)), the currently existing process is said to
		      be the parent process of the newly created process.  Ev-
		      ery process has exactly one parent process  (except  the
		      process,	see  but  each	process	can create several new
		      processes	with the  fork(2)  system  call.   The	parent
		      process ID of any	process	is the of its creator.

       A new process is	created	by a currently active process.
		      The  of  a  process is the process ID of its creator for
		      the lifetime of the creator.  After the creator's	 life-
		      time has ended, the is the process ID of

       A string	of ASCII characters used to verify the identity	of a user.
		      Passwords	can be associated with users and groups.  If a
		      user has a password, it is automatically	encrypted  and
		      entered  in  the second field of that user's line	in the
		      file.  A user can	create or change his or	her own	 pass-
		      word by using the	passwd(1) command.

       A sequence of directory names separated by slashes, and ending with any
		      file  name.   All	 file names except the last in the se-
		      quence be	directories.  If a path	name begins with a  it
		      is an otherwise, it is a A path name defines the path to
		      be followed through the hierarchical file	system in  or-
		      der to find a particular file.

		      More precisely, a	path name is a null-terminated charac-
		      ter string constructed as	follows:

		      where <file-name>	is a string of one or more  characters
		      other  than the ASCII slash and null, and	<dirname> is a
		      string of	one or more characters (other than  the	 ASCII
		      slash and	null) that names a directory.  File and	direc-
		      tory names can consist of	up to 14 characters on systems
		      supporting  short	file names and up to 255 characters on
		      systems supporting long file names.

		      A	by itself names	the Two	or more	slashes	in  succession
		      are treated as a single slash.

		      Unless  specifically stated otherwise, the null or zero-
		      length path name is treated as though it named a	nonex-
		      istent file.

       The process that	resolves a path	name to	a particular file in a
		      Multiple	path  names  can resolve to the	same file, de-
		      pending on whether resolution is sought in  absolute  or
		      relative	terms (see below).  Each file name in the path
		      name is located in the directory specified by its	prede-
		      cessor  (for  example, in	the path name fragment file is
		      located in directory fails  if  this  cannot  be	accom-
		      plished.

		      If the path name begins with a slash, the	predecessor of
		      the first	file name in the path name is understood to be
		      the  of the process, and the path	name is	referred to as
		      an If the	path name does not begin  with	a  slash,  the
		      predecessor  of  the first file name of the path name is
		      understood to be the current working  directory  of  the
		      process,	and  the  path name is referred	to as a	A path
		      name consisting of a single slash	resolves to  the  root
		      directory	of the process.

       A	      with an optional ending that refers to a

       The nine	least-significant bits
		      of a file's are referred to as file These	bits determine
		      read, write, and execute permissions for the file's  the
		      file's  and all others.  The bits	are divided into three
		      parts: owner, group and other.  Each part	is  used  with
		      the corresponding	file class of processes.  The bits are
		      contained	in the file mode,  as  described  in  stat(5).
		      The detailed usage of the	file permission	bits in	access
		      decisions	is described in

       See

       An interprocess I/O channel used	to pass	data between two processes.
		      It is commonly used by the to  transfer  data  from  the
		      standard	output of one process to the standard input of
		      another.	On a command line, a pipe  is  signaled	 by  a
		      vertical	bar Output from	the command to the left	of the
		      vertical bar is channeled	directly into the standard in-
		      put of the command on the	right.

       The following set of graphical characters are
		      portable across conforming implementations of IEEE Stan-
		      dard P1003.1:

		      The last three characters	are the	 dot,  underscore  and
		      hyphen  characters, respectively.	 The hyphen should not
		      be used as the first character of	a portable file	name.

       Object code that	can run	unmodified at any virtual address.
		      Position-independent code	can use	PC-relative addressing
		      modes  and/or  linkage tables.  It is most often used in
		      shared libraries,	in which case the linkage  tables  are
		      initialized by the dynamic loader.  Position-independent
		      code is generated	when the or compiler option is	speci-
		      fied.

