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GLOB(3)			   Linux Programmer's Manual		       GLOB(3)

NAME
       glob,  globfree	-  find	pathnames matching a pattern, free memory from
       glob()

SYNOPSIS
       #include	<glob.h>

       int glob(const char *pattern, int flags,
		int (*errfunc) (const char *epath, int eerrno),
		glob_t *pglob);
       void globfree(glob_t *pglob);

DESCRIPTION
       The glob() function searches for	all the	pathnames matching pattern ac-
       cording	to the rules used by the shell (see glob(7)).  No tilde	expan-
       sion or parameter substitution is done; if you want  these,  use	 word-
       exp(3).

       The globfree() function frees the dynamically allocated storage from an
       earlier call to glob().

       The results of a	glob() call are	stored in the structure	pointed	to  by
       pglob.  This structure is of type glob_t	(declared in _glob.h_) and in-
       cludes the following elements defined by	POSIX.2	(more may  be  present
       as an extension):

	   typedef struct {
	       size_t	gl_pathc;    /*	Count of paths matched so far  */
	       char   **gl_pathv;    /*	List of	matched	pathnames.  */
	       size_t	gl_offs;     /*	Slots to reserve in gl_pathv.  */
	   } glob_t;

       Results are stored in dynamically allocated storage.

       The  argument  flags  is	 made up of the	bitwise	OR of zero or more the
       following symbolic constants, which modify the behavior of glob():

       GLOB_ERR
	      Return upon a read error (because	a directory does not have read
	      permission,  for example).  By default, glob() attempts carry on
	      despite errors, reading all of the directories that it can.

       GLOB_MARK
	      Append a slash to	each path which	corresponds to a directory.

       GLOB_NOSORT
	      Don't sort the returned pathnames.  The only reason to  do  this
	      is  to save processing time.  By default,	the returned pathnames
	      are sorted.

       GLOB_DOOFFS
	      Reserve pglob-_gl_offs slots at the beginning  of	 the  list  of
	      strings in pglob-_pathv.	The reserved slots contain null	point-
	      ers.

       GLOB_NOCHECK
	      If no pattern matches, return the	original pattern.  By default,
	      glob() returns GLOB_NOMATCH if there are no matches.

       GLOB_APPEND
	      Append  the  results  of	this call to the vector	of results re-
	      turned by	a previous call	to glob().  Do not set	this  flag  on
	      the first	invocation of glob().

       GLOB_NOESCAPE
	      Don't  allow  backslash ('\') to be used as an escape character.
	      Normally,	a backslash can	be used	to quote the following charac-
	      ter,  providing  a  mechanism  to	 turn  off the special meaning
	      metacharacters.

       flags may also include any of the following, which are  GNU  extensions
       and not defined by POSIX.2:

       GLOB_PERIOD
	      Allow  a leading period to be matched by metacharacters.	By de-
	      fault, metacharacters can't match	a leading period.

       GLOB_ALTDIRFUNC
	      Use alternative functions	pglob-_gl_closedir, pglob-_gl_readdir,
	      pglob-_gl_opendir,   pglob-_gl_lstat,   and  pglob-_gl_stat  for
	      filesystem access	instead	of the normal library functions.

       GLOB_BRACE
	      Expand csh(1) style brace	expressions of the form	{a,b}.	 Brace
	      expressions  can	be  nested.  Thus, for example,	specifying the
	      pattern "{foo/{,cat,dog},bar}" would return the same results  as
	      four separate glob() calls using the strings: "foo/", "foo/cat",
	      "foo/dog", and "bar".

       GLOB_NOMAGIC
	      If the pattern contains no metacharacters, then it should	be re-
	      turned  as the sole matching word, even if there is no file with
	      that name.

