Skip site navigation (1)Skip section navigation (2)

FreeBSD Manual Pages


home | help
GLOB(7)		   FreeBSD Miscellaneous Information Manual	       GLOB(7)

     glob -- shell-style pattern matching

     Globbing characters (wildcards) are special characters used to perform
     pattern matching of pathnames and command arguments in the	csh(1),
     ksh(1), and sh(1) shells as well as the C library functions fnmatch(3)
     and glob(3).  A glob pattern is a word containing one or more unquoted
     `?' or `*'	characters, or "[..]" sequences.

     Globs should not be confused with the more	powerful regular expressions
     used by programs such as grep(1).	While there is some overlap in the
     special characters	used in	regular	expressions and	globs, their meaning
     is	different.

     The pattern elements have the following meaning:

     ?	     Matches any single	character.

     *	     Matches any sequence of zero or more characters.

     [..]    Matches any of the	characters inside the brackets.	 Ranges	of
	     characters	can be specified by separating two characters by a `-'
	     (e.g. "[a0-9]" matches the	letter `a' or any digit).  In order to
	     represent itself, a `-' must either be quoted or the first	or
	     last character in the character list.  Similarly, a `]' must be
	     quoted or the first character in the list if it is	to represent
	     itself instead of the end of the list.  Also, a `!' appearing at
	     the start of the list has special meaning (see below), so to rep-
	     resent itself it must be quoted or	appear later in	the list.

	     Within a bracket expression, the name of a	character class	en-
	     closed in `[:' and	`:]' stands for	the list of all	characters be-
	     longing to	that class.  Supported character classes:

		   alnum     cntrl     lower	 space
		   alpha     digit     print	 upper
		   blank     graph     punct	 xdigit

	     These match characters using the macros specified in isalnum(3),
	     isalpha(3), and so	on.  A character class may not be used as an
	     endpoint of a range.

     [!..]   Like [..],	except it matches any character	not inside the brack-

     \	     Matches the character following it	verbatim.  This	is useful to
	     quote the special characters `?', `*', `[', and `\' such that
	     they lose their special meaning.  For example, the	pattern
	     "\\\*\[x]\?" matches the string "\*[x]?".

     Note that when matching a pathname, the path separator `/', is not
     matched by	a `?', or `*', character or by a "[..]"	sequence.  Thus,
     /usr/*/*/X11 would	match /usr/X11R6/lib/X11 and /usr/X11R6/include/X11
     while /usr/*/X11 would not	match either.  Likewise, /usr/*/bin would
     match /usr/local/bin but not /usr/bin.

     fnmatch(3), glob(3), re_format(7)

     In	early versions of UNIX,	the shell did not do pattern expansion itself.
     A dedicated program, /etc/glob, was used to perform the expansion and
     pass the results to a command.  In	Version	7 AT&T UNIX, with the intro-
     duction of	the Bourne shell, this functionality was incorporated into the
     shell itself.

FreeBSD	13.0		       January 25, 2019			  FreeBSD 13.0


Want to link to this manual page? Use this URL:

home | help