       A	      is  a group that has had a (see getprivgrp(2)) operation
		      performed	on it, giving it access	to some	 system	 calls
		      otherwise	reserved for the superuser.  See

       An invocation of	a program, or the execution of an image	(see
		      Although	all commands and utilities are executed	within
		      processes, not all commands or utilities have a  one-to-
		      one  correspondence with processes.  Some	commands (such
		      as execute within	a process, but do not create  any  new
		      processes.  Others (such as in the case of create	multi-
		      ple processes.  Several processes	 can  be  running  the
		      same  program,  but each can be different	data and be in
		      different	stages of execution.  A	process	 can  also  be
		      thought  of as an	and single thread of control that exe-
		      cutes within that	address	space and its required	system
		      resources.   A is	created	by another process issuing the
		      fork(2) function.	 The process that  issues  fork(2)  is
		      known  as	the and	the new	process	created	by the fork(2)
		      as the

       See

       Each process in the system is a member of a
		      This grouping permits  the  signaling  of	 related  pro-
		      cesses.  A newly created process joins the process group
		      of its creator.

       Each process group in the system	is uniquely identified
		      during its lifetime by a a positive integer less than or
		      equal  to	 A  cannot  be	reused by the system until the
		      process group lifetime ends.

       A	      is a process whose process ID is the same	as its process
		      group ID.

       A period	of time	that begins when a
		      is  created  and ends when the last remaining process in
		      the group	leaves the group, either due to	process	termi-
		      nation  or  by calling the setsid(2) or setpgid(2) func-
		      tions.

       Each active process in the system is uniquely identified
		      during its lifetime by a positive	integer	less  than  or
		      equal  to	 called	a A process ID cannot be reused	by the
		      system until after the process lifetime ends.  In	 addi-
		      tion,  if	 there	exists	a  process group whose process
		      group ID is equal	to that	process	 ID,  the  process  ID
		      cannot  be  reused by the	system until the process group
		      lifetime ends.  A	process	that is	not a  system  process
		      shall not	have a process ID of 1.

       After a process is created with a
		      fork(2)  function,  it is	considered active.  Its	thread
		      of control and exist until it terminates.	 It  then  en-
		      ters  an	inactive  state	where certain resources	may be
		      returned to the system, although some resources, such as
		      the  are	still in use.  When another process executes a
		      or function (see wait(2))	for an inactive	 process,  the
		      remaining	 resources  are	 returned  to the system.  The
		      last resource to	be  returned  to  the  system  is  the
		      process  ID.   At	this time, the lifetime	of the process
		      ends.

       A sequence of instructions to the computer in the form of binary	code
		      (resulting from the compilation and assembly of  program
		      source).

       The characters displayed	by the
		      on  the terminal indicating that the system is ready for
		      a	command.  The prompt is	usually	a dollar sign for  or-
		      dinary  users  in	 the C shell) and a pound sign for the
		      superuser, but you can redefine it to be any  string  by
		      setting  the  appropriate	 shell variable	(see sh(1) and
		      related entries).	 See also

       The	      signal (see signal(2).  The quit signal is generated  by
		      typing  the character defined by the teletype handler as
		      your  quit  signal.    (See   stty(1),   ioctl(2),   and
		      termio(7).)   The	 default  is  the  ASCII  FS character
		      (ASCII value 28) generated by typing This	signal usually
		      causes  a	 running  program to terminate and generates a
		      file containing the ``core  image''  of  the  terminated
		      process.	 The  core  image is useful for	debugging pur-
		      poses.  (Some systems do not support core	images,	and on
		      those systems no such file is generated.)

       The character that separates the	integer	part of	a number
		      from  the	fractional part.  For example, in American us-
		      age, the is a decimal point, while in Europe, a comma is
		      used.

       The name	given to a disk	for which there	exists a
		      that allows direct transmission between the disk and the
		      user's read or write buffer.  A  single  read  or	 write
		      call results in exactly one I/O call.

       A characteristic	of a
		      that prevents file system	modifications.

       A positive integer which	is assigned to every user on the system.
		      The  association of a user and his or her	is done	in the
		      file The modifier	``real'' is used because  a  user  can
		      also  have  an The real group ID can then	be mapped to a
		      group name in the	file although it need not  be.	 Thus,
		      every user is a member of	some group (which can be name-
		      less), even if that group	has only one member.

		      Every time  a  process  creates  a  child	 process  (via
		      fork(2)),	 that process has a real group ID equal	to the
		      parent process's real group ID.  This is useful for  de-
		      termining	file access privileges within the process.