       GLOB_TILDE
	      Carry out	tilde expansion.  If a tilde ('~') is the only charac-
	      ter  in the pattern, or an initial tilde is followed immediately
	      by a slash ('/'),	then the home directory	of the caller is  sub-
	      stituted	for  the  tilde.  If an	initial	tilde is followed by a
	      username (e.g., "~andrea/bin"), then the tilde and username  are
	      substituted by the home directory	of that	user.  If the username
	      is invalid, or the home directory	cannot be determined, then  no
	      substitution is performed.

       GLOB_TILDE_CHECK
	      This  provides behavior similar to that of GLOB_TILDE.  The dif-
	      ference is that if the username is invalid, or the  home	direc-
	      tory cannot be determined, then instead of using the pattern it-
	      self as the name,	glob() returns GLOB_NOMATCH to indicate	an er-
	      ror.

       GLOB_ONLYDIR
	      This  is	a hint to glob() that the caller is interested only in
	      directories that match the pattern.  If the  implementation  can
	      easily  determine	file-type information, then nondirectory files
	      are not returned to the caller.  However,	the caller must	 still
	      check that returned files	are directories.  (The purpose of this
	      flag is merely to	optimize performance when the caller is	inter-
	      ested only in directories.)

       If  errfunc is not NULL,	it will	be called in case of an	error with the
       arguments epath,	a pointer to the path which failed,  and  eerrno,  the
       value  of  errno	as returned from one of	the calls to opendir(3), read-
       dir(3), or stat(2).  If errfunc returns nonzero,	or if GLOB_ERR is set,
       glob() will terminate after the call to errfunc.

       Upon  successful	return,	pglob-_gl_pathc	contains the number of matched
       pathnames and pglob-_gl_pathv contains a	pointer	to the list of	point-
       ers to matched pathnames.  The list of pointers is terminated by	a null
       pointer.

       It is possible to  call	glob()	several	 times.	  In  that  case,  the
       GLOB_APPEND flag	has to be set in flags on the second and later invoca-
       tions.

       As a GNU	extension, pglob-_gl_flags is set to the flags specified, ored
       with GLOB_MAGCHAR if any	metacharacters were found.

RETURN VALUE
       On  successful completion, glob() returns zero.	Other possible returns
       are:

       GLOB_NOSPACE
	      for running out of memory,

       GLOB_ABORTED
	      for a read error,	and

       GLOB_NOMATCH
	      for no found matches.

CONFORMING TO
       POSIX.2,	POSIX.1-2001.

NOTES
       The structure elements gl_pathc and gl_offs are declared	as  size_t  in
       glibc  2.1, as they should be according to POSIX.2, but are declared as
       int in glibc 2.0.

BUGS
       The glob() function may fail due	 to  failure  of  underlying  function
       calls,  such  as	malloc(3) or opendir(3).  These	will store their error
       code in errno.

EXAMPLE
       One example of use is the following code, which simulates typing

	   ls -l *.c ../*.c

       in the shell:

	   glob_t globbuf;

	   globbuf.gl_offs = 2;
	   glob("*.c", GLOB_DOOFFS, NULL, &globbuf);
	   glob("../*.c", GLOB_DOOFFS |	GLOB_APPEND, NULL, &globbuf);
	   globbuf.gl_pathv[0] = "ls";
	   globbuf.gl_pathv[1] = "-l";
	   execvp("ls",	&globbuf.gl_pathv[0]);

SEE ALSO
       ls(1), sh(1),  stat(2),	exec(3),  fnmatch(3),  malloc(3),  opendir(3),
       readdir(3), wordexp(3), glob(7)

COLOPHON
       This  page  is  part of release 3.74 of the Linux man-pages project.  A
       description of the project, information about reporting bugs,  and  the
       latest	  version     of     this    page,    can    be	   found    at
       http://www.kernel.org/doc/man-pages/.

GNU				  2014-08-19			       GLOB(3)

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | RETURN VALUE | CONFORMING TO | NOTES | BUGS | EXAMPLE | SEE ALSO | COLOPHON

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