       A positive integer which	is assigned to every user on the system.
		      A	 real  user  ID	is assigned to every valid name	in the
		      file The modifier	``real'' is used because  a  user  can
		      also have	an (see

		      Every  time  a  process  creates	a  child  process (via
		      fork(2)),	that process has a real	user ID	equal  to  the
		      parent  process's	 real user ID.	This is	useful for de-
		      termining	file access privileges within the process.

       A string	of zero	or more	characters that	selects	text.
		      All the characters contained in the string might be lit-
		      eral, meaning that the regular expression	matches	itself
		      only; or one or more of the characters might be a	 mean-
		      ing that a single	regular	expression could match several
		      literal strings.	Regular	expressions are	most often en-
		      countered	 in  text  editors  (such  as ed(1), ex(1), or
		      vi(1)), where searches  are  performed  for  a  specific
		      piece  of	 text,	or  in	commands  that were created to
		      search for a particular string in	a file	(most  notably
		      grep(1)).	  Regular  expressions are also	encountered in
		      the shell, especially when referring to  file  names  on
		      command lines.

       A type of      that is a	randomly accessible sequence of	bytes, with no
		      further structure	imposed	by the system.	Its  size  can
		      be extended.  A regular file is also called an

       A	      that  does  not  begin with a It indicates that a	file's
		      location is given	relative to your current and that  the
		      search  begins  there  (instead  of  at the For example,
		      searches for the directory in your current  working  di-
		      rectory; then is searched	for the	file

       (1) The highest level directory of the hierarchical file	system,
		      from  which all other files branch.  In HP-UX, the char-
		      acter refers to the The root directory is	the  only  di-
		      rectory in the file system that is its own

		      (2)  Each	 process has associated	with it	a concept of a
		      root directory for the purpose of	 resolving  path  name
		      searches for those paths beginning with A	process's root
		      directory	need not be the	root  directory	 of  the  root
		      file  system,  and can be	changed	by the chroot(1M) com-
		      mand or chroot(2)	system call.  Such a directory appears
		      to the process involved to be its	own parent directory.

       The mass	storage	volume which contains
		      the  boot	area (which contains the HP-UX kernel) and the
		      of the HP-UX file	system.

       Every process has a saved group ID that retains the process's
		      from the last successful exec(2) or (see	setresuid(2)),
		      or  from	the  last superuser call to (see setuid(2)) or
		      setresuid(2).  permits a process to  set	its  effective
		      group  ID	 to  this  remembered  value.  Consequently, a
		      process that executes a program  with  the  set-group-ID
		      bit  set	and with a group ID of 5 (for example) can set
		      its effective group ID to	5 at any time until  the  pro-
		      gram  terminates.	 See exec(2), setuid(2), and The saved
		      group ID is also known as	the

       Every process has a saved process group ID that retains
		      the process's group ID from the last successful exec(2).
		      See setpgrp(2), termio(7), and

       Every process has a
		      that  retains  the  process's  from  the last successful
		      exec(2) or setresuid(2), or from the last	superuser call
		      to  setuid(2).   setuid(2)  permits a process to set its
		      effective	user ID	 to  this  remembered  value.	Conse-
		      quently,	a  process  which  executes a program with the
		      set-user-ID bit set and with an owner ID of 5 (for exam-
		      ple)  can	set its	effective user ID to 5 at any time un-
		      til the program terminates.  See exec(2),	setuid(2), and
		      The saved	user ID	is also	known as the

       See

       See

       See

       A set of	HP-UX commands that enables you	to store changes to an
		      as separate ``units'' (called These units, each of which
		      contains one or more textual changes to  the  file,  can
		      then be applied to or excluded from the SCCS file	to ob-
		      tain different versions of the file.  The	commands  that
		      make  up	SCCS  are  admin(1), cdc(1), delta(1), get(1),
		      prs(1),  rmdel(1),   sact(1),   sccsdiff(1),   unget(1),
		      val(1), and what(1).

       An ordinary text	file that has been modified so the
		      () can be	used with it.  This modification is done auto-
		      matically	by the admin(1)	command.  See also

       One or more characters that the shell prints on the display,
		      indicating that more input is needed.   This  prompt  is
		      not encountered nearly as	frequently as the shell's pri-
		      mary prompt (see When it occurs, it is usually caused by
		      an  omitted  right quote on a string (which confuses the
		      shell), or when you enter	a shell	 programming  language
		      control-flow  construct  (such  as a construct) from the
		      command line.  By	default, the shell's secondary	prompt
		      is  the  greater-than  sign  but you can re-define it by
		      setting the shell	variable appropriately in  your	 file.
		      (The C shell has no secondary prompt.)

       On Series 700 systems, part of an
		      used for devices.	 Multiple peripherals connected	to the
		      same interface card share	the same select	code.  On  Se-
		      ries  700	 systems, consists of the bus and slot numbers
		      for a device, both of which are determined by  the  par-
		      ticular  I/O  slot  in  which the	I/O card resides.  All
		      functions	on a multifunction card	share the same	select
		      code.

       A unique	positive integer created by a
		      semget(2)	system call.  Each has a set of	semaphores and
		      a	data structure associated with it.  The	data structure
		      is referred to as	and contains the following members:

		      Semaphore	identifiers can	be created using ftok(3C).

		      is a ipc_perm structure that specifies the semaphore op-
		      eration permission (see below).  This structure includes
		      the following members:

		      The value	of is equal to the number of semaphores	in the
		      set.  Each semaphore in the set is referenced by a posi-
		      tive  integer  referred  to as a values run sequentially
		      from 0 to	the value of sem_nsems minus 1.	 is  the  time
		      of  the  last semop(2) operation,	and is the time	of the
		      last semctl(2) operation that changed a  member  of  the
		      above structure.

		      A	 semaphore  is a data structure	that contains the fol-
		      lowing members:

		      is a nonnegative integer.	 is equal to the process ID of
		      the last process that performed a	semaphore operation on
		      this semaphore.  is a count of the number	 of  processes
		      that  are	 currently suspended awaiting this semaphore's
		      to become	greater	than its current value.	 is a count of
		      the  number  of  processes  that are currently suspended
		      awaiting this semaphore's	to become zero.

       In the	      semop(2) and semctl(2)  system  call  descriptions,  the
		      permission  required  for	 an operation is indicated for
		      each operation.  Whether a particular process has	 these
		      permissions  for an object is determined by the object's
		      permission mode bits as follows:

	      Read by user
	      Alter by user
	      Read, Alter by group
	      Read, Alter by others

		      Read and Alter permissions on a are granted to a process
		      if one or	more of	the following are true:

			   o  The process's effective user ID is superuser.

			   o  The  process's  effective	user ID	matches	in the
			      data structure associated	with and the appropri-
			      ate  bit	of  the	 ``user'' portion (0600) of is
			      set.

			   o  The process's effective user ID does  not	 match
			      and the appropriate bit of the ``group'' portion
			      (060) of is set.

			   o  The process's effective user ID does  not	 match
			      and  the	process's  effective group ID does not
			      match and	neither	of is in the  process's	 group
			      access  list  and	 the  appropriate  bit	of the
			      ``other''	portion	(06) of	is set.

		      Otherwise, the corresponding permissions are denied.

       See

       Each process group is a member of a session.
		      A	process	is considered to be a member of	the session of
		      which  its  process  group is a member.  A newly created
		      process joins the	session	of its creator.	 A process can
		      alter its	session	membership (see	setsid(2)).  A session
		      can have multiple	process	groups (see setpgid(2)).

       A process that has created a session (see
		      setsid(2)).

       The period between when a session is created and	the end	of
		      the lifetime of all process groups that remain  as  mem-
		      bers of the session.

       A single	bit in the mode	of every file in the file system.
		      If  a  file is executed whose is set, the	of the process
		      which executed the file is set equal to the of the owner
		      of the file.  See	also

       A single	bit in the mode	of every file in the file system.
		      If  a  file is executed whose is set, the	of the process
		      that executed the	file is	set equal to the of the	 owner
		      of the file.

       An executable file that can be shared
		      between  several different programs.  Code from a	shared
		      library is not linked into the program by	ld(1), but  is
		      instead  mapped  into  the process' address space	at run
		      time by the dynamic loader.  Shared libraries must  con-
		      tain  position-independent  code,	 and  are  created  by
		      ld(1).  They typically have the file name	suffix

       A unique	positive integer created by a
		      shmget(2)	system call.  Each has	a  segment  of	memory
		      (referred	 to  as	 a  shared  memory segment) and	a data
		      structure	associated with	it.  The data structure	is re-
		      ferred to	as and contains	the following members:

		      Shared memory identifiers	can be created using ftok(3C).

		      is  a  structure	that  specifies	 the  permission for a
		      shmop(2)	or  shmctl(2)  operation  (see	below).	  This
		      structure	includes the following members:

		      specifies	the size of the	shared memory segment.	is the
		      process id of the	process	that created the shared	memory
		      identifier.   is the process id of the last process that
		      performed	a shmop(2) operation.  is the number  of  pro-
		      cesses  that  currently  have this segment attached.  is
		      the time of the last operation, is the time of the  last
		      operation,  and is the time of the last shmctl(2)	opera-
		      tion that	changed	one of the members of the above	struc-
		      ture.

       In the	      shmop(2)	and  shmctl(2)	system	call descriptions, the
		      permission required for an operation  is	indicated  for
		      each  operation.	 Whether  a particular process has the
		      permission to perform a shmop(2) or shmctl(2)  operation
		      on  an  object  is determined by the object's permission
		      mode bits	as follows:

	      Read by user
	      Write by user
	      Read, Write by group
	      Read, Write by others

		      Read and Write permissions for a shmop(2)	 or  shmctl(2)
		      operation	 on  a	()  are	granted	to a process if	one or
		      more of the following are	true:

			   o  The process's effective user ID is superuser.

			   o  The process's effective user ID matches  in  the
			      data  structure  associated with the and the ap-
			      propriate	bit of the ``user'' portion (0600)  of
			      is set.

			   o  The  process's  effective	user ID	does not match
			      and either  the  process's  effective  group  ID
			      matches  or one of is in the process's group ac-
			      cess  list  and  the  appropriate	 bit  of   the
			      ``group''	portion	(060) of is set.

			   o  The  process's  effective	user ID	does not match
			      and the process's	effective group	 ID  does  not
			      match  and  neither of is	in the process's group
			      access list  and	the  appropriate  bit  of  the
			      ``other''	portion	(06) of	is set.

		      Otherwise, the corresponding permissions are denied.

       A user interface	to the HP-UX operating system.
		      A	 shell	often  functions as both a command interpreter
		      and an interpretive programming language.	  A  shell  is
		      automatically  invoked  for every	user who logs in.  See
		      sh(1) and	its related manual entries plus	the  tutorials
		      supplied with your system	for details.

       See

       A sequence of shell commands and	shell programming language constructs
		      stored  in  a  file  and invoked as a user command (pro-
		      gram).  No compilation is	needed prior to	execution  be-
		      cause  the  shell	recognizes the commands	and constructs
		      that make	up the shell programming  language.   A	 shell
		      script is	often called a or a See	the

       See

       A software interrupt sent to a process,
		      informing	it of special situations or events.  Also, the
		      event itself.  See signal(2).

       A condition of the HP-UX	operating system
		      in which the system console provides the only communica-
		      tion mechanism between the system	and its	user.  By con-
		      vention,	single-user  state  is	usually	 specified  by
		      init(1M)	as  run-level  or  Do not confuse in which the
		      software is limiting a multiuser system to a single-user
		      communication,  with  a  single-user  system,  which can
		      never communicate	with more  than	 one  fixed  terminal.
		      See also

       The literal character
		      A	 consisting  of	 a single slash	resolves to the	of the
		      process.	See also

       See

       The fundamental high-level information (program)
		      written in the syntax of a specified computer  language.
		      Object  (machine-language)  code	is derived from	source
		      code.  When dealing with an  HP-UX  shell	 command  lan-
		      guage,  is  input	 to  the command language interpreter.
		      The term is synonymous with this meaning.	 When  dealing
		      with the C Language, is input to the cc(1) command.  can
		      also refer to a collection of sources meeting any	of the
		      above conditions.

       A file associated with an I/O device.
		      Often  called  a	Special	files are read and written the
		      same as but requests to read or write result in  activa-
		      tion  of	the  associated	device.	 Due to	convention and
		      consistency, these files should always reside in the di-
		      rectory.	See also

       Processes with certain (small) process IDs are special.
		      On a typical system, the IDs of 0, 1, and	2 are assigned
		      as follows: Process 0 is the scheduler.	Process	 1  is
		      the  initialization process and is the ancestor of every
		      other process in the system.  It is used to control  the
		      process  structure.  On paging systems with virtual mem-
		      ory, process 2 is	the paging daemon.

       See

       The destination of error	and special messages from a program,
		      intended to be used for diagnostic messages.  The	 stan-
		      dard  error  output is often called and is automatically
		      opened for writing on file descriptor 2 for  every  com-
		      mand  invoked.   By  default, the	user's terminal	is the
		      destination of all data written to but it	can  be	 redi-
		      rected  elsewhere.   Unlike  standard input and standard
		      output, which are	never used for data  transfer  in  the
		      ``wrong''	 direction,  standard  error  is  occasionally
		      read.  This is not recommended practice, since I/O redi-
		      rection is likely	to break a program doing this.

       The source of input data	for a program.
		      The standard input file is often called and is automati-
		      cally opened for reading on file descriptor 0 for	 every
		      command invoked.	By default, the	user's terminal	is the
		      source of	all data read from but it  can	be  redirected
		      from another source.

       The destination of output data from a program.
		      The standard output file is often	called and is automat-
		      ically opened for	writing	on file	descriptor 1 for every
		      command invoked.	By default, the	user's terminal	is the
		      destination of all data written to but it	can  be	 redi-
		      rected elsewhere.

       See

       See

       See

       A term most often used in conjunction with the standard I/O
		      library routines documented in Section 3 of this manual.
		      A	stream is simply a file	pointer	(declared as  returned
		      by  the  fopen(3S)  library routines.  It	may or may not
		      have buffering associated	with it	(by default, buffering
		      is assigned, but this can	be modified with setbuf(3S)).

       A single	bit in the mode	of every file in the file system.
		      If set on	a the contents of the file stay	permanently in
		      memory instead of	being swapped back out	to  disk  when
		      the  file	 has  finished	executing.   Only  can set the
		      sticky bit on a The sticky bit is	 read  each  time  the
		      file is executed (via exec(2)).

		      If  set  on a directory, the files in that directory can
		      be removed or renamed only by the	owner of the file, the
		      owner  of	 the  directory	 containing the	file, or supe-
		      ruser.  See also chmod(2), rename(2), rmdir(2), and  un-
		      link(2).

       A directory that	is one or more levels lower in the file
		      system  hierarchy	 than  a  given	 directory.  Sometimes
		      called a

       See

       See

       A block on each file system's mass storage medium
		      which describes the file system.	The  contents  of  the
		      superblock  vary	between	implementations.  Refer	to the
		      System Administrator manuals supplied with your  system,
		      and the appropriate fs(4)	entry for details.

       The HP-UX system	administrator.
		      This user	has access to all files, and can perform priv-
		      ileged operations.  has a	and of 0, and, by  convention,
		      the user name of

       See

       A process has up	to
		      supplementary  group IDs used in determining file	access
		      permissions, in addition to the effective	group ID.  The
		      supplementary group IDs of a process are set to the sup-
		      plementary group IDs of  the  parent  process  when  the
		      process is created.

       A type of file that indirectly refers to	a path name.
		      See symlink(4).

       The HP-UX operating system.
		      See also

       A method	of performing I/O
		      whereby  a process informs a driver or subsystem that it
		      wants to know when data has arrived or when it is	possi-
		      ble to perform a write request.  The driver or subsystem
		      maintains	a set of buffers  through  which  the  process
		      performs	I/O.   See  ioctl(2),  read(2),	select(2), and
		      write(2) for more	information.

       An HP-UX	operating system kernel	function available to the user
		      through a	high-level language (such as FORTRAN,  Pascal,
		      or  C).	Also called an ``intrinsic'' or	a ``system in-
		      trinsic.''  The available	system calls are documented in
		      Section 2	of the

       A keyboard and display (or terminal) given a unique status by HP-UX
		      and  associated with the special file All	boot ROM error
		      messages,	HP-UX system error messages, and certain  sys-
		      tem status messages are sent to the system console.  Un-
		      der certain conditions (such as the single-user  state),
		      the  system console provides the only mechanism for com-
		      municating with HP-UX.   See  the	 System	 Administrator
		      manuals  and  user  guides provided with your system for
		      details on configuration and use of the system console.

       A	      is a process that	runs on	behalf of the system.  It  may
		      have special implementation-defined characteristics.

       A	      that obeys the specifications of termio(7).

       The process by which a process group leader
		      establishes an association between itself	and a particu-
		      lar terminal.  A	terminal  becomes  affiliated  with  a
		      process  group  leader  (and  subsequently all processes
		      created by the process group leader,  see	 whenever  the
		      process  group leader executes (either directly or indi-
		      rectly) an open(2) or creat(2) system  call  to  open  a
		      terminal.	  Then,	the process which is executing open(2)
		      or creat(2) is a process group leader, and that  process
		      group  leader is not yet affiliated with a terminal, and
		      the terminal being opened	is not yet affiliated  with  a
		      process  group, the affiliation is established (however,
		      see open(2) description of

		      An affiliated terminal keeps track of its	process	 group
		      affiliation by storing the process group's process group
		      ID in an internal	structure.

		      Two  benefits  are  realized  by	terminal  affiliation.
		      First,  all  signals  sent from the terminal are sent to
		      all processes in the terminal group.  Second,  all  pro-
		      cesses in	the terminal group can perform I/O to/from the
		      generic terminal driver which automatically selects  the
		      affiliated terminal.

		      Terminal	affiliation  is	 broken	 with a	terminal group
		      when the process group leader  terminates,  after	 which
		      the  hangup signal is sent to all	processes remaining in
		      the process group.  Also,	if a process (which is	not  a
		      process  group  leader)  in the terminal group becomes a
		      process group leader via the setpgrp(2) system call, its
		      terminal affiliation is broken.

		      See and setpgrp(2).

       See

       A file that contains characters organized into one or more lines.
		      The  lines  cannot  contain NUL characters, and none can
		      exceed bytes in length including the terminating newline
		      character.   Although  neither the kernel	nor the	C lan-
		      guage implementation distinguishes  between  text	 files
		      and binary files (see ANSI C Standard X3-159-19xx), many
		      utilities	behave predictably only	when operating on text
		      files.

       Originally, an abbreviation for teletypewriter;
		      now, generally, a

       The  conversion	of  a lowercase	character to its uppercase representa-
       tion.

       Each system user	is identified by an integer known as a
		      which is in the range of zero to	inclusive.   Depending
		      on how the user is identified with a process, a value is
		      referred to as a an or a

       See

       An executable file, which might contain executable  object  code	 (that
       is, a
		      or a list	of to execute in a given order (that is, a You
		      can write	your own utilities, either as executable  pro-
		      grams  or	 shell scripts (which are written in the shell
		      programming language).

       Part of an address used for devices.
		      A	number whose meaning is	 software-  and	 device-depen-
		      dent,  but  which	 is often used to specify a particular
		      volume on	a multivolume disk drive.  See the System  Ad-
		      ministrator  manuals  supplied  with your	system for de-
		      tails.

       One or more characters which, when displayed,
		      cause a movement of the cursor or	print head, but	do not
		      result  in  the  display	of  any	 visible graphic.  The
		      whitespace characters in the ASCII code set  are	space,
		      tab,  newline,  form feed, carriage return, and vertical
		      tab.  A particular command or  routine  might  interpret
		      some,  but not necessarily all, whitespace characters as
		      delimiting fields, words,	or command options.

       Each process has	associated with	it the concept of a current working
		      directory.  For a	shell, this appears as	the  directory
		      in  which	 you currently ``reside''.  This is the	direc-
		      tory in which relative path name (i.e., a	path name that
		      does not begin with searches begin.  It is sometimes re-
		      ferred to	as the or the

       The name	given to a process which terminates for	any reason,
		      but whose	parent process has not yet waited  for	it  to
		      terminate	 (via  wait(2)).  The process which terminated
		      continues	to occupy a slot in the	 process  table	 until
		      its  parent process waits	for it.	 Because it has	termi-
		      nated, however, there is no other	space allocated	to  it
		      either in	user or	kernel space.  It is therefore a rela-
		      tively harmless occurrence which will rectify itself the
		      next  time  its parent process waits.  The ps(1) command
		      lists zombie processes as

								   glossary(9)

NAME | DESCRIPTION | GLOSSARY ENTRIES